Little Richard in 2007.
|Birth name||Richard Wayne Penniman|
December 5, 1932|
Macon, Georgia, US
|Genres||Rock and roll, R&B, gospel, soul|
|Labels||RCA Victor, Peacock, Specialty, End, Ronnex, London, Goldisc Records, Little Star Records, Mercury, Atlantic, Vee-Jay, Modern, Okeh, Brunswick, Reprise, K-Tel, Warner Bros., Disney|
|Associated acts||Billy Wright, Larry Williams, Otis Redding, Don Covay, Billy Preston, Jimi Hendrix|
Little Richard (born Richard Wayne Penniman; December 5, 1932) is an American musician, singer and songwriter.
An influential figure in popular music and culture for more than six decades, Little Richard's most celebrated work dates from the mid-1950s, when his dynamic music and charismatic showmanship laid the foundation for rock and roll. His music also played a key role in the formation of other popular music genres, including soul and funk. Little Richard influenced numerous singers and musicians across musical genres from rock to hip hop; his music helped shape rhythm and blues for generations to come, and his performances and headline-making thrust his career right into the mix of American popular music.
Little Richard has been honored by many institutions. He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as part of its first group of inductees in 1986. He was also inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame. He is the recipient of a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Recording Academy and a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Rhythm and Blues Foundation. Little Richard's "Tutti Frutti" (1955) was included in the National Recording Registry of the Library of Congress in 2010, which stated that his "unique vocalizing over the irresistible beat announced a new era in music." In 2015, the National Museum of African American Music honored Little Richard with a Rhapsody & Rhythm Award for his pivotal role in the formation of popular music genres and in helping to shatter the color line on the music charts, changing American culture significantly.
Little Richard was born Richard Wayne Penniman on December 5, 1932, in Macon, Georgia. He was the third eldest of the 12 children of Leva Mae (née Stewart) and Charles "Bud" Penniman. His father was a church deacon who sold bootlegged moonshine on the side and owned a nightclub, the Tip In Inn. His mother was a member of Macon's New Hope Baptist Church. Initially, Little Richard's first name was supposed to have been "Ricardo" but an error resulted in "Richard" instead. The Penniman children were raised in a neighborhood of Macon called Pleasant Hill. In childhood, he was nicknamed "Lil' Richard" by his family, because of his small and skinny frame. A mischievous child who played pranks on neighbors, Little Richard began singing in church at a young age. Possibly as a result of complications at birth, Little Richard had a slight deformity that left one of his legs shorter than the other. This produced an unusual gait; he was mocked for its allegedly effeminate appearance.
Little Richard's family was highly religious, joining various A.M.E., Baptist and Pentecostal churches, with some family members becoming ministers. Little Richard enjoyed the Pentecostal churches the most, because of their charismatic worship and live music. He later recalled that people in his neighborhood during segregation sang gospel songs throughout the day to keep a positive outlook, because "there was so much poverty, so much prejudice in those days". He had observed that people sang "to feel their connection with God" and to wash their trials and burdens away. Gifted with a loud singing voice, Little Richard recalled that he was "always changing the key upwards" and that they once stopped him from singing in church for "screaming and hollering" so loud, earning him the nickname "War Hawk".
Little Richard's initial musical influences were gospel performers such as Brother Joe May, Sister Rosetta Tharpe, Mahalia Jackson and Marion Williams. May, who as a singing evangelist was known as "the Thunderbolt of the Middle West" because of his phenomenal range and vocal power, inspired the boy to become a preacher. Little Richard attended Macon's Hudson High School, where he was a below-average student. His musical talent, however, was recognized there when he learned to play the alto saxophone. His mother recalled how Richard was "always musical" and that when he was young, he would always "beat on the steps of the house, and on tin cans and pots and pans, or whatever", while singing. She also recalled that Richard was so quick at learning to play the saxophone that he was allowed to play with the school's marching band immediately. While in high school, Little Richard obtained a part-time job at Macon City Auditorium for local secular and gospel concert promoter Clint Brantley. Little Richard sold Coca-Cola to crowds during concerts of star performers of the day, such as Cab Calloway, Lucky Millinder and his favorite singer, Sister Rosetta Tharpe.
On October 27, 1947, Sister Rosetta Tharpe heard 14-year-old Little Richard singing two of her gospel recordings before her concert at Macon City Auditorium. Tharpe was so impressed that she invited him to sing onstage during the concert. Clint Brantley recalled that Little Richard approached him before the show, announcing that Tharpe was allowing him to open the show. Brantley, as the promoter, told him he could not. However, when the curtain lifted, Little Richard began to sing and surprised Brantley with his vocal ability. The crowd cheered, and Tharpe paid him for his performance. Little Richard was hooked on performing for a living after that. He began singing with traveling shows that came through town and was losing interest in school. He would sing to draw people to the local town prophet and spiritualist, Doctor Nubilio, who wore a turban and a colorful cape, carried a black stick and exhibited something he called "the devil's child" – the dried-up body of a baby with claw feet like a bird and horns on its head. Nubilio told Little Richard that he was "gonna be famous" but that he would have to "go where the grass is greener." Because of problems at home and school and associations in the community, Little Richard left and joined Dr. Hudson's Medicine Show in 1948, performing "Caldonia". Little Richard recalled the song was the first secular R&B song he learned, since his family had strict rules against playing R&B music, which they considered "devil music." Little Richard soon joined his first musical band, Buster Brown's Orchestra. While performing with the band, he began using the name Little Richard. After his tenure with the band ended in 1950, Little Richard began performing for various vaudeville groups, including Sugarfoot Sam from Alabam, the Tidy Jolly Steppers, the King Brothers Circus and Broadway Follies, earning a reputation as a drag performer. About this time, Little Richard began listening more to R&B and frequented Atlanta clubs, where he witnessed Roy Brown and Billy Wright. Heavily influenced by Wright's flamboyant persona and showmanship, Little Richard began performing as a solo artist on the Chitlin Circuit. Little Richard gained notoriety for high-energy onstage antics during live performances. He eventually befriended Wright during an Atlanta performance in 1950.
In 1951, Wright put Little Richard in contact with his manager, Zenas Sears, a local deejay. Sears recorded Little Richard at his station, backed by Wright's band. The recordings led to a contract that year with RCA Victor. Little Richard recorded a total of eight sides for RCA, including the blues ballad, "Every Hour," which became his first single and a hit in Georgia. The release of "Every Hour" improved his relationship with his father, who began regularly performing the song at his nightclub. After its release, Little Richard fronted Perry Welch and His Orchestra, playing at clubs and army bases for $100 a week. Little Richard learned how to play boogie-woogie piano from teenage musician Esquerita around this time. Little Richard left RCA Victor in February 1952 after his records failed to catch on. That same month, his father was killed after a confrontation outside his club. Little Richard, struggling with poverty, settled for work as a dishwasher for Greyhound Lines and hired Clint Brantley as his manager. He formed a band called the Tempo Toppers that year and began to perform as part of blues package tours in clubs across the south, such as Club Tijuana in New Orleans and Club Matinee in Houston. With the Tempo Toppers, Little Richard signed with Don Robey's Peacock Records in February 1953, recording eight sides, including four with Johnny Otis and his band that were unreleased at the time. Little Richard had a contentious relationship with Robey and soon found himself disenchanted with the record business and with his group, leaving Peacock and disbanding the Tempo Toppers. That same year, Little Richard formed a hard-driving R&B band, the Upsetters, which included drummer Charles Connor and saxophonist Wilbert "Lee Diamond" Smith and toured under Brantley's management. The Upsetters began to tour successfully, even without a bass player, forcing drummer Connor to thump "real hard" on his bass drum in order to get a "bass fiddle effect."
At the suggestion of Lloyd Price, Little Richard sent a two-song demo to Price's label, Specialty Records, in February 1955. Time passed before Little Richard got a call to record for the label. Art Rupe, owner of Specialty Records, loaned Little Richard money to buy out his Peacock contract and set him up to work with producer Robert "Bumps" Blackwell. Upon hearing the demo, Blackwell felt Little Richard was Specialty's answer to Ray Charles. Little Richard told Blackwell he preferred the sound of Fats Domino. As a result, Little Richard began recording at Cosimo Matassa's J&M Studios in New Orleans that September, recording there with several of Domino's session musicians, including drummer Earl Palmer and saxophonist Lee Allen. The initial cuts failed to produce anything that would inspire huge sales, and Little Richard and his producer took a break at a club called the Dew Drop Inn. While there, Little Richard performed a risqué song he had improvised from his days on the club circuit called "Tutti Frutti". The song's a cappella introduction was based on a drum rhythm Little Richard had devised. Blackwell felt the song had hit potential and hired songwriter Dorothy LaBostrie to replace some of Little Richard's sexual lyrics with less controversial words. Recorded in three takes in September 1955, "Tutti Frutti" was released as a single in November.
Initial success and conversion
"Tutti Frutti" became an instant hit, reaching No. 2 on Billboard magazine's Rhythm and Blues Best-Sellers chart and crossing over to the pop charts in both the United States and overseas in the United Kingdom. It reached No. 17 on the Billboard Top 100 in America and No. 29 on the British singles chart, eventually selling a million copies. Little Richard's next hit single, "Long Tall Sally" (1956), became his first to reach No. 1 on the R&B chart and the first to reach the top ten of the pop charts in both America and Britain. Like "Tutti Frutti", it sold over a million copies. Following his success, Little Richard built up his backup band, The Upsetters, with the addition of saxophonists Clifford "Gene" Burks and leader Grady Gaines, bassist Olsie "Baysee" Robinson and guitarist Nathaniel "Buster" Douglas. Little Richard began performing on package tours across the United States, often appearing last, where he would steal the show. Art Rupe described the differences between Little Richard and a similar hitmaker of the early rock and roll period by stating that, while "the similarities between Little Richard and Fats Domino for recording purposes were close", Little Richard would sometimes stand up at the piano while he was recording and that onstage, where Domino was "plodding, very slow", Little Richard was "very dynamic, completely uninhibited, unpredictable, wild. So the band took on the ambience of the vocalist." During a period of racial tension in the United States, Little Richard attracted mixed-race audiences at a time when public places were divided into "white" and "colored" domains. H.B. Barnum later explained that Little Richard "opened the door. He brought the races together". Prior to Little Richard, audiences in musical shows were either "all black or all white and no one else could come in." Little Richard's success enabled audiences of both races to enter the building, albeit still segregated (e.g. blacks on the balcony and whites on the main floor). By the end of Little Richard's performances, however, the audiences would come together to dance. Despite broadcasts on TV from local supremacist groups such as the North Alabama White Citizens Council warning how rock and roll "brings the races together", Little Richard's popularity was helping to shatter the myth that black performers could not successfully perform at "white-only venues", especially in the South where racism was most overt.
Little Richard's show, according to Barnum, was the first rock and roll show to use spotlights and flicker lights, which had been a show business tradition, accentuating Little Richard's innovative use of colorful capes, blouse shirts, makeup and suits studded with multi-colored precious stones and sequins. Little Richard's onstage antics often included running on and off the stage, lifting his leg while playing his piano, and jumping up and down onstage and atop the piano, bringing audiences into a frenzy. Fans reacted in similar and sometimes extreme ways. During Little Richard's show at Baltimore's Royal Theatre in June 1956, several fans had to be restrained from jumping off the balcony. Cops stopped the show twice to prevent fans who had rushed the stage from ripping souvenirs off of Little Richard. During the same show, a woman threw a pair of her undergarments onstage at Little Richard, leading other female fans to repeat the action.
Little Richard had nine hits in the US in 1956 and five in Britain, with recordings such as "Slippin' and Slidin'", "Rip It Up" "Ready Teddy", "The Girl Can't Help It" and "Lucille". Most of Little Richard's earlier hits inspired covers by the likes of Pat Boone, Elvis Presley and Bill Haley. Described as having "electrifying movie-star looks", Little Richard accepted brief roles in movies such as Don't Knock the Rock, Mister Rock and Roll and The Girl Can't Help It. His success continued in 1957 with international hits such as "Jenny, Jenny" and "Keep A-Knockin'". Little Richard scored further hit singles such as "Good Golly, Miss Molly", eventually scoring 18 hit singles in less than three years.
Little Richard's success made him a millionaire and, in late 1956, he settled in Los Angeles, purchasing a mansion in a wealthy section of the city, where he lived next door to boxer Joe Louis. In May 1957, Specialty Records released Little Richard's first album, which contained six single recordings that had already been hits on the charts. Here's Little Richard, which reached No. 13 on the Billboard Top LPs chart, then a rare feat for a rock and roll artist. He had engaged in a serious romance with Audrey Robinson, then a teenage college student and later a stripper under the stage name Lee Angel. In October 1957, Little Richard embarked on a package tour in Australia with Gene Vincent and Eddie Cochran. During the middle of the tour, he shocked the public by announcing his decision to follow a life in the ministry. Little Richard later explained that during a flight from Melbourne to Sydney that he had seen the plane's red hot engines and felt angels were holding it up. During the Sydney performance, Little Richard saw a bright red fireball flying across the sky above him and was deeply shaken. He took the event, later revealed as the launching of the first artificial Earth satellite Sputnik 1, as a sign from God to repent from performing secular music and his wild lifestyle and enter the ministry. Returning to the states ten days early, Little Richard later learned that his original return flight had crashed into the Pacific Ocean solidifying his belief he was doing as God wanted. After a performance at the Apollo Theater and a recording session with Specialty later that month, Little Richard enrolled at Oakwood College in Huntsville, Alabama, to study theology. Fueling his decision to leave the music business was Little Richard's feeling that he hadn't received proper remuneration from Specialty. Upon ending his contract with Specialty in 1959, Little Richard reluctantly agreed to relinquish any royalties for his material. In 1958, he formed the Little Richard Evangelistic Team, traveling across the country to preach. A month after his conversion, while speaking at an evangelical convention in November 1957, Little Richard met Ernestine Campbell, a secretary from Washington, D.C. He married her on July 11, 1959.
Around this time, Little Richard began recording gospel for George Goldner's End Records , traveling to New York City to record 19 traditional gospel tunes ( one a new song written by Maybelle Jackson called "I'm Quitting Show Business "), yielding a couple of singles and a barrage of low budget albums . He signed with Mercury Records and had some chart success with songs such as "He's Not Just a Soldier" and "He Got What He Wanted", which reached the top 40 in the UK. a contract with Atlantic Records resulted in a regional US hit, "Crying in the Chapel ". Childhood heroine Mahalia Jackson acknowledged his gospel efforts after hearing him sing in the early 1960s at Mount Moriah Baptist Church in Los Angeles. After working with Little Richard on the Mercury album King of the Gospel Singers, Quincy Jones remarked in 1984 that his performance in the studio impressed him more than any other artist with whom he had worked.
Return to secular music
In 1962, concert promoter Don Arden persuaded Little Richard to tour Europe after telling him his records were still selling well there. Arden booked him as the headline artist, with Sam Cooke second on the bill. Little Richard performed gospel material at the first show and received a tepid response (Cooke did not open that show, as he was delayed in arriving). After Cooke opened the second show, with vigorous applause from the crowd, Little Richard and his organist Billy Preston warmed up in darkness before launching into "Long Tall Sally", resulting in hysterical responses. Little Richard's shows received similar responses wherever he performed, including a show at Mansfield's Granada Theatre, which closed early after fans rushed the stage. Wanting to capitalize on these headline-grabbing performances, Brian Epstein, the manager of the Beatles, asked Little Richard and Arden to allow his newly recorded band to open for Little Richard on some tour dates, to which they agreed. The first show for which the Beatles opened was at New Brighton's Tower Ballroom that October. The following month, they opened for Little Richard at the Star Club in Hamburg. During this time, Little Richard advised the group on how to perform his songs and taught Paul McCartney his distinctive vocalizations. Back in the U.S., Little Richard recorded six rock and roll songs with the Upsetters for Little Star Records, under the name "World Famous Upsetters", allowing him to keep his options open in the ministry.
Little Richard returned to the UK the following fall, with the Rolling Stones as openers. At the end of that tour, he starred in his own special, The Little Richard Spectacular, for Granada Television. The special became a ratings success and was rebroadcast twice, after over 60,000 fan letters had been received. Footage of the special was shown around the world, highlighting the frenzy associated with rock and roll. In 1964, Little Richard returned briefly to Specialty and recorded five songs, including the charted single, "Bama Lama Bama Loo", which reached the top 20 in the UK but only number 82 in the US. Later that year, he signed with Vee-Jay Records and issued the album Little Richard Is Back. The album failed to catch on domestically, despite a televised performance of the single "Whole Lotta Shakin' Goin' On" on Shindig! that drew wild responses from audience members. By September 1964, Jimi Hendrix, known to Richard as Maurice James, had joined the Upsetters band, as a full member. In December, Jimi and some '50s band members joined Richard in New York for a session of remakes. The most successful collaboration between Little Richard and Hendrix came in the following year, also in New York, when Hendrix, Billy Preston, and Little Richard recorded the soul ballad "I Don't Know What You've Got (But It's Got Me)", which became a number 12 R&B hit. Little Richard and Hendrix clashed over tardiness, wardrobe and Hendrix's stage antics, and as a result, in July 1965, Little Richard's brother Robert fired Hendrix. That same year, Little Richard attempted to set up his own record label but only cut two unreleased tracks. Instead he signed with Modern Records, which resulted in a very agreeable string of rock and soul singles but yielded just one chart-maker, "Do You Feel It?". He left that label in early 1966 for Okeh Records. Okeh paired Little Richard musically with his friend from the mid-1950s, Larry Williams, who produced two albums for him in 1966 and 1967; the first being a studio album, The Explosive Little Richard, which generated the modest hit singles "Poor Dog" and "Commandments of Love", and the second, Little Richard's Greatest Hits: Recorded Live!, which returned him to the pop album charts for the first time in ten years and also hit number 28 on the Hot R&B LPs chart. Williams also acted as the music director for Little Richard's live performances at the Okeh Club in Los Angeles amid the Okeh period, during which time the demand for Little Richard's appearances increased greatly. Leaving Okeh in late 1967, Little Richard briefly recorded with Brunswick but left shortly after his final session.
Little Richard struggled when he returned to secular music in the 1960s. He often complained to producers in the 1960s that he felt unappreciated as producers pushed him towards a horn-oriented Motown sound and felt he wasn't treated with appropriate respect. Little Richard often performed in dingy clubs and lounges with little support from his label. Little Richard adapted a wilder flamboyant and androgynous image that, while a hit with club audiences, was a problem for labels attempting to promote him to conservative R&B buyers. Angered by his decision to "backslide" from his ministry, clergymen in the South forced radio disk jockeys to ignore Little Richard's work. His insistence on performing in front of mixed audiences prevented him from receiving radio time in the areas of Los Angeles affected by the Watts riots. Despite recording and public relations struggles, according to his Songwriters Hall of Fame biography, he had sold over 32 million records worldwide by 1968. Focusing on live performances rather than recordings at the end of the 1960s, Little Richard found success with performances in casinos and resorts in Las Vegas, Los Angeles and New York City. Little Richard returned to the national spotlight in 1969 as a performer at the Atlantic City Pop Festival, where he stole the show from top performers such as Janis Joplin; he did the same to headliner John Lennon at the Toronto Pop Festival. These successes brought Little Richard to talk shows such as the Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson and the Dick Cavett Show, making him a major celebrity again.
Little Richard signed with Reprise Records in 1970, releasing the album The Rill Thing, which included the chart-making singles "Freedom Blues" and "Greenwood, Mississippi". His follow-ups for Reprise failed to produce similar success, and He spent much of the decade performing as a guest instrumentalist on sessions with rockers such as Delaney and Bonnie, Joey Covington and Joe Walsh. The sessions for Canned Heat's "Rockin' with the King" (1972) and Bachman-Turner Overdrive's "Take It Like a Man" (1976) resulted in chart successes. Little Richard and three of his brothers formed a management company, Bud Hole Incorporated, around this time. In 1973, Richard made a spectacular contribution to the critically acclaimed documentary "Let The Good Times Roll", and he was given a full album side in a two-disc soundtrack album from the film, which charted. Leaving Reprise, that same year, he charted for independent labels, including Green Mountain Records, for which he recorded "In the Middle of the Night"; the proceeds were donated to victims charity of tornadoes that had caused damage in 12 states. In 1976, the Mainstream Records single "Call My Name" was distributed by Motown but barely charted. That same year, Little Richard re-recorded 18 of his classic hits in Nashville for K-Tel Records, with a single featuring new versions of "Good Golly Miss Molly" and "Rip It Up" reaching the UK singles chart. Following over ten years of drug and alcohol abuse and a string of recent personal tragedies, Little Richard quit rock and roll music again in 1977 and returned to evangelism, releasing one gospel album, God's Beautiful City, in 1979.
In 1984, Little Richard filed a $112 million lawsuit against Specialty Records; Art Rupe and his publishing company, Venice Music; and ATV Music for not paying him royalties after he left the label in 1959. The suit was settled out of court in 1986. According to some reports, Michael Jackson gave Little Richard monetary compensation from his work when he co-owned (with Sony-ATV) songs by the Beatles and Little Richard. In 1985, Charles White released Little Richard's authorized biography, Quasar of Rock: The Life and Times of Little Richard, which returned Little Richard to the spotlight. Little Richard returned to show business in what Rolling Stone would refer to as a "formidable comeback" following the book's release.
Reconciling his roles as evangelist and rock and roll musician for the first time, Little Richard stated that the genre could be used for good or evil. After accepting a role in the film Down and Out in Beverly Hills, Little Richard and Billy Preston penned the faith-based rock and roll song "Great Gosh A'Mighty" for its soundtrack. Little Richard won critical acclaim for his film role, and the song found success on the American and British charts. The hit led to the release of the album Lifetime Friend (1986) on Warner Bros. Records, with songs deemed "messages in rhythm", including a gospel rap track. In addition to a version of "Great Gosh A'Mighty", cut in England, the album featured two singles that charted in the UK, "Somebody's Comin'" and "Operator". Little Richard spent much of the rest of the decade as a guest on TV shows and appearing in films, winning new fans with what was referred to as his "unique comedic timing". In 1989, Little Richard provided rhythmic preaching and background vocals on the extended live version of the U2–B.B. King hit "When Love Comes to Town". That same year, Little Richard returned to singing his classic hits following a performance of "Lucille" at an AIDS benefit concert.
In 1990, Little Richard contributed a spoken-word rap on Living Colour's hit song, "Elvis Is Dead", from their album Time's Up. The following year, he was one of the featured performers on the hit single and video "Voices That Care" that was produced to help boost the morale of U.S. troops involved in Operation Desert Storm. He also recorded a rock and roll version of "The Itsy Bitsy Spider" that year that led to a deal with Disney Records, resulting in the release of a hit 1992 children's album, Shake It All About. Throughout the 1990s, Little Richard performed around the world and appeared on TV, film, and tracks with other artists, including Jon Bon Jovi, Elton John and Solomon Burke. In 1992, yet another album of remakes was released, this time with Richard and Japanese guitar hero, Takanaka. Included in the band were swamp guitarist Travis Wammack and his drummer son Monkee, members of Richard's then current touring band.
In 2000, Little Richard's life was dramatized for the biographical film Little Richard, which focused on his early years, including his heyday, his religious conversion and his return to secular music in the early 1960s. Little Richard was played by Leon, who earned an NAACP Image Award nomination for his performance in this role. In 2002, Little Richard contributed to the Johnny Cash tribute album, Kindred Spirits: A Tribute to the Songs of Johnny Cash. In 2006, Little Richard was featured in a popular advertisement for the GEICO brand. A 2005 recording of his duet vocals with Jerry Lee Lewis on a cover of the Beatles' "I Saw Her Standing There" was included on Lewis's 2006 album, Last Man Standing. The same year, Little Richard was a guest judge on the TV series Celebrity Duets. Little Richard and Lewis performed alongside John Fogerty at the 2008 Grammy Awards in a tribute to the two artists considered to be cornerstones of rock and roll by the NARAS. That same year, Little Richard appeared on radio host Don Imus' benefit album for sick children, The Imus Ranch Record. In June 2010, Little Richard recorded a gospel track for an upcoming tribute album to songwriting legend Dottie Rambo.
Towards the end of the first decade of the new millennium, Rolling Stone reported that Little Richard remained "one of the most recognized and quotable celebrities in the world." Throughout the decade, he kept up a stringent touring schedule, performing primarily in the United States and Europe. However, sciatic nerve pain in his left leg and then replacement of the involved hip began affecting the frequency of his performances by 2010. Despite his health problems, Little Richard continued to receive critical acclaim for his performances. Rolling Stone reported that at a performance at the Howard Theater in Washington, D.C., in June 2012, Little Richard was "still full of fire, still a master showman, his voice still loaded with deep gospel and raunchy power." Little Richard performed a full 90-minute show at the Pensacola Interstate Fair in Pensacola, Florida, in October 2012, at the age of 79, and headlined at the Orleans Hotel in Las Vegas during Viva Las Vegas Rockabilly Weekend in March 2013.
In 2014, actor Brandon Mychal Smith won critical acclaim for his portrayal of Little Richard in the James Brown biographical drama film Get on Up. Mick Jagger co-produced the motion picture. In June 2015, Little Richard appeared before a paying audience, clad in sparkly boots and a brightly colored jacket at the Wildhorse Saloon in Nashville to receive the Rhapsody & Rhythm Award from and raise funds for the National Museum of African American Music. It was reported that he charmed the crowd by reminiscing about his early days working in Nashville nightclubs. In May 2016, the National Museum of African American Music issued a press release indicating that Little Richard was one of the key artists and music industry leaders that attended its 3rd annual My Music Matters Legends Luncheon in Nashville honoring Shirley Caesar, Kenny Gamble and Leon Huff with Rhapsody & Rhythm Awards.
Relationships and family
In 1956, Little Richard began a romantic relationship with Audrey Robinson, a 16-year-old college student, originally from Savannah, Georgia. According to Little Richard, he would invite other men to have sex with her in groups and once invited Buddy Holly to have sex with her; Robinson denied those claims. The relationship ended after Little Richard's religious conversion in 1957. Robinson later became a stripper using the name Lee Angel. According to Robinson, Little Richard wanted to continue to see her but she felt uncomfortable seeing a preacher as a stripper. Described in GQ's UK edition as a "lifelong soulmate", Robinson and Little Richard are occasionally in each other's company.
Little Richard met his only wife, Ernestine Campbell, at an evangelical rally in October 1957. They began dating that year and wed in July 1959. According to Campbell, she and Little Richard initially enjoyed a happy marriage with "normal" sexual relations. Campbell claimed when the marriage ended in divorce in 1963, it was due to Little Richard's celebrity status, noting that it had made life difficult for her. Little Richard claimed the marriage fell apart due to him being a neglectful husband. While married, in 1962, Little Richard adopted a one-year-old boy, Danny Jones, from a late church associate. Little Richard and his son remain close, with Jones often acting as one of his bodyguards.
Little Richard's sexual orientation has long been a topic of debate. Little Richard claimed that as a child he felt feminine and played with girls, which was the source of jokes at his expense. Caught wearing his mother's makeup and wardrobe at times, he was brutally punished by his father. Little Richard began having sexual encounters with both sexes by his early teens. Allegedly because of his effeminate mannerisms, Little Richard's father kicked him out of their family home at 15. Little Richard first became involved in voyeurism in his early twenties, when a female friend of his would drive him around and pick up men who would allow him to watch them have sex in the backseat of cars. Little Richard was once arrested after a gas station attendant in Macon reported sexual activity in a car featuring Little Richard and a couple. Cited on a lewd conduct charge, Little Richard spent three days in jail and was temporarily banned from performing in Macon, Georgia.
During the early 1950s, Little Richard had appeared as a drag performer in various vaudeville groups. By the time he entered the Chitlin Circuit, he began using makeup regularly, influenced by Billy Wright, who recommended his brand of makeup to him, Pancake 31. Later, as he began experiencing success in the mid-1950s, Little Richard made members of his band use makeup as a means to gain entry into white clubs during performances. Little Richard later told a columnist, "I wore the make-up so that white men wouldn't think I was after the white girls. It made things easier for me, plus it was colorful too". Little Richard received female attention during his mid-1950s stating that female fans would give him naked photos of themselves and their phone numbers. In 2000, Little Richard stated: "I had girlfriends and a stack of women who followed me and traveled with me. I figure if being called a sissy would make me famous, let them say what they want to".
While attending Oakwood College, Little Richard recalled a male student showed himself to him. After the incident was reported to the student's father, Little Richard withdrew from the college. In 1962, Little Richard was again arrested after he was caught spying on men urinating at men's toilets at a Trailways bus station in Long Beach, California. Little Richard returned to participating in sexual orgies after his return to secular music in the 1960s. In 1984, while he noted that he felt homosexuality was "unnatural" and "contagious", he would tell Charles White that he was "omnisexual" after he was asked about his sex life. In 1995, Little Richard told Penthouse that he always knew he was gay. In 2007, Mojo magazine described Little Richard as a "bisexual alien".
Drug and alcohol use
Little Richard was allegedly a heavy drinker and cigarette smoker during the mid-1960s. By 1972, he was using cocaine, developing an addiction to the drug. He later lamented during that period, "they should have called me Little Cocaine, I was sniffing so much of that stuff!" He got addicted to heroin and PCP around that same period. Of his drug experiences, he said "I lost my reasoning". He said of his cocaine addiction that he did whatever he could to use cocaine. Little Richard admitted that his addiction to cocaine and heroin was costing him as much as $1,000 a day. In 1977, longtime friend Larry Williams once showed up with a gun and threatened to kill Little Richard for failing to pay his drug debt. Little Richard later mentioned that this was the most fearful moment of his life because Williams's own drug addiction made him wildly unpredictable. Little Richard did, however, also acknowledge that he and Williams were "very close friends" and when reminiscing of the drug-fueled clash, he recalled thinking "I knew he loved me – I hoped he did". Within that same year, Little Richard had several devastating personal experiences, including his brother Tony's death of a heart attack, the accidental shooting of his nephew that he loved like a son, and the murder of two close personal friends – one a valet at "the heroin man's house". The combination of these experiences convinced Little Richard to give up drugs and alcohol, along with rock and roll, and return to the ministry.
Little Richard's family had deep evangelical (Baptist and African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME)) Christian roots, including two uncles and a grandfather who were preachers. Little Richard also took part in Macon's Pentecostal churches, which were his favorites mainly due to their music, charismatic praise, dancing in the Holy Spirit and speaking in tongues. At age 10, influenced by Pentecostalism, Little Richard would go around saying he was a faith healer, singing gospel music to people who were feeling sick and touching them. He later recalled that they would often indicate that they felt better after he prayed for them and would sometimes give him money. Little Richard had aspirations of being a preacher due to the influence of singing evangelist Brother Joe May.
After he was born again in 1957, Little Richard enrolled at Oakwood College in Huntsville, Alabama, a mostly black Seventh-day Adventist college, to study theology. Little Richard returned to secular music in the early 1960s. He was eventually ordained a minister in 1970, and again resumed evangelical activities in 1977. Little Richard represented Memorial Bibles International and sold their Black Heritage Bible, which highlighted the Book's many black characters. As a preacher, Little Richard evangelized in small churches and packed auditoriums of 20,000 or more. His preaching focused on uniting the races and bringing lost souls to repentance through God's love. In 1984, Little Richard's mother, Leva Mae, died following a period of illness. Only a few months prior to her death, Little Richard promised her that he would remain a Christian.
During the 1980s and 1990s, Little Richard officiated at celebrity weddings. In 2006, Little Richard wedded twenty couples who won a contest in one ceremony. The musician used his experience and knowledge as a minister and elder statesman of rock and roll to preach at funerals of musical friends such as Wilson Pickett and Ike Turner. At a benefit concert in 2009 to raise funds to help rebuild children's playgrounds destroyed by Hurricane Katrina, Little Richard asked guest of honor Fats Domino to pray with him and others. His assistants handed out inspirational booklets at the concert—a common practice at Little Richard's shows. He somberly told a Howard Theatre, Washington, D.C. audience in June 2012, "I know this is not Church, but get close to the Lord. The world is getting close to the end. Get close to the Lord." In 2013, Little Richard elaborated on his spiritual philosophies, stating "God talked to me the other night. He said He's getting ready to come. The world's getting ready to end and He's coming, wrapped in flames of fire with a rainbow around his throne." Rolling Stone reported his apocalyptic prophesies generated snickers from some audience members as well as cheers of support. Little Richard responded by stating: "When I talk to you about [Jesus], I'm not playing. I'm almost 81 years old. Without God, I wouldn't be here."
In October 1985, Little Richard returned to the United States from England, where he had finished recording his album Lifetime Friend, to film a guest spot on the show, Miami Vice. Following the taping, he accidentally crashed his sports car into a telephone pole in West Hollywood, California. He suffered a broken right leg, broken ribs and head and facial injuries. His recovery from the accident took several months. His accident prevented him from being able to attend the inaugural Rock and Roll Hall of Fame ceremony in January 1986 where he was one of several inductees. He instead supplied a recorded message.
In 2007, Little Richard was having problems walking due to sciatica in his left leg, requiring him to use crutches. In November 2009, he entered a hospital to have replacement surgery on his left hip. Despite returning to performance the following year, Little Richard's problems with his hip continued and he has since been brought onstage by wheelchair. He has told fans that his surgery has his hip "breaking inside" and refuses to have further work on it.
On September 30, 2013, he revealed to Cee Lo Green at a Recording Academy fundraiser that he had suffered a heart attack at his home the week prior and stated he used aspirin and had his son turn the air conditioner on, which his doctor confirmed had saved his life. Little Richard stated, "Jesus had something for me. He brought me through".
On April 28, 2016, Little Richard's friend, Bootsy Collins stated on his Facebook page that, "he is not in the best of health so I ask all the Funkateers to lift him up." Reports subsequently began being published on the internet stating that Little Richard was in grave health and that his family were gathering at his bedside. On May 3, 2016, Rolling Stone magazine reported that Little Richard and his lawyer provided a health information update in which Richard stated, "not only is my family not gathering around me because I'm ill, but I'm still singing. I don't perform like I used to, but I have my singing voice, I walk around, I had hip surgery a while ago but I'm healthy.'" His lawyer also reported: "He's 83. I don't know how many 83-year-olds still get up and rock it out every week, but in light of the rumors, I wanted to tell you that he's vivacious and conversant about a ton of different things and he's still very active in a daily routine. I used to represent (the late) Prince and he just engaged me in all kinds of Prince conversations, calling him a 'creative genius.'"
Little Richard's music and performance style had a pivotal impact on the shape of the sound and style of popular music genres of the 20th century. As a rock and roll pioneer, Little Richard embodied its spirit more flamboyantly than any other performer. Little Richard's raspy shouting style gave the genre one of its most identifiable and influential vocal sounds and his fusion of boogie-woogie, New Orleans R&B and gospel music blazed its rhythmic trail.
Combining elements of boogie, gospel, and blues, Little Richard introduced several of rock music's most characteristic musical features, including its loud volume and vocal style emphasizing power, and its distinctive beat and rhythm. He departed from boogie-woogie's shuffle rhythm and introduced a new distinctive rock beat, where the beat division is even at all tempos. He reinforced the new rock rhythm with a two-handed approach, playing patterns with his right hand, with the rhythm typically popping out in the piano's high register. His new rhythm, which he introduced with "Tutti Frutti" (1955), became the basis for the standard rock beat, which was later consolidated by Chuck Berry. "Lucille" (1957) foreshadowed the rhythmic feel of 1960s classic rock in several ways, including its heavy bassline, slower tempo, strong rock beat played by the entire band, and verse–chorus form similar to blues.
Little Richard was blessed with a phenomenal voice able to generate croons, wails, and screams unprecedented in popular music. He was cited by two of soul music's pioneers, Otis Redding and Sam Cooke, as contributing to that genre's early development. Redding stated that most of his music was patterned after Little Richard's and that he had "done a lot for [him] and [his] soul brothers in the music business." Cooke said in 1962 that Little Richard had done "so much for our music". Cooke had a top 40 hit in 1963 with his cover of Little Richard's soulful 1956 hit 'Send Me Some Loving'.
James Brown said that Little Richard and the Upsetters, including drummer Charles "Chuck" Connor, were "the first to put the funk in rhythm", with a biographer stating that their music "spark[ed] the musical transition from fifties rock and roll to sixties funk".
Little Richard's hits of the mid-1950s, such as "Tutti Frutti", "Long Tall Sally", "Keep A-Knockin'" and "Good Golly Miss Molly", were generally characterized by playful lyrics with sexually suggestive connotations. AllMusic writer Richie Unterberger stated that Little Richard "merged the fire of gospel with New Orleans R&B, pounding the piano and wailing with gleeful abandon", and that while "other R&B greats of the early '50s had been moving in a similar direction, none of them matched the sheer electricity of Richard's vocals. With his high speed deliveries, ecstatic trills, and the overjoyed force of personality in his singing, he was crucial in upping the voltage from high-powered R&B into the similar, yet different, guise of rock and roll." Due to his innovative music and style, he's often widely acknowledged as the "architect of rock and roll".
Ray Charles introduced him at a concert in 1988 as "a man that started a kind of music that set the pace for a lot of what's happening today." Rock and roll pioneer Bo Diddley called Little Richard "one of a kind" and "a show business genius" that "influenced so many in the music business". Little Richard's contemporaries, including Elvis Presley, Bill Haley, Jerry Lee Lewis, The Everly Brothers, Gene Vincent and Eddie Cochran, all recorded covers of Little Richard's works. Taken by Little Richard's music and style, and personally covering four of Little Richard's tunes on his own two breakthrough albums in 1956, Presley told Little Richard in 1969 that his music was an inspiration to him and that he was "the greatest". Pat Boone noted in 1984, "no one person has been more imitated than Little Richard". As they wrote about Little Richard for their Man of the Year – Legend category in 2010, GQ magazine stated that Little Richard "is, without question, the boldest and most influential of the founding fathers of rock'n'roll". R&B pioneer Johnny Otis stated that "Little Richard is twice as valid artistically and important historically as Elvis Presley, the Beatles, and the Rolling Stones put together."
In addition to his musical style, Little Richard was cited as one of the first crossover black artists, reaching audiences of all races. His music and concerts broke the color line, drawing blacks and whites together despite attempts to sustain segregation. As H.B. Barnum explained in Quasar of Rock, Little Richard "opened the door. He brought the races together." Barnum described Little Richard's music as not being "boy-meets-girl-girl-meets-boy things, they were fun records, all fun. And they had a lot to say sociologically in our country and the world." Barnum also stated that Little Richard's "charisma was a whole new thing to the music business", explaining that "he would burst onto the stage from anywhere, and you wouldn't be able to hear anything but the roar of the audience. He might come out and walk on the piano. He might go out into the audience." Barnum also stated that Little Richard was innovative in that he would wear colorful capes, blouse shirts, makeup and suits studded with multi-colored precious stones and sequins, and that he also brought flickering stage lighting from his show business experience into performance venues where rock and roll artists performed. In 2015, the National Museum of African American Music honored Penniman for helping to shatter the color line on the music charts changing American culture forever.
Little Richard influenced generations of performers across musical genres. James Brown and Otis Redding both idolized Little Richard. Brown allegedly came up with the Famous Flames debut hit, "Please, Please, Please", after Little Richard had written the words on a napkin. Redding started his professional career with Little Richard's band, The Upsetters. He first entered a talent show performing Little Richard's "Heeby Jeebies", winning for 15 consecutive weeks. Ike Turner claimed most of Tina Turner's early vocal delivery was based on Little Richard, something Little Richard himself reiterated in the foreword of Turner's biography, King of Rhythm. Bob Dylan first performed covers of Little Richard's songs on piano in high school with his rock and roll group, the Golden Chords; in 1959 when leaving school, he wrote in his yearbook under "Ambition": "to join Little Richard". Jimi Hendrix was influenced in appearance (clothing and hairstyle/mustache) and sound by Little Richard. He was quoted in 1966 saying, "I want to do with my guitar what Little Richard does with his voice." Others influenced by Little Richard early on in their lives included Bob Seger and John Fogerty. Michael Jackson admitted that Little Richard had been a huge influence on him prior to Off the Wall. Rock critics noted similarities between Prince's androgynous look, music and vocal style to Little Richard's.
The origins of Cliff Richard's name change from Harry Webb was seen as a partial tribute to his musical hero Little Richard and singer Rick Richards. Several members of The Beatles were heavily influenced by Little Richard, including Paul McCartney and George Harrison. McCartney idolized Little Richard in school and later used Little Richard's recordings as inspiration for his uptempo rockers, such as "I'm Down.". "Long Tall Sally" was the first song McCartney performed in public. McCartney would later state, "I could do Little Richard's voice, which is a wild, hoarse, screaming thing. It's like an out-of-body experience. You have to leave your current sensibilities and go about a foot above your head to sing it." During the Beatles' Rock and Roll Hall of Fame induction, Harrison commented, "thank you all very much, especially the rock 'n' rollers, an' Little Richard there, if it wasn't for (gesturing to Little Richard), it was all his fault, really." Upon hearing Little Richard's "Long Tall Sally" in 1956, John Lennon later commented that he was so impressed that he "couldn't speak". Rolling Stones members Mick Jagger and Keith Richards were also profoundly influenced by Little Richard, with Jagger citing him as his first induction to R&B music and referring to him as "the originator and my first idol". Little Richard was an early vocal influence on Rod Stewart. David Bowie called Little Richard his "inspiration" stating upon listening to "Tutti Frutti" that he "heard God".
After opening for him with his band Bluesology, pianist Reginald Dwight was inspired to be a "rock and roll piano player", later changing his name to Elton John. Farrokh Bulsara performed covers of Little Richard's songs as a teen, before finding fame as Freddie Mercury, frontman for Queen. Little Richard was referred to as Lou Reed's rock and roll hero, deriving inspiration from "the soulful, primal force" of the sound made by Little Richard and his saxophonist on "Long Tall Sally." Reed later stated, "I don't know why and I don't care, but I wanted to go to wherever that sound was and make a life." Patti Smith said, "To me, Little Richard was a person that was able to focus a certain physical, anarchistic, and spiritual energy into a form which we call rock 'n' roll ... I understood it as something that had to do with my future. When I was a little girl, Santa Claus didn't turn me on. Easter Bunny didn't turn me on. God turned me on. Little Richard turned me on." The music of Deep Purple and Motörhead was also influenced by Little Richard, as well as that of AC/DC. The latter's Bon Scott idolized Little Richard and aspired to sing like him, and Angus Young was first inspired to play guitar after listening to Little Richard's music. Later performers such as Mystikal, André "André 3000" Benjamin of Outkast and Bruno Mars were cited by critics as having emulated Little Richard's style in their own works. Mystikal's rap vocal delivery was compared to Little Richard's. André 3000's vocals in Outkast's hit, "Hey Ya!", were compared to an "indie rock Little Richard". Bruno Mars admitted Little Richard was one of his earliest influences. Mars' song, "Runaway Baby" from his album, Doo-Wops & Hooligans was cited by the New York Times as "channeling Little Richard".
Awards and honors
Little Richard received the Cashbox Triple Crown Award for "Long Tall Sally" in 1956. In 1984, he was inducted into the Georgia Music Hall of Fame. He was inducted to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1986, being a member of the initial class of inductees chosen for that honor. In 1990, he received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. He received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Rhythm and Blues Foundation in 1994. In 1993, he received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. In 1997, he was given the American Music Award of Merit. In 2002, along with Chuck Berry and Bo Diddley, Little Richard was honored as one of the first group of BMI icons at the 50th Annual BMI Pop Awards. That same year, he was inducted into the NAACP Image Award Hall of Fame. A year later, he was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame. In 2006, he was inducted into the Apollo Theater Hall of Fame. Four years afterwards, he received a plaque on the theater's Walk of Fame. In 2008, he received a star at Nashville's Music City Walk of Fame. In 2009, he was inducted to the Louisiana Music Hall of Fame. The UK issue of GQ named him its Man of the Year in its Legend category in 2010.
Little Richard appeared in person to receive an honorary degree from his hometown's Mercer University on May 11, 2013. The day before the doctorate of humanities degree was to be bestowed upon him, the mayor of Macon announced that one of Little Richard's childhood homes, an historic site, will be moved to a rejuvenated section of that city's Pleasant Hill district. It will be restored and named the Little Richard Penniman – Pleasant Hill Resource House, a meeting place where local history and artifacts will be displayed as provided by residents. Penniman was inducted into the Blues Hall of Fame on May 7, 2015. On June 6, 2015, Penniman was inducted into the Rhythm and Blues Music Hall of Fame On June 19, 2015, the National Museum of African American Music honored Penniman with the Rhapsody & Rhythm Award for his key role in the formation of popular music genres, influencing singers and musicians across genres from Rock to Hip-Hop, and helping to shatter the color line on the music charts changing American culture forever.
In 2010, Time Magazine listed 'Here's Little Richard' as the Number 2 of the 100 Greatest and Most Influential Album of All Time - the highest rock and roll album on the entire list. Included in numerous Rolling Stone lists, Little Richard's Here's Little Richard was ranked fifty on the magazine's list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. He was ranked eighth on its list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. Rolling Stone listed three of Little Richard's recordings, "The Girl Can't Help It", "Long Tall Sally" and "Tutti Frutti", on their 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. Two of the latter songs and "Good Golly, Miss Molly" were listed on the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's 500 Songs that Shaped Rock and Roll. The Grammy Hall of Fame inducted several of Little Richard's recordings including "Tutti Frutti", "Lucille", "Long Tall Sally" and Here's Little Richard. "Tutti Frutti" topped music magazine Mojo's list of "The 100 Records That Changed the World". The same recording was inducted to the Library of Congress' National Recording Registry in 2010, with the library claiming the "unique vocalizing over the irresistible beat announced a new era in music".
- The Girl Can't Help It (1956), lip-syncing the title number (different version from record), "Ready Teddy" and "She's Got It"
- Don't Knock the Rock (1956), lip-syncing "Long Tall Sally" and "Tutti Frutti"
- Mister Rock and Roll (1957), lip-syncing "Lucille" and "Keep A-Knockin'", on original prints
- Catalina Caper (aka Never Steal Anything Wet, 1967), Richard lip-syncs an original tune, "Scuba Party", still unreleased on record by 2013.
- Little Richard: Live at the Toronto Peace Festival (1969) – released on DVD in 2009 by Shout! Factory
- The London Rock & Roll Show (1972), performing "Lucille", "Rip It Up", "Good Golly Miss Molly", "Tutti Frutti", "I Believe" [a capella, a few lines], and "Jenny Jenny"
- Jimi Hendrix (1973)
- Down and Out in Beverly Hills (1986), co-starred as Orvis Goodnight and performed the production number, "Great Gosh A-Mighty"
- Hail! Hail! Rock 'n' Roll TV Documentary (1987)
- Goddess of Love Made For TV Movie (1988)
- Purple People Eater (1988)
- Scenes from the Class Struggle in Beverly Hills (1989) (uncredited)
- Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventures (1990) (voice)
- Mother Goose Rock 'n' Rhyme (1990)
- Columbo - S10E3 "Columbo and the Murder of a Rock Star" (1991) (Cameo)
- The Naked Truth (1992)
- Sunset Heat (1992)
- James Brown: The Man, The Message, The Music TV Documentary (1992)
- The Pickle (1993)
- Last Action Hero (1993)
- Full House (1994) (Cameo) - Episode: Too Little Richard Too Late
- Baywatch (1995) as Maurice in Episode: The Runaways
- Why Do Fools Fall in Love (1998)
- Mystery Alaska (1999)
- The Trumpet of the Swan (2001) (voice)
- Kirby 2009, p. 30.
- White 2003, p. 21.
- White 2003, p. 3.
- White 2003, pp. 4–5.
- Otfinoski 2010, p. 144.
- White 2003, p. 7.
- White 2003, p. 6.
- White 2003, pp. 16–17.
- White 2003, pp. 7–9.
- White 2003, p. 8.
- White 2003, p. 16.
- White 2003, pp. 15–17.
- Ryan 2004, p. 77.
- Seibert, David. "Ballard-Hudson Senior High School". GeorgiaInfo: an Online Georgia Almanac. Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
- White 2003, p. 18.
- White 2003, p. 17.
- Lauterbach 2011, p. 152.
- White 2003, pp. 21–22.
- White 2003, p. 22: "It was the only song I knew that wasn't a church song".
- White 2003, pp. 22–23.
- White 2003, pp. 24–25.
- White 2003, pp. 25–27.
- Langdon C. Winner. "Little Richard (American musician)". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
- White 2003, p. 25.
- White 2003, p. 28.
- White 2003, p. 29.
- White 2003, pp. 29–30.
- White 2003, p. 34.
- White 2003, pp. 35–36.
- Berry 2009, pp. 106–107.
- White 2003, pp. 36–38.
- White 2003, pp. 263–264.
- White 2003, pp. 38–39.
- Allmusic 2013a.
- Jonny Whiteside, "Charles Connor: The Rock and Roll Original", LA Weekly, May 14, 2014.
- White 2003, pp. 40–41.
- Nite 1984, p. 390.
- White 2003, pp. 44–47.
- White 2003, p. 39.
- White 2003, pp. 55–56.
- Allmusic 2013b.
- White 2003, p. 264.
- Du Noyer 2003, p. 14.
- "Show 6 – Hail, Hail, Rock 'n' Roll: The rock revolution gets underway. [Part 2]: UNT Digital Library". Digital.library.unt.edu. March 16, 1969. Retrieved September 18, 2010.
- White 2003, p. 58.
- White 2003, pp. 74–75.
- White 2003, p. 69.
- Pegg 2002, p. 50: "Although they still had the audiences together in the building, they were there together. And most times, before the end of the night, they would be all mixed together".
- White 2003, pp. 82–83.
- White 2003, p. 70.
- Bayles 1996, p. 133: "He'd be on the stage, he'd be off the stage, he'd be jumping and yelling, screaming, whipping the audience on ...".
- White 2003, p. 66.
- Myers, Marc (October 10, 2010). "Little Richard, The First". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 29, 2011.
- White 2003, p. 241.
- White 2003, pp. 264–265.
- White 2003, pp. 82.
- White 2003, pp. 70–74.
- White 2003, pp. 89–92.
- White 2003, p. 91.
- White 2003, p. 92.
- White 2003, p. 95.
- Miller 1996, p. 248.
- White 2003, pp. 88–89.
- White 2003, pp. 95–97.
- White 2003, pp. 94–95.
- White 2003, p. 97.
- White 2003, p. 267.
- White 2003, p. 103: "He sang gospel the way it should be sung. He had that primitive beat and sound that came so naturally ... the soul in his singing was not faked. It was real".
- White 2003, p. 102: "Richard had such a unique voice and style that no one has ever matched it – even to this day".
- White 2003, p. 119.
- White 2003, p. 106.
- White 2003, p. 112.
- Winn 2008, p. 12.
- Harry 2000, p. 600.
- Hinckley 1995, pp. 16–18.
- White 2003, p. 121.
- White 2003, p. 248.
- McDermott 2009, p. 13.
- Havers, Richard; Evans, Richard (2010). The Golden Age of Rock 'N' Roll. Chartwell Books. p. 126. ISBN 978-0785826255.
- McDermott 2009, p. 12: Hendrix recording with Little Richard; Shadwick 2003, pp. 56–57: "I Don't Know What You Got (But It's Got Me)" recorded in New York City.
- Shadwick 2003, p. 57.
- Shadwick 2003, pp. 56–60.
- "Little Richard". The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. 1986. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
- White 2003, pp. 253–255.
- White 2003, pp. 268–269.
- White 2003, p. 129.
- "Religion and Rock and Roll", Joel Martin Show, WBAB 102.3 FM, NY. Guests: Harry Hepcat and Little Richard, August 16, 1981.
- Gulla 2008, p. 41.
- White 2003, p. 132.
- White 2003, p. 133.
- "Songwriters Hall of Fame – Little Richard Biography". Songwriters Hall of Fame. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- Gulla 2008, pp. 41–42.
- White 2003, p. 168.
- Jet 1973, p. 62.
- Betts, Graham (2004). Complete UK Hit Singles 1952–2004 (1st ed.). London: Collins. p. 457. ISBN 0-00-717931-6.
- White 2003, p. 201.
- Ocala Star-Banner 1984, p. 2.
- Billboard 1986, p. 84.
- "Michael Jackson's mom played role in business – Entertainment – Celebrities". August 5, 2009. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- Rolling Stone 2013.
- White 2003, p. 221.
- White 2003, p. 273.
- Little Richard at the Internet Movie Database
- Chalmers 2010e.
- Mahon 2004, p. 151.
- Rodman 1996, p. 46.
- "The Unlikely Titan of Advertising". CBS News. February 14, 2007.
- "Singers Aid a Charity and The Man Who Runs It". September 10, 2008.
- Patrick Doyle (June 17, 2012). "Little Richard Tears Through Raucous Set in Washington, D.C. | Music News". Rolling Stone. Retrieved March 2, 2013.
- "Little Richard in concert". GoPensacola.com. October 28, 2012. Retrieved April 14, 2013.
- "Photos: Little Richard headlines at Viva Las Vegas Rockabilly Weekend at The Orleans". Las Vegas Sun. April 1, 2013. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
- David Blaustein, "Will 'Get On Up' Make You Stand Up and Cheer?", ABC News, August 1, 2014.
- Mark McCarver, "James Brown’s biopic ‘Get On Up’ takes huge risks with mixed results", Baltimore Post-Examiner, August 1, 2014.
- "These Are The Best Parts Of 'Get On Up'", The Huffington Post, August 1, 2014.
- "Get on Up (2014)", IMDb, August 1, 2014.
- Annette Witheridge, "My mate the sex machine: Mick Jagger on his movie about his 'inspiration' James Brown", Mirror, August 2, 2014.
- "Nashville's African American Music Museum To Honor Little Richard, CeCe Winans : MusicRow – Nashville's Music Industry Publication – News, Songs From Music City". Musicrow.com. 2015-06-17. Retrieved 2015-08-17.
- "Little Richard, Cece Winans, more honored in Nashville". Tennessean.com. 2015-06-19. Retrieved 2015-08-17.
- Chalmers 2010c.
- Chalmers 2010d.
- White 2003, pp. 84–85.
- White 2003, p. 99.
- White 2003, p. 105.
- Christopher Merchant, "Little Richard's Cadillac struck in Murfreesboro crash", The Tennesseean, August 28, 2014.
- White 2003, p. 9.
- Jet 2000, p. 64.
- White 2003, p. 10.
- White 2003, p. 41.
- Jet 1984, p. 60.
- White 2003, p. 70-71.
- Gulla 2008, p. 36.
- Jet 2000, p. 65.
- White 2003, pp. 100–101.
- Moser 2007, p. 137.
- Chalmers 2010b.
- Kirby 2009, p. 8.
- White 2003, p. 187-189.
- Jet 1984, p. 60: "I used to have standards in my life and I lost all of that".
- Jet 1984, p. 60: "I was one of the biggest cocaine addicts, smoking it, snorting it and whatever cocaine could do, I did".
- White 2003, p. 188.
- White 2003, p. 186.
- Sarasota Herald-Tribune 1979, p. 13.
- Gilliland 1969, show 14, track 4.
- White 2003, pp. 203–214.
- "Little Richard Weds 20 Couples". Contactmusic.com. December 19, 2006. Retrieved February 1, 2013.
- Havers 2010, p. 127.
- "Fats Domino Makes Rare Concert Appearance". abclocal.go.com. 2009. Retrieved August 12, 2013.
- "Little Richard Tells Cee Lo About Recent Heart Attack". Rolling Stone. September 30, 2013. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
- White 2003, p. 219.
- Kirby 2009, p. 192.
- "Weekend of Legends | 06.06–06.08 | NYC on JamBase". Jambase.com. Retrieved 2014-05-23.
- Gulla 2008, p. 27-28.
- Campbell 2011, p. 180.
- Campbell 2008, p. 168-169.
- Michael Campbell & James Brody (2007), Rock and Roll: An Introduction, page 115
- Michael Campbell & James Brody (2007), Rock and Roll: An Introduction, page 117
- Brown 2002, p. 10.
- White 2003, p. 228.
- Palmer 2011, p. 139.
- Rome 1988.
- Gulla 2008, p. 27.
- White 2003, p. 227: Elvis Presley – "Your music has inspired me. You are the greatest".
- White 2003, p. 231.
- "My Music Matters: A Celebration of Legends Luncheon", National Museum of African American Music, June 19, 2015
- White 2003, pp. 68–70.
- "The National Museum of African American Music » My Music Matters: A Celebration of Legends Luncheon". NMAAM. 2015-06-19. Retrieved 2015-08-17.
- 100 Greatest Singers: 12 – Little Richard, Rolling Stone.
- Merlis 2002, p. foreword.
- "Midstate residents who knew James Brown hope new movie gets it right | The Telegraph". Macon.com. 2014-07-26. Retrieved 2015-08-17.
- Gulla 2008, p. 398.
- Guralnick 1999, pp. 164–166.
- Collis 2003, p. foreword.
- Shelton 2003, p. 39.
- Murray 1989, p. 39.
- "Bob Seger: Influences". Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- "John Fogerty: The Extended Interview". Americansongwriter.com. May 28, 2013. Retrieved August 12, 2013.
- Herron, Martin (June 26, 2009). "'Michael Jackson saved my life'". Scarborough Evening News. Retrieved August 10, 2009.
- "Floridian: Prince and the evolution". Sptimes.com. Retrieved March 26, 2012.
- Hudak, Joseph. "Little Richard - 100 Greatest Singers". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2015-08-17.
- White 2003, pp. 125–126.
- Ewbank 2010, p. 55.
- Mulhern 1990, p. 33.
- Barry Miles, Paul McCartney: Many Years From Now, 1998
- Harry 2002, p. 509.
- "Beatles accept award Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inductions 1988". Retrieved December 31, 2012.
- White 2003, p. 227.
- Ewbank 2005, p. 7: "He also had an impact on the young Rod Stewart: 'I remember trying to sound like Little Richard'".
- White 2003, p. 228: "After hearing Little Richard on record, I bought a saxophone and came into the music business. Little Richard was my inspiration".
- Doggett 2007.
- Blackwell 2004, p. 65: "when I saw Little Richard standing on top of the piano, all the stage lights, sequins and energy, I decided then and there that I wanted to be a rock and roll piano player".
- Hodkinson 2004, p. 61.
- Male, Andrew (November 26, 2013). "Little Richard: Lou Reed's Rock'n'roll Hero". Mojo. Retrieved February 10, 2014.
- "The New Inquiry". Retrieved October 7, 2013.
- White 2003, p. 230: Jon Lord – "There would have been no Deep Purple if there had been no Little Richard".
- "Motorhead's Lemmy Says Little Richard Should Be Golden God". YouTube. Retrieved March 26, 2012.
- "AC/DC Guitarist Angus Young Remembers Bon Scott – "When I Think Back in Hindsight, He Was A Guy That I Always Knew Was Full of Life"". Bravewords.com. Retrieved September 16, 2012.
- "Angus Young". Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- Jake 2013, p. 37.
- Sanneh, Kelefa (December 3, 2000). "MUSIC; Rappers Who Definitely Know How to Rock". The New York Times.
- Caramanica, Jon (September 24, 2003). "Speakerboxxx/The Love Below". Rolling Stone. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
- "Bruno Mars: 99 reasons why he's the biggest pop star in the world | National Post". News.nationalpost.com. Retrieved 2015-08-17.
- "Critic's Notebook: Bruno Mars in Ascension". New York Times. October 6, 2010. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
- "Little Richard: Awards". March 4, 2013.
- Orlando Sentinel 1994.
- "Lifetime Awards". GRAMMY.com. August 5, 2013. Retrieved August 5, 2013.
- "Music Awards Show To Fete Little Richard – Chicago Tribune". Chicago Tribune. January 3, 1997.
- "BMI ICON Awards Honor Three of Rock & Roll's Founding Fathers". bmi.com. June 30, 2002. Retrieved August 12, 2013.
- "Hall of Fame Inductee: Little Richard". Variety.com. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
- "Apollo's new legends inducted". Caribbeanlifenews.com. Caribbean Life. June 13, 2012. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
- "Quincy Jones, Patty LaBelle, Gladys Knight and More Honored as New York's Apollo Theater Unveils Walk of Fame". May 11, 2010. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
- "Inductee Information to the Music City Walk of Fame". Visitmusiccity.com. Retrieved September 18, 2010.
- "LITTLE RICHARD 2009". Louisiana Music Hall of Fame. Retrieved September 18, 2010.
- Chalmers 2010a.
- "Little Richard Bestowed Honorary Degree at Mercer University". WMAZ.com. May 11, 2013. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
- "Little Richard's boyhood home to be moved". Associated Press. May 11, 2013. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
- "State to buy Little Richard's house". The Telegraph. May 10, 2013. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
- "Good golly: DOT will relocate Little Richard's boyhood home". 11alive.com. May 13, 2013. Retrieved May 28, 2013.
- "Eric Clapton, Little Richard and Tommy Brown named 2015 Blues Hall of Fame Inductees". Classicalite. February 24, 2015. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
- "Timeline Photos - Rhythm & Blues Music Hall of Fame Museum". Facebook. Retrieved 2015-08-17.
- Rolling Stone 2003.
- Rolling Stone 2004a.
- Rolling Stone 2004b.
- "Experience The Music: One Hit Wonders and The Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll". The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. 2007. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "GRAMMY Hall of Fame". Grammy.org. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
- "Rocklist.net...Mojo Lists". Retrieved March 4, 2012.
- National Recording Registry 2010.
- "Grady Gaines". Allmusic. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
- "Little Richard". Allmusic. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
- Bayles, Martha (May 15, 1996). Hole in Our Soul: The Loss of Beauty and Meaning in American Popular Music. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-03959-6.
- Berry, Jason (September 30, 2009). Up from the Cradle of Jazz: New Orleans Music since World War II. University of Louisiana at Lafayette Press. ISBN 978-1-887366-87-8.
- Blackwell, Roger (2004). Brands That Rock: What Business Leaders Can Learn from the World of Rock and Roll (Google eBook). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-45517-2.
- Bowman, Rob (1997). Soulsville U.S.A.: The Story of Stax Records. Schirmer Trade. ISBN 978-0-8256-7284-2. OCLC 36824884.
- Brown, Geoff (2002). Otis Redding: Try a Little Tenderness. Canongate U.S. ISBN 978-1-84195-316-8.
- Campbell, Michael (2008). Popular Music in America: The Beat Goes On (First Edition). Cengage Learning. ISBN 0-495-50530-7.
- Campbell, Michael (2011). Popular Music in America: The Beat Goes On. Cengage Learning. ISBN 0-8400-2976-4.
- Chalmers, Robert (November 1, 2010). "GQ Legend: Little Richard". Retrieved March 6, 2013.
- Chalmers, Robert (November 1, 2010). "GQ Legend: Little Richard". Retrieved March 6, 2013.
- Chalmers, Robert (November 1, 2010). "GQ Legend: Little Richard". Retrieved March 6, 2013.
- Chalmers, Robert (November 1, 2010). "GQ Legend: Little Richard". Retrieved March 6, 2013.
- Chalmers, Robert (November 1, 2010). "GQ Legend: Little Richard". Retrieved March 6, 2013.
- Collier, Aldore (November 26, 1984). "Little Richard Tells Us How He Got What He Wanted But Lost What He Had". Jet.
- Collis, John (2003). Ike Turner: King of Rhythm. Do-Not. ISBN 978-1-904316-24-4.
- Doggett, Peter (January 2007). "Teenage Wildlife". Mojo Classic.
- Du Noyer, Paul (2003). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Music (1st ed.). Fulham, London: Flame Tree Publishing. ISBN 1-904041-96-5.
- Ewbank, Tim (April 13, 2010). Cliff: An Intimate Portrait. London: Random House. ISBN 0-7535-3610-2.
- Ewbank, Tim (2005). Rod Stewart: The New Biography. Citadel Press. ISBN 0-8065-2644-0.
- Gilliland, John (1969). "Big Rock Candy Mountain: Rock 'n' roll in the late fifties" (audio). Pop Chronicles. Digital.library.unt.edu.
- Guralnick, Peter (1999). Sweet Soul Music: Rhythm and Blues and the Southern Dream of Freedom. Back Bay Books. ISBN 978-0-316-33273-6. OCLC 41950519.
- Gulla, Bob (2008). Icons of R&B and Soul: An Encyclopedia of the Artists Who Revolutionized Rhythm. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-34044-4.
- Havers, Richard (April 1, 2010). The Golden Age of Rock 'n' Roll. Book Sales Inc. ISBN 0-7858-2625-4.
- Harry, Bill (2000). The Beatles Encyclopedia: Revised and Updated. London: Virgin. ISBN 978-0-7535-0481-9.
- Harry, Bill (2002). The Paul McCartney Encyclopedia. Virgin. ISBN 978-0-7535-0716-2.
- Henderson, David (July 1, 2008). 'Scuse Me While I Kiss the Sky: Jimi Hendrix: Voodoo Child. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 1-4165-3434-2.
- Hodkinson, Mark (2004). Queen: The Early Years. London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 1-84449-012-2.
- Hinckley, David (1995). The Rolling Stones: Black & White Blues. Turner Publishing Inc. ISBN 1-57036-150-9.
- "Inside Track". Billboard.
- Jake, Brown (July 1, 2013). Ac/Dc in the Studio. John Blake Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-1-78219-677-8.
- Kirby, David (2009). Little Richard: The Birth of Rock 'n' Roll. Continuum. ISBN 978-0-8264-2965-0.
- Lauterbach, Preston (July 18, 2011). The Chitlin' Circuit: And the Road to Rock 'n' Roll. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-08225-3.
- MacDonald, Ian (2005). Revolution in the Head: The Beatles' Records and the Sixties (3rd (2007) ed.). Chicago Review Press. ISBN 978-1-55652-733-3.
- Mahon, Maurice (2004). Right to Rock: The Black Rock Coalition and the Cultural Politics of Race. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3317-1.
- McDermott, John (2009). Ultimate Hendrix: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Live Concerts and Sessions. BackBeat Books. ISBN 978-0-87930-938-1.
- Merlis, Bob (2002). Heart and Soul – A Celebration of Black Music Style in America: 1930–1975. Billboard Books. ISBN 0-8230-8314-4.
- Miller, Zell (1996). They Heard Georgia Singing – Little Richard (Richard Penniman). Mercer University Press. ISBN 0-86554-504-9.
- Moser, Margaret (April 1, 2007). Rock Stars Do The Dumbest Things. Macmillan. ISBN 1-4299-7838-4.
- Murray, Charles (1989). Crosstown Traffic: Jimi Hendrix and the Rock 'n' Roll Revolution (First US ed.). St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-06324-5.
- "The Full National Recording Registry: National Recording Preservation Board (Library of Congress)". National Recording Preservation Board. Retrieved December 29, 2012.
- "New York Beat". July 5, 1973.
- Nite, Norm N. (1984). Rock on:The solid gold years – Volume 1 of Rock on: The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Rock N' Roll, Rock on: The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Rock N' Roll. Harper & Row. ISBN 978-0-06-181642-0.
- "Little Richard Files Suit To Claim Lost Royalties". Ocala Star-Banner. August 17, 1984. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
- "R&B Foundation Honors Little Richard, Others". Orlando Sentinel. March 4, 1994. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- Otfinoski, Steven (2010). African Americans in the Performing Arts. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8160-7838-7.
- Palmer, Robert (2011). Blues & Chaos: The Music Writing of Robert Palmer. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4165-9974-6.
- Pegg, Bruce (October 1, 2002). Brown Eyed Handsome Man: The Life and Hard Times of Chuck Berry: An Unauthorized Biography. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-93748-1.
- Rodman, Gilbert (1996). Elvis after Elvis: the posthumous career of a living legend. ISBN 978-0-415-11002-0.
- "500 Greatest Albums of All Time: Here's Little Richard". Rolling Stone. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "The Greatest Artists of All Time: Little Richard". Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- "500 Greatest Songs of All Time – Rolling Stone". December 17, 2012.
- "Little Richard Biography". Rolling Stone. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
- Ryan, Marc (February 1, 2004). Trumpet Records: Diamonds on Farish Street. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 1-61703-525-4.
- "Little Richard Forsakes Rock 'n' Roll For Religion". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. August 17, 1979. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
- Shadwick, Keith (2003). Jimi Hendrix: Musician. BackBeat Books. ISBN 978-0-87930-764-6.
- Shelton, Robert (2003). No Direction Home: The Life and Music of Bob Dylan. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81287-8.
- "Little Richard – Great Gosh A'mighty". YouTube. Retrieved August 10, 2009.
- Waldron, Clarence (February 2000). "Life Story of Rock 'n' Roll Legend Little Richard Told in NBC Movie". Jet.
- Weidman, Rich (October 1, 2011). The Doors FAQ: All That's Left to Know about the Kings of Acid Rock. Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-1-61713-110-3.
- White, Charles (2003). The Life and Times of Little Richard: The Authorized Press. Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-306-80552-9.
- Winn, John (December 9, 2008). Way Beyond Compare: The Beatles' Recorded Legacy, Volume One, 1957–1965. Random House Digital, Inc. ISBN 978-0-307-45157-6.
- Little Richard at AllMusic
- Little Richard at the Internet Movie Database
- "Little Richard". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
- Little Richard interviewed on the Pop Chronicles (1969)
- Little Richard Booking Agency