Two shells of the common periwinke
Littorina littorea
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Caenogastropoda
clade Hypsogastropoda
clade Littorinimorpha
Superfamily: Littorinoidea
Family: Littorinidae
Children, 1834[1]
two freshwater species and numerous marine species.

The Littorinidae are a taxonomic family of over 200 species of sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the clade Littorinimorpha, commonly known as periwinkles and found worldwide.


In English-speaking countries, gastropod molluscs from other families, such as the Neritidae, are sometimes also commonly known as "winkles" because they are small, round snails that occupy a similar ecological niche.


These subfamilies have been recognized in the taxonomy of Bouchet & Rocroi (2005):


Genera within the family Littorinidae include:[3]


subfamily ?



  1. Children J. G. (1834). Synopsis of the contents of the British Museum. ed. 28: 110.
  2. 1 2 Strong E. E., Gargominy O., Ponder W. F. & Bouchet P. (2008). "Global Diversity of Gastropods (Gastropoda; Mollusca) in Freshwater". Hydrobiologia 595: 149-166. hdl:10088/7390 doi:10.1007/s10750-007-9012-6.
  3. World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) : Littorinidae
  4. 1 2 Reid D. G. (2009) "The genus Echinolittorina Habe, 1956 (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) in the western Atlantic Ocean." Zootaxa 2184: 1-103. abstract
  5. 1 2 (file created 29 July 2010) FRESH WATER MOLLUSCAN SPECIES IN INDIA. 11 pp. accessed 31 July 2010.
  6. S T Williams; D G Reid; D T J Littlewood (2003). "A molecular phylogeny of the Littorininae (Gastropoda: Littorinidae): unequal evolutionary rates, morphological parallelism, and biogeography of the Southern Ocean.". Mol Phylogenet Evol. 1 (1): 60–86. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00038-1. PMID 12801472.
  7. Blanford W. T. (1869). "Notes on some Indian and Mascarene Land-Shells". Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4)3: 340-344. page 343.

Further reading

David G. Reid; Suzanne T. Williams (2004). "The subfamily Littorininae in the Temperate Southern Hemisphere: the genera Nodilittorina, Austrolittorina and Afrolittorina" (PDF). Record of the Australian Museum. 56: 75–122. doi:10.3853/j.0067-1975.56.2004.1393. 

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