|Classification and external resources|
Micrognathism, also called micrognathia, strawberry chin, hypognathia or hypogthathism, is a condition where the jaw is undersized. It is also sometimes called "Mandibular hypoplasia". It is common in infants, but is usually self-corrected during growth, due to the jaws' increasing in size. It may be a cause of abnormal tooth alignment and in severe cases can hamper feeding. It can also, both in adults and children, make intubation difficult, either during anesthesia or in emergency situations.
While not always pathological, it can present as a birth defect in multiple syndromes including:
- Catel–Manzke syndrome
- Bloom syndrome
- Coffin–Lowry syndrome
- congenital rubella
- Cri du chat syndrome
- DiGeorge's Syndrome
- Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
- fetal alcohol syndrome
- Hallermann-Streiff syndrome
- Hemifacial microsomia (as part of Goldenhar Syndrome)
- Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
- Marfan syndrome
- Noonan syndrome
- Pierre Robin syndrome
- Prader-Willi syndrome
- Russell-Silver syndrome
- Seckel syndrome
- Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome
- Treacher Collins syndrome
- Trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome)
- Trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome)
- Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome
- X0 syndrome (Turner syndrome)
It can be detected by the naked eye as well as dental or skull X-Ray testing.
- Martínez-Frías, ML; Martín, M; Pardo, M; Torres, M; Cohen MM, Jr (1993). "Holoprosencephaly and hypognathia with two proboscides: report of a case and review of unusual proboscides.". Journal of craniofacial genetics and developmental biology. 14 (4): 231–4. PMID 7883869.
- Hong, Paul; Brake, Maria K.; Cavanagh, Jonathan P.; Bezuhly, Michael; Magit, Anthony E. (2012). "Feeding and mandibular distraction osteogenesis in children with Pierre Robin sequence: A case series of functional outcomes". International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. 76 (3): 414–418. doi:10.1016/j.ijporl.2011.12.023. ISSN 0165-5876.
- Rajendran A; Sundaram S (10 February 2014). Shafer's Textbook of Oral Pathology (7th ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences APAC. pp. 12–13. ISBN 978-81-312-3800-4.
- "Micrognathia". Medline Plus. 12 May 2009. Retrieved 21 May 2011.