A market, or marketplace, is a location where people regularly gather for the purchase and sale of provisions, livestock, and other goods. In different parts of the world it may be referred to as a souk (from the Arabic), bazaar (from the Persian), a fixed mercado (Spanish), or itinerant tianguis (Mexico), or palengke (Philippines). Some markets operate on most days; others may be held once a week, or on less frequent specified days.
The Grand Bazaar in Istanbul is often cited as the world's oldest still-operating market; its construction began in 1455. In the 15th century the Mexica (Aztec) market of Tlatelolco was the largest in all the Americas.
Types of markets
Markets may be retail or wholesale markets.
Major physical formats of markets are:
- Indoor market of any sort
- Marketplace, an open space where a market is or was formerly held in a town
- Market square, in Europe, with stalls selling goods in a public square
- Public market, in the United States, an indoor, fixed market in a building and selling a variety of goods
- Street market, with stalls along one or more public streets
- Floating markets, where goods are sold from boats, chiefly found in Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam
- Night markets, popular in many countries in Asia, opening at night and featuring much street food and a more leisurely shopping experience. In Indonesia and Malaysia they are known as pasar malam.
- Wet markets, in Greater China, where traditionally live animals were sold; in Indonesia and Malaysia, pasar pagi is a type of wet market.
Markets may feature a range of merchandise for sale, or they may be one of many specialist markets, such as:
- Animal markets
- Antique markets
- Farmers' markets, focusing on fresh food
- Fish markets
- Flea markets or swap meets, a type of bazaar that rents space to people who want to sell or barter merchandise. Used goods, low quality items, and high quality items at low prices are commonplace
- Flower markets, such as the Mercado Jamaica in Mexico City and the Bloemenmarkt in Amsterdam
- Food halls, featuring gourmet food to consume on- and off-premises, such as those at Harrods (London) and Galeries Lafayette (Paris) department stores. In the United States, these may be also referred to simply as "markets", such as the West Side Market in Cleveland or Ponce City Market in Atlanta.
- Handicraft markets
- Markets selling items used in the occult (for magic, by witches, etc.)
- Wet market in Singapore
Around the world
South and East Asia
- See: markets in Hong Kong
Street markets in Hong Kong are held all the days except few traditional Chinese holidays like Chinese New Year. Stalls opened at two sides of a street were required to have licenses issued by the Hong Kong Government. In Hong Kong there are street markets of various kinds such as fresh foods, clothing, cooked foods, flowers, and even electronics. The earliest form of markets is known as Gaa si. Some of them are gradually being replaced by shopping centres, markets in municipal service buildings, and supermarkets, while some became tourist attractions like Tung Choi Street and Apliu Street. There are many markets in India many are small,many are big and some are malls.Where is a mall in the city there is only people and people small markets have low prices and in malls there are very high prices for only small things.There are many people that shop only online,just the sit in their house and the product is delivered to you.So you can prefer small markets in India for lower prices.
Indonesia and Malaysia
Street markets in Greece are called laikes agores (λαϊκές αγορές) in plural, or λαϊκή αγορά (laiki agora) in singular, meaning "people's market". They are very common all over Greece, including the capital, Athens, and its suburbs. Regular (weekly) morning markets sell mostly fresh produce from farming cooperatives – fruit, vegetables, fish and flowers/plants. Some household items and prepared foods are often available.
Annual street markets (panigyri(a)) occur around churches on the day of their patron saint. These take place in the evenings and have a more festive character, often involving attractions and food stalls. The goods sold range from clothing and accessories to household items, furniture, toys and trinkets. Athens also has several bazaars/enclosed markets.
- La Boqueria, Barcelona
- Mercat del Born, Barcelona
- Mercat or Mercado Central, a public market in Valencia
Traders can be licensed to trade on a single pitch but not at a national level or when trading on private land. This has led to declining confidence in the reputation of markets. A voluntary scheme has been set up by The Market People, backed by the National Association of British Market Authorities (NABMA) to address this. It provides consumers with traceability of traders and goods as well as the ability to rate and contact the traders. A MarketPASS is issued to an operator or Trader once they have provided proof of identity, insurance and, where required, a hygiene certificate.
England's chartered markets and fairs
Many of the older historic markets carry a "charter" which gives that particular market certain rights and protection. For example, another market can't be held on the same day within a certain distance of a "chartered market". These were awarded by kings to markets and fairs all over England, and to this day are guarded by market traders and showmen.
- See: markets in London
Some examples of street markets include Berwick Street Market, Broadway Market, Camden Market, East Street Market, Petticoat Lane and Portobello Road Market. The most popular for food is Borough Market which sell most fresh produce as well as having a bakery.
In Serbo-Croatian, a farmer's market is formally known as tržnica, and colloquially as pijaca, plac or pazar depending on region and dialect. The markets in large cities are open daily, including Sunday, from around 5 or 6 AM to mid-afternoon. Well-known examples are Dolac in Zagreb and Kalenić in Belgrade. In smaller towns there is often a market that opens once a week, on a specific day known as pazarni dan.
Wholesale fashion marketplace in France, principal locations: Paris 75011 and Aubervilliers 93001. 99% of owner are Chinese of around 2000 wholesale company. Product sell in this marketplace: clothing, shoes, accessories, jewelry. Import product from China, Vietnam, Turkey, Bangladesh, India. Export product to all countries of Europe.
- Mercado Municipal – São Paulo, São Paulo
- Liberdade street market – São Paulo, São Paulo
- Mercado Público – Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul
- Mercado Municipal – Uberlândia, Minas Gerais
- Mercado Modelo – Salvador, Bahia
- Mercado Jamaica, Mexico City, a traditional market in Mexico City
- Mercado de Sonora, a traditional market in Mexico City
- San Juan de Dios Market in Guadalajara
Street markets are called pazar in Turkish and usually named after the name of the day since they are only installed at around 05:00 on that specific day and ended on same day around 18:00, in every week. Every district in Turkey has its own open market where people can choose and buy from a very wide range of products, from fresh fruits and vegetables to clothing, from traditional white cheese (which some people may consider feta-like) to household items. In Istanbul area Wednesday Pazar of Fatih district, Tuesday Pazar of Kadıköy and Friday Pazar of Ortaköy are the most famous and crowded open markets of the city.
A market with shops or permanent stalls is called "çarşı" and may include covered streets that are closed at night. Famous examples include the Kapalıçarşı (Grand Bazaar) and Spice Bazaar in Istanbul.
United States and Canada
- ByWard Market – Ottawa, Ontario
- The Forks Market – Winnipeg, Manitoba
- Granville Island – Vancouver, British Columbia
- Kensington Market – Toronto, Ontario
- Lonsdale Quay – North Vancouver, British Columbia
- St. Lawrence Market – Toronto, Ontario
- Westminster Quay – New Westminster, British Columbia
- Main Street Markham Farmers’ Market (Seasonal) – Markham, Ontario
- Kitchener Farmer's Market – Kitchener, Ontario
- St. Jacobs Farmers' Market – St. Jacobs, Ontario
Historic markets that have been converted to other uses include:
- St. Patrick's Market, Toronto – retail building
- St. Andrew's Market, Toronto – demolished 1937 and site of water works and park
Public markets in the United States
In the United States, the term public market is often used for a place where vendors or merchants meet at the same location on a regular basis. A public market has a sponsoring entity that has legal and financial responsibility to oversee operations and, sometimes, provides facilities to house the market activity. Public markets may incorporate the traditional market activity – the sale of fresh food from open stalls – and may also offer a wide range of different products. Public markets may incorporate elements of specialized markets such as farmers markets, craft markets, and antique markets. Traditionally public markets in the US were owned and operated by city governments, but this is no longer the case.
According to the Ford Foundation, what distinguishes public markets from other types of related retail activity are three characteristics. Public markets:
- have public goals, a defined civic purpose. Typically, these goals include: attracting shoppers to a central business district, providing affordable retailing opportunities to small businesses, preserving farming in the region, and activating or repurposing public space
- are located in and/or create a public space in the community, where a wide range of people mix, and are, or aim to be, a heart of the community
- are made up of locally owned, independent businesses operated by their owners, not franchises. This gives public markets a local flavor and unique experience.
List of public markets in the United States
- Alemany Farmers' Market – San Francisco, California
- Boston Public Market – Boston, Massachusetts
- Broad Street Market – Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
- Brooklyn Flea – Brooklyn, New York
- Chattanooga Market (2001–present) – Chattanooga, Tennessee
- City Market (Charleston, South Carolina)
- City Market (Petersburg, Virginia) – Petersburg, Virginia. Built in 1878–79 and listed on the National Register of Historic Places
- Crescent City Farmers Market – New Orleans, Louisiana
- Cross Street Market – Baltimore, Maryland
- Dallas Farmers Market – Dallas, Texas
- Eastern Market – Detroit, Michigan
- Eastern Market – Washington, D.C.
- Ferry Plaza Farmers Market & Ferry Building Marketplace – San Francisco, California
- Findlay Market (1855–present)– Cincinnati, Ohio
- French Market – New Orleans, Louisiana
- Grand Central Market – Los Angeles, California
- Grand Central Market – New York, New York
- Haymarket – Boston, Massachusetts
- Hollins Market – Baltimore, Maryland
- Italian Market, Philadelphia – Philadelphia, PA
- James Beard Public Market (future) – Portland, Oregon
- La Marqueta – New York, New York
- Lancaster Central Market – Lancaster, Pennsylvania
- Lexington Market (1782–present) – Baltimore, Maryland
- Los Angeles Farmers Market – Los Angeles, California
- Maxwell Street Market – Chicago, Illinois
- Midtown Global Market – Minneapolis, Minnesota
- Milwaukee Public Market (2005–present) – Milwaukee, Wisconsin
- North Market – Columbus, Ohio
- Olvera Street – Los Angeles, California
- Pike Place Market (1907–present) – Seattle, Washington
- Ponce City Market – Atlanta, Georgia
- Portland Public Market (1933–1942) – Portland, Oregon
- Portland Saturday Market (1974–present) – Portland, Oregon
- Reading Terminal Market (1893–present) – Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
- PNC Second Street Market – Dayton, Ohio
- Soulard Market – St. Louis, Missouri
- Sweet Auburn Curb Market (1918–present) – Atlanta, Georgia
- Union Market – Washington, D.C.
- Union Square Greenmarket – New York, New York
- West Side Market – Cleveland, Ohio
- Yellow Green Farmers Market (2010–present) — Hollywood, Florida
- "market". OxfordDictionaries.com. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
- Rebecca M. Seaman (ed.). Conflict in the Early Americas: An Encyclopedia of the Spanish Empire's ... p. 375.
- "The 5 Best Food Halls in America", Bon Appétit magazine
- "Public Markets as a Vehicle for Social Integration and Upward Mobility" (PDF). Ford Foundation. 2003.
- City and County of San Francisco: Alemany Farmers' Market