Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners

Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners, also known as MEDAL, was first published in 2002 by Macmillan Education. MEDAL is an advanced learner’s dictionary and shares most of the features of this type of dictionary: it provides definitions in simple language, using a controlled defining vocabulary; most words have example sentences to illustrate how they are typically used; and information is given about how words combine grammatically or in collocations. MEDAL also introduced a number of innovations.[1][2] These include:

The Macmillan English Dictionary also exists as an electronic dictionary, available free on the Web. Like most online dictionaries,[7] it benefits from being able to update content regularly with new words and meanings. In addition to the dictionary, the online version has a thesaurus function enabling users to find synonyms for any word, phrase or meaning.[8] There is also a blog (the Macmillan Dictionary Blog) with daily postings on language issues, especially on global English and language change.[9] An "Open Dictionary"[10] allows users to provide their own dictionary entries for new words they have come across. The online edition has been recognised as a good example of this emerging genre of reference publishing.[11]



  1. Bogaards, Paul. Review article, International Journal of Lexicography, 16/1, 2003: 43–55
  2. Bejoint, H. The Lexicography of English. Oxford University Press, 2010: 186–189
  3. Kilgarriff, A. & Rundell, M. Lexical profiling software and its lexicographic applications – a case study. In Braasch and Povlsen (Eds.) Proceedings of the Tenth Euralex Congress, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. 2004, 807–818.
  4. I.S.P. Nation, Learning Vocabulary in Another Language, Cambridge University Press 2001, 13–17
  5. Moon, R. On specifying metaphor: an idea and its implementation. International Journal of Lexicography, 17(2), 2004: 195–222
  6. Gilquin, G., Granger, S. & Paquot, M. Learner corpora: The missing link in EAP pedagogy. Journal of English for Academic Purposes. 6, 2007, 319–335
  7. Bejoint, H. The Lexicography of English Oxford University Press, 2010: 373–374
  8. Edemariam, Aida. "Online dictionaries: which is best?". The Guardian. 30 August 2010
  9. "What's your English? 2011". Macmillan Dictionary. accessed August 24, 2011.
  10. "Most recent entries". Open Dictionary. McMillan Dictionary. accessed August 24, 2011.
  11. Lannoy, V. Free online dictionaries: why and how?, in Granger, S. & Paquot, M. (Eds), eLexicography in the 21st Century: New Challenges, New Applications: Proceedings of eLex 2009, Louvain, Belgium: Cahiers du Cental. 2010, 173-182

External links

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