Mohammad Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi
|Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi |
9 Dhu al-Hijjah 1326 Hijri / 1 January 1909 Georgian calendar|
Kot Najeebullah, North-West Frontier Province, British India
|Died||7 Sha'aban 1390 Hijri / 9 October 1970 (aged 61)|
|Resting place||Wazirabad, Punjab, Pakistan|
|Nationality||British Indian and later Pakistani|
|Main interest(s)||Fiqh, Tafsir, Sunnah, Hadith, Sharia, ʿAqīdah, Seerah, Mantiq, Islamic philosophy, oratory|
|Notable idea(s)||Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan, Majlis-e-Tahaffuz-e-Khatme Nabuwwat|
|Alma mater||Darul Uloom Bareily|
|Disciple of||Hamid Raza Khan|
|President of the Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan|
19 September 1948 – 9 October 1970
|Preceded by||Office created|
|Succeeded by||Khwaja Qamar ul Din Sialvi|
Akhundzada Mohammad Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi (Urdu: اخوندزادہ محمد عبدالغفور ہزاروی چشتی) was an influential Pakistan-born Muslim theologian, Orator and revivalist leader of Pakistan. He was one of the founding members of the political party Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan. He also served as the chairman of Majlis-e-Tahaffuz-e-Khatme Nabuwwat, an Islamic organisation that opposed the Ahmadiyya Movement.
Hazarvi was born in Chamba Village, Kot Najeebullah, North-West Frontier Province, British India.He was the eldest of his four brothers and sisters. His father Abdul Hameed Hazarvi belonged to the Karlal Hindko tribe and was a follower of the Chishti Order
Hazarvi started studies of Islamic law, Urdu, Persian and Arabic languages at the local maktab in Chamba Village and completed the Dawra Hadith and Qur'anic exegesis with Hamid Raza Khan, the elder son of Ahmad Raza Khan, in Madrasa Manzar-e-Islam, Bareily. It was at that time that Hazarvi was attracted to Mathematics, and he studied its basic concepts.
Pledge of allegiance and services
Hazarvi did Bay'ah on the hands of Pir Meher Ali Shah at the age of about 11. At the age of 28, in 1937, he went to Jeendhar Sharif, Gujrat, at the service of Gohar Munir Jeendharvi, who conferred khilafah upon him; thus giving him permission to speak on behalf of the Uwaisi Order.
After completing his education he started teaching Quran and Hadith in Madrasa Manzar-e-Islam in Bareilly, India, which is main institution of Barelvi movement. Later, he started teaching Dars-i-Nizami at the Jamia Khudam-ul-Sufiya in Gujrat. In 1935, Hazarvi established Jamia Nizamia Ghousia in Wazirabad, where he served as the Mohatmim and Khatib.
Hazarvi shared a close relationship with Sardar Ahmad Qadri as both had studied under Hamid Raza Khan. Hazarvi was the either the founding member, or an affiliate of most organisations such as Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan, Anjuman-e-Talaba-e-Islam, Majlis-e-Tahaffuz-e-Khatme Nabuwwat and All India Majlis-e-Ittehad-e-Millat, which merged with All-India Muslim League in 1940.
Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi was one of the provincial delegates to the Lahore Resolution of the All India Muslim League session which he was participated on 22–24 March 1940. When the Pakistan Movement had almost succeeded, Hazarvi was among the scholars who sided with Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the Muslim League, on the platform of "All India Sunni Conference″ held at Banaras in 1946. He was twice nominated as a member of the Council of Islamic Ideology, where he worked hard to influence Islam into the existing laws. Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi supported AIML during the elections 1945-46. During referendum in 1947 in NWFP he also visited the province and mustered his support for AIML.
During the Ayub era, nine prominent leaders belonging to different political parties were tried for mutiny under the Official Secret Act, as president of Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan Hazarvi was one of the nine. The trial lingered on for two years. Ultimately, the case was dropped by the administration, for lack of evidence. In 1965, a joint opposition was organised. Hazarvi, along with other leaders of the COP, toured the two wings of the country (East and West Pakistan) to create mass awareness and organise a strong national democratic movement. The military ruler, president Muhammad Ayub Khan (1958–1969), banned political parties and warned Hazarvi against continued political activism as Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan supported the opposition party, the Pakistan Democratic Movement. In the 1964–1965 presidential elections, Hazarvi supported the opposition leader, Fatima Jinnah.
Khatme Nabuwwat Movement
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian claimed to be the Mahdi awaited by Muslims, as well as the second coming of Jesus Christ and the reincarnation of Prophet Muhammad. These claims proved to be controversial among Muslims, and Hazarvi branded Mirza Ghulam Ahmad as a heretic and apostate and called him and his followers (Ahmadis) Kuffar. Hazarvi was also the founding member of Majlis-e-Tahaffuz-e-Khatme Nabuwwat, an Islamic movement in Pakistan. He led the movement against Ahmadis and held a Khatme Nabuwwat Conference at Chenab Nagar (formerly Rabwah) in 21–23 October 1953. Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi was a central figure in the Khatme Nabuwwat Movement of 1953, which demanded that the government of Pakistan declare the Ahmadis as non-Muslims.
Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi's works include
- Tahqiq-ul-Haq Fi Kalima-tul-Haq (The Truth about Kalima-tul-Haq)
- Shamsul Hidayah
- I'la Kalimatillah Fi Bayan-e-Wa Ma Uhilla Bihi Legharillah
- AlFatuhat-us-Samadiyyah (Divine Bounties)
- Tasfiah Mabain Sunni Wa Shi'ah
- Majmua Fatawa
Hazarvi's understanding of Islamic law has been presented concisely in his book Manaqib-al-Jaleela.
Hazarvi believes that there are certain directives of the Qur'an pertaining to war which were specific only to Muhammad and certain specified peoples of his times (particularly the progeny of Abraham: the Ishmaelites, the Israelites, and the Nazarites). Thus, Muhammad and his designated followers waged a war against Divinely specified peoples of their time (the polytheists and the Israelites and Nazarites of Arabia and some other Jews, Christians, et al.) as a form of Divine punishment and asked the polytheists of Arabia for submission to Islam as a condition for exoneration and the others for jizya and submission to the political authority of the Muslims for exemption from death punishment and for military protection as the dhimmis of the Muslims. Therefore, after Muhammad and his companions, there is no concept in Islam obliging Muslims to wage war for propagation or implementation of Islam.
The only valid basis for jihad through arms is to end oppression when all other measures have failed. According to him Jihad can only be waged by an organised Islamic state. No person, party or group can take arms into their hands (for the purpose of waging Jihad) under any circumstances. Another corollary, in his opinion, is that death punishment for apostasy was also specifically for the recipients of the same Divine punishment during Muhammad's times—for they had persistently denied the truth of Muhammad's mission even after it had been made conclusively evident to them by God through Muhammad.
The formation of an Islamic state is not a religious obligation per se upon the Muslims. However, he believes that if and when Muslims form a state of their own, Islam does impose certain religious obligations on its rulers as establishment of the institution of salat (obligatory prayer), zakah (mandatory charity), and 'amr bi'l-ma'ruf wa nahi 'ani'l-munkar (preservation and promotion of society's good conventions and customs and eradication of social vices; this, in Hazarvi's opinion, should be done in modern times through courts, police, etc. in accordance with the law of the land which, as the government itself, must be based on the opinion of the majority).
The Qur'an states norms for male-female interaction in surah An-Nur. While in surah Al-Ahzab, there are special directives for wives of Muhammad and directives given to Muslim women to distinguish themselves when they were being harassed in Medina. The Qur'an has created a distinction between men and women only to maintain family relations and relationships.
- The Islamic punishments of hudud (Islamic law) are maximum pronouncements that can be mitigated by a court of law on the basis of extenuating circumstances.
- The shariah (Divine law) does not stipulate any fixed amount for the diyya (monetary compensation for unintentional murder); the determination of the amount—for the unintentional murder of a man or a woman—has been left to the conventions of society.
- Ceteris paribus (all other things being equal), a woman's testimony is equal to that of a man's.
- Rape is hirabah and deserves severe punishments as mentioned in the Quran 5:33. It doesn't require four witnesses to register the case as in the case of Zina (Arabic) (consensual sex). Those who were punished by stoning (rajm) in Muhammad's time were also punished under hirabah for raping, sexually assaulting women, and spreading vulgarity in society through prostitution.
Sources of Islam
- All that is Islam is constituted by the Qur'an and Sunnah. Nothing besides these two is Islam or can be regarded as its part.
- Just like Quran, Sunnah (the way of the prophet) is only what Muslim nation received through ijma (consensus of companions of the prophet) and tawatur (perpetual adherence of Muslim nation).
- Unlike Quran and Sunnah, ahadith only explain and elucidate what is contained in these two sources and also describe the exemplary way in which Muhammad followed Islam.
- The Sharia is distinguished from fiqh, the latter being collections of interpretations and applications of the Sharia by Muslim jurists. Fiqh is characterised as a human exercise, and therefore subject to human weakness and differences of opinion. A Muslim is not obliged to adhere to a school of fiqh.
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