(sometimes Mestreechs-Limburgs or colloquially Dialek, Plat)
|Native to||the Netherlands|
|Region||City of Maastricht|
|60,000 (date missing)|
Official language in
|Limburg, Netherlands: Recognised as regional language as a variant of Limburgish.|
|Regulated by||Veldeke-Krink Mestreech|
Maastrichtian (Limburgish: Mestreechs [məˈstʀeːxs]) or Maastrichtian Limburgish (Limburgish: Mestreechs-Limburgs [məˈstʀeːxsˈlimbœʀxs]) is the dialect and variant of Limburgish spoken in the Dutch city of Maastricht alongside the Dutch language (with which it is not mutually intelligible). In terms of speakers, it is the most widespread variant of Limburgish, and it is a tonal one. Like many of the Limburgish dialects spoken in neighbouring Belgian Limburg, Maastrichtian retained much Gallo-Romance (or more accurately, French and Walloon) influences in its vocabulary.
The French influence can additionally be attributed to the historical importance of French with the cultural elite and educational systems as well as the historical immigration of Walloon labourers to the city. Despite being a specific variant of Limburgish, Maastrichtian remains mutually intelligible with other Limburgish variants, especially those of surrounding municipalities.
Whilst Maastrichtian is still widely spoken, regardless of social level, research has shown that it is suffering from a degree of dialect loss amongst younger generations. That is the case in dwindling of speakers but also in development of the dialect (dialect levelling) towards Standard Dutch (like the loss of local words and grammar).
Geographic distribution, social status and sociolects
Maatrichtian being a city dialect, the terminology "Maastrichtian" (Mestreechs) is practically limited to the municipal borders, with the exception of some places within the Maastrichtian municipality where the spoken dialects are in fact not Maastrichtian. These exceptions are previously separate villages and/or municipalities that have merged with the municipality of Maastricht namely Amby, Borgharen, Heer and Itteren.
The social status of Maastrichtian speakers is determined by the type of sociolect spoken by a certain person, with a division between Short Maastrichtian or Standard Maastrichtian (Kort Mestreechs, Standaardmestreechs) and Long/Stretched Maastrichtian (Laank Mestreechs). Short Maastrichtian is generally considered to be spoken by the upper and middle classes, whilst Long Maastrichtian is considered to be spoken by the working class.
A particular feature of Maastrichtian is that it gives its speakers a certain prestige. Research of the dialect showed that people talking the "purest" form of Maastrichtian, i.e. the Short Maastrichtian (Kort Mestreechs) sociolect, were perceived by others to be the well-educated ones.
The oldest known and preserved text in Maastrichtian dates from the 18th century. This text named Sermoen euver de Weurd Inter omnes Linguas nulla Mosa Trajestensi prastantior gehauwe in Mastreeg was presumably written for one of the carnival celebrations and incites people to learn Maastrichtian. As from the 19th century there are more written texts in Maastrichtian, again mostly oriented towards these carnival celebrations. Nowadays however, many other sources display written Maastrichtian, including song texts not written for carnival as well as books, poems, street signs etc.
Standardisation and official spelling
- Aarts, F. (2005). Dictionairke vaan 't Mestreechs. (2nd ed.). Maastricht, the Netherlands: Stichting Onderweg.
- Brounts P., Chambille G., Kurris J., Minis T., Paulissen H. & Simais M. (2004). De Nuie Mestreechsen Dictionair. Maastricht, the Netherlands: Veldeke-Krink Mestreech.
Other literature on Maastrichtian
- Aarts, F. (2009). 't Verhaol vaan eus Taol. Maastricht, the Netherlands: Stichting Onderweg.
In 2002, the municipal government officially adopted a local anthem (Mestreechs Volksleed) composed of lyrics in Maastrichtian. The theme had originally been written by Alfons Olterdissen (1865–1923) as finishing stanza of the Maastrichtian opera "Trijn de Begijn" of 1910.
|Maastrichtian municipal anthem (Mestreechs Volksleed) (2002)|
- Wikipedia: Maastrichtian is included in the Limburgish Wikipedia. Since there are only standardised 'variants' of Limburgish but no widely accepted/recognised standardised Limburgish itself, each article is tagged as being written in a certain variant of the language. All articles in Maastrichtian can be found here.
- Wiktionary: For an overview of some Maastrichtian dialect specific words, their English translations and their origins proceed to this Wiktionary category.
- The front vowels /y, yː, ɪ, eː, øː, œ, œː, æ, aː/ are somewhat retracted [y̠, y̠ː, e̠, e̠ː, ø̠ː, œ̠, œ̠ː, æ̠, a̠ː], but not retracted enough to be labelled as central vowels. On the other hand, /ʏ/ is so retracted that it is best labelled as central [ɵ].
- Among the central vowels, /ʏ/ is rounded, whereas /ə/ is unrounded.
- Among the back vowels, /u, uː, ʊ, oː, ɔ, ɔː/ are rounded, whereas /ɑ/ is unrounded.
- The qualitative differences between the short /ɪ, ʏ, ʊ/ and long /eː, øː, oː/ close-mid vowels are not very big; the short vowels are slightly higher and somewhat more central. In case of the /ʏ/–/øː/ pair, the difference is the smallest.
- Among the open-mid vowels, only /ɛː, œː, ɔ/ are open-mid [ɛː, œː, ɔ], whereas /ɛ, œ, ə/ are actually mid [ɛ̝, œ̝, ə].
- The open vowels /æ, ɑ, ɔː/ are somewhat raised (i.e. near-open) [æ, ɑ̝, ɒ̝ː]. /æ/ is similar in quality to /ɛː/; the main difference between them is backness (/æ/ is somewhat more retracted), rather than height.
- The short counterpart of /aː/ is /ɑ/, not /æ/ (which does not have a long counterpart).
|Sign||IPA||Maastrichtian example ("translation")||English or other example||Notes|
|ei, ij||[ɛ(ː)ɪ]||ei ("egg")||--||often [ɛː]|
|ej||[æj]||hej ("[he/she] had")||--||--|
|oj||[ɔi]||trojt ([he/she] "marries")||--||--|
|ooj||[oːj]||snooje ("to trim" or "to prune")||--||--|
- /m, p, b, β/ are bilabial, whereas /f, v/ are labiodental.
- In the syllable onset, /β/ is articulated with spread lips. However, in the syllable coda, the lips are weakly rounded.
- Voiceless plosives are unaspirated, whereas the voiced plosives are fully voiced.
- Word-initial /v/ and especially /ɣ/ can be only partially voiced [v̥, ɣ̊] but without merging with, respectively, /f/ and /x/.
- /ɲ, c, ʃ, ʒ/ are laminal postalveolar. Phonemically, they can be analysed as /nj, tj, sj, zj/.
- /ŋ, k, ɡ, x, ɣ/ are velar, whereas /j/ is palatal.
- /ʀ/ is a voiced fricative trill, either uvular [ʀ̝] or pre-uvular [ʀ̝˖]. The fricative component is particularly audible in coda, where a partial devoicing to [ʀ̝̊ ~ ʀ̝̊˖] also occurs.
|Vowels (both monophthongs and diphthongs)|
Maastrichtian contains many specific words ample or not used in other Limburgish dialects some being creolisations/"limburgisations" of Dutch, French and German words while others cannot be directly subscribed to one of these languages.
(Historical) Vocabulary influences from other languages
Maastrichtian vocabulary, as the language family it belongs to suggests, is based on the Germanic languages (apart from the Limburgish language family this also includes varying degrees of influence from both archaic and modern Dutch and German). However, what sets Maastrichtian apart from other variants of Limburgish is its relatively strong influences from French. This is not only because of geographic closeness of a Francophone region (namely Wallonia) to Maastricht but also because of French being the predominant spoken language of the Maastrichtian cultural elite and the higher secondary educational system of the region in the past. Some examples:
|swing (for children)||schommel||Schaukel||sjógkel|
Other examples of Maastrichtian vocabulary
Some examples of specific Maastrichtian vocabulary:
|approximately, roughly||ongeveer||appoximativement, environ||ungefähr||naoventrint|
|completely||helemaal, gans||tout à fait||ganz||gans||(historically) Common in Germanic languages|
|frame (of doors and windows)||lijst||cadre (or chambranle)||Rahmen||sjabrang|
|grandmother / grandfather||grootmoeder / grootvader||grand-mère / grand-père||Großmutter / Großvater||bomma(ma) / bompa(pa)|
|sieve||vergiet||passoire||Sieb||zeiboar (sometimes written zeijboar)|
Expressions and Titles
Some examples of Maastrichtian expressions:
- Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:155)
- Rob Belemans & Benny Keulen, Taal in stad en land: Belgisch-Limburgs, 2004
- Brounts P., Chambille G., Kurris J., Minis T., Paulissen H. & Simais M. (2004). "Veldeke Krink Mestreech: Nuie Mestreechsen Dictionair". Veldeke-Krink Mestreech. Retrieved 2008-12-25.
- Aarts, F. (2009). "'t Verhaol vaan eus Taol". Stichting Onderweg.
- Muenstermann, H. (1989). Dialect loss in Maastricht. Walter de Gruyter. Retrieved 2009-07-12.
- Municipality of Maastricht (2008). "Municipality of Maastricht: Maastrichts Volkslied". N.A. Maastricht. Retrieved 2009-08-05.
- Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:159)
- Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:157)
- Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:156)
- van der Wijngaard, Ton (1999), "Maastricht", in Kruijsen, Joep; van der Sijs, Nicoline, Honderd Jaar Stadstaal (PDF), Uitgeverij Contact, pp. 233–249