List of sovereign states by date of formation

Below is a list of sovereign states and with the dates of their formation (date of their independence or of their constitution), sorted by continent. This list includes the 195 states which currently are undisputedly sovereign; it does not include former sovereign states or states with limited recognition.[1] For proposed states or various indigenous nations which consider themselves still under occupation, see list of active autonomist and secessionist movements. Micronations are not included in this list.

Nation-building is a long evolutionary process, and in most cases the date of a country's "formation" cannot be objectively determined; e.g., the fact that England and France were sovereign kingdoms on equal footing in the medieval period does not prejudice the fact that England is not now a sovereign state (having passed sovereignty to the UK in 1707), while France is a Republic founded in 1792 (technically, France currently refers to the French Fifth Republic, formed in 1958).

An unambiguous measure is the date of national constitutions; but as constitutions are an entirely modern concept, all formation dates by that criterion are modern or early modern (the oldest constitution being that of San Marino, dating to 1600).

Independence dates for widely recognised states earlier than 1919, should be treated with caution, since prior to the founding of the League of Nations, there was no international body to recognise nationhood, and independence had no meaning beyond mutual recognition of de facto sovereigns (the role of the League of Nations was effectively taken over by the United Nations after the Second World War). See also: disputed territories.

Many countries have some remote (or fantastically remote) symbolic foundation date as part of their national mythology, sometimes artificially inflating a country's "age" for reasons of nationalism, sometimes merely gesturing at a long and gradual process of the formation of an ethnic identity. Such dates reflect not the formation of a state (an independent political entity), but of a nation (an ethnic or cultural grouping), terms that are often conflated in the context of nation states.

The following list contains the formation dates of countries with a short description of those events. For a more detailed description of a country's formation and history please see the main article for each country.

List

Africa

Country Date Birth of current form of government Date Acquisition of sovereignty Date Most recent significant territorial modification
 Algeria 1963 Adoption of the present constitution. July 3, 1962 French recognition of Algerian referendum on independence held two days earlier July 5, 1962 Algeria gains sovereignty over the entire Algerian territory upon independence from France.
 Angola 1975   November 11, 1975 Independence from Portugal    
 Benin     August 1, 1960 Independence from France January 15, 1894 Borders of French Protectorate of Dahomey set at conclusion of Second Franco-Dahomean War
 Botswana     March 31, 1885 Establishment of the Bechuanaland Protectorate by the United Kingdom 1894 Extended north into Ngamiland
September 30, 1966 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Burkina Faso     December 11, 1958 Self-government achieved and republic within Franco-African Community September 4, 1947 Restoration of colonial boundaries used from 1919–1932
August 5, 1960 Independence from France
 Burundi November 28, 1966 Monarchy replaced by republic July 1, 1962 Independence from Belgium    
 Cabo Verde     July 5, 1975 Independence from Portugal    
 Cameroon     January 1, 1960 Independence from France October 1, 1961 Merger of part of British Cameroons with Cameroon
 Central African Republic September 21, 1979 Monarchy replaced by republic August 13, 1960 Independence from France    
 Chad     August 11, 1960 Independence from France February 3, 1997 Aouzou Strip awarded to Chad
 Comoros     July 6, 1975 Independence from France declared    
 Congo, Democratic Republic of the June 30, 1960   April 22, 1884 Congo Free State recognized as an independent state    
June 30, 1960 Independence from Belgium
 Congo, Republic of the     August 15, 1960 Independence from France    
 Ivory Coast     December 4, 1958 Autonomous republic within French Community    
August 7, 1960 Independence from France
 Djibouti     June 27, 1977 Independence from France    
 Equatorial Guinea     October 12, 1968 Independence from Spain    
 Eritrea     May 24, 1993 Independence from Ethiopia declared April 1, 2002 Badme ruled to be Eritrean by the Eritrea–Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC after the Eritrean–Ethiopian War). Contested by Ethiopia
 Ethiopia March 21, 1975 Monarchy abolished and replaced by republic 980 BC Formation of the state of D'mt April 1, 2002 Badme ruled to be Eritrean by the Eritrea–Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC after the Eritrean–Ethiopian War). Contested by Ethiopia
 Gabon     August 17, 1960 Independence from France    
 Gambia     February 18, 1965 Independence from the United Kingdom    
 Ghana     March 6, 1957 Independence from the United Kingdom December 13, 1956 Union of British Togoland with Gold Coast
 Guinea     October 2, 1958 Independence from France    
 Guinea-Bissau     September 24, 1973 Independence from Portugal declared    
September 10, 1974 Independence from Portugal recognized
 Kenya     December 12, 1963 Independence from the United Kingdom    
 Lesotho     October 4, 1966 Independence from the United Kingdom March 12, 1868 Area that is now present-day Lesotho placed under British rule
 Liberia     July 26, 1847 Independence from the United States January 6, 1986 Current constitution came into effect
 Libya August 4, 2014 Council of Deputies takes power.[2] December 24, 1951 Independence from UN Trusteeship (British and French administration after Italian governance ends in 1947) February 13, 1984 Aouzou Strip awarded to Chad.
 Madagascar     October 14, 1958 The Malagasy Republic was created as autonomous state within French Community    
June 26, 1960 France recognizes Madagascar's independence
 Malawi     July 6, 1964 Independence from the United Kingdom    
 Mali     November 25, 1958 French Sudan gains autonomy August 20, 1960 Senegal secedes from Mali Federation
September 22, 1960 Independence from France
 Mauritania     November 28, 1960 Independence from France August 11, 1979 Mauritania withdraws from Tiris al-Gharbiyya (part of Western Sahara)
 Mauritius     March 12, 1968 Independence from the United Kingdom 1965 Separation of Chagos Archipelago
 Morocco February 5, 789 Enthronement of Idris I in Volubilis November 18, 1955 Protectorate abolished January 4, 1969 Internationally recognized :
Return of Ifni to Morocco
1666 Enthronement of Al-Rashid ibn Sharif in Fez April 7, 1956 Return of Spanish Morocco to Morocco April 1987 Disputed, de facto under Moroccan control :
Completion of the Moroccan Wall in Western Sahara
 Mozambique     June 25, 1975 Independence from Portugal    
 Namibia     March 21, 1990 Independence from South African rule March 1, 1997 Walvis Bay integrated into Namibia
 Niger     December 4, 1958 Autonomy within French Community    
August 3, 1960 Independence from France
 Nigeria     October 1, 1960 Independence from the United Kingdom January 15, 1970 Biafra re-integrated into Nigeria
June 1, 1961 Northern Cameroons integrated in Nigeria
 Rwanda     July 1, 1962 Independence from Belgium    
 São Tomé and Príncipe     July 12, 1975 Independence from Portugal    
 Senegal     August 20, 1960 Independence from France    
 Seychelles     June 29, 1976 Independence from the United Kingdom    
 Sierra Leone     April 27, 1961 Independence from the United Kingdom    
 Somalia August 20, 2012 Federal Government of Somalia established.[3] July 1, 1960 Union of Trust Territory of Somalia (former Italian Somaliland) and State of Somaliland (formerly British Somaliland) May 18, 1991 (disputed) Somaliland declares independence, but is not recognized by any UN state.
 South Africa May 31, 1961 Republic declared December 11, 1931 Statute of Westminster, which establishes a status of legislative equality between the self-governing dominion of the Union of South Africa and the UK April 27, 1997 Reincorporation of the nominally independent bantustans into post-apartheid South Africa
May 31, 1910 Creation of the autonomous Union of South Africa from the previously separate colonies of the Cape, Natal, Transvaal and Orange River
 South Sudan July 9, 2011 South Sudanese independence referendum, 2011 July 9, 2011 Separation of Southern Sudan from Sudan
 Sudan April 15, 2010 First democratic election since the Second Sudanese Civil War January 1, 1956 Independence from Egyptian and British joint rule July 9, 2011 South Sudan secedes from Sudan
 Swaziland February 8, 2006 Constitution of Swaziland September 6, 1968 Independence from the United Kingdom    
 Tanzania July 1, 1991 Amendment to Constitution of Tanzania ends status as one-party state December 9, 1961 Independence of Tanganyika from the United Kingdom April 26, 1964 Merger of Zanzibar with Tanganyika to form Tanzania
 Togo     August 30, 1958 Autonomy within French Union    
April 27, 1960 Independence from France
 Tunisia January 26, 2014 Constitution of Tunisia following the Tunisian Revolution March 20, 1956 Independence from France    
 Uganda     March 1, 1962 Self-government granted    
October 9, 1962 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Zambia     October 24, 1964 Independence from the United Kingdom    
 Zimbabwe December 22, 1987 Robert Mugabe revises the Constitution of Zimbabwe to create an executive presidency.[4] November 11, 1965 Unilateral declaration of independence by Southern Rhodesia 1901 BSAC separates North-Eastern Rhodesia from Southern Rhodesia
April 18, 1980 Recognized independence from the United Kingdom as Zimbabwe

The Americas

Country Date Birth of current form of government Date Date of acquisition of sovereignty Date Date of most recent significant territorial modification
 Antigua and Barbuda     November 1, 1981 Independence from the United Kingdom    
 Argentina May 1, 1853 The current Constitution of Argentina enters in force May 25, 1810 May Revolution installs first local government October 18, 1884 Conquest of the Desert
July 9, 1816 Argentine Declaration of Independence from Spain.
 Bahamas     January 7, 1964 Internal self-governance granted    
July 10, 1973 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Barbados     November 30, 1966 Independence from the United Kingdom    
 Belize     September 21, 1981 Independence from the United Kingdom 1859 Treaty establishes border between British Honduras and Guatemala
January 1, 1964 Self-governing colony
 Bolivia May 25, 1809   August 6, 1825 Bolivian War of Independence from Spain. November 11, 1903 Signing of the Treaty of Petrópolis with Brazil whereby Bolivia gained lands in Mato Grosso in exchange for the territory of Acre
 Brazil November 15, 1889 Proclamation of the Republic September 7, 1822 Independence from Portugal declared November 11, 1903 Signing of the Treaty of Petrópolis with Bolivia whereby Brazil was given the territory of Acre in exchange for lands in Mato Grosso
August 29, 1825 Independence recognized by Portugal
 Canada July 1, 1867 Dominion of Canada established as a federation July 1, 1867 Granted nominal independence (Dominion status) March 31, 1949 Dominion of Newfoundland joins as the province of Newfoundland
December 11, 1931 Statute of Westminster
 Chile August 17, 1989 Amendment to the Constitution of Chile ends the military dictatorship February 12, 1818 Independence declared from Spain July 3, 1929 Chile awarded Arica district in Treaty of Lima
April 25, 1844 Independence recognized by Spain
 Costa Rica November 7, 1949 Constitution of Costa Rica September 15, 1821 Costa Rica declared independence from Spain July 25, 1824 Partido de Nicoya
November 15, 1838 Independence from Federal Republic of Central America
 Cuba January 1, 1959 Cuban Revolution October 10, 1898 Several wars were declared against Spain from 1868 to 1898, ending with the military support of USA to the Cuban Revolution.    
December 10, 1898 Spain loses the war against United States and the military occupation of Cuba by USA begins.
May 20, 1902 United States military occupation ends[5]
 Dominica November 3, 1978 Constitution of Dominica February 27, 1967 Became an associated state of the United Kingdom    
November 3, 1978 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Dominican Republic November 28, 1966 Civilian constitution of the Dominican Republic following the Dominican Civil War.[6] March 3, 1865 Independence from Spain following the Dominican Restoration War February 27, 1844 The Dominican Republic gains independence from Haiti
May 9, 1936 Haiti and the Dominican Republic sign a treaty setting a definitive border.
 Ecuador August 10, 1809   May 24, 1822 Independence from Spain of Gran Colombia, of which Ecuador is a part February 26, 1942 Rio Protocol ends border dispute with Peru
May 13, 1830 Dissolution of Gran Colombia
 El Salvador     September 15, 1821 El Salvador becomes province in First Mexican Empire, which declared independence from Spain    
July 1, 1823 El Salvador becomes a state of Federal Republic of Central America
February 18, 1841 Dissolution of the Federal Republic of Central America, El Salvador becomes independent
 Grenada     February 27, 1967 Associated state of the United Kingdom    
February 7, 1974 Full independence from the United Kingdom
 Guatemala     September 15, 1821 Guatemala becomes state in Federal Republic of Central America, which declared independence from Spain    
April 17, 1839 Independence from Federal Republic of Central America declared
 Guyana     May 26, 1966 Independence from the United Kingdom    
 Haiti March 1987 Constitution of 1987 (superseded) January 1, 1804 The French colony Saint-Domingue gains independence as Haiti February 27, 1844 The Dominican Republic gains independence from Haiti
May 9, 1936 Haiti and the Dominican Republic sign a treaty setting a definitive border.
 Honduras     September 15, 1821 Honduras becomes state in Federal Republic of Central America, which declared independence from Spain September 1, 1972 Swan Islands returned to Honduras from United States occupation
October 26, 1838 Independence from Federal Republic of Central America
 Jamaica     August 6, 1962 Independence from the United Kingdom    
 Mexico 1917 Constitution of Mexico September 16, 1810 Independence from Spain declared December 30, 1853 Gadsden Purchase
August 24, 1821 Independence recognized by Spain in Treaty of Córdoba
 Nicaragua     September 15, 1821 Nicaragua becomes state in Federal Republic of Central America, which declared independence from Spain    
November 5, 1838 Independence from Federal Republic of Central America
 Panama     November 3, 1903 Independence from Colombia December 31, 1999 Sovereignty of Panama Canal Zone transferred to Panama from the United States
 Paraguay June 1992 Democratic Constitution of Paraguay May 14, 1811 Independence from Spain declared 1938 Paraguay awarded a large portion of the Gran Chaco as a result of the Chaco War
 Peru     July 28, 1821 Independence from Spain declared February 26, 1942 Rio Protocol ends border dispute with Ecuador
1879 Independence from Spain recognized
 Saint Kitts and Nevis     February 27, 1967 Associated state of the United Kingdom December 19, 1980 Anguilla separated from Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla
September 19, 1983 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Saint Lucia     February 27, 1967 Associated statehood    
February 22, 1979 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines     October 27, 1969 Associated statehood    
October 27, 1979 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Suriname     December 15, 1954 Self-government granted    
November 25, 1975 Independence from Netherlands
 Trinidad and Tobago     August 31, 1962 Independence from the United Kingdom    
 United States September 17, 1787 Ratification of the United States Constitution replaced the previous Articles of Confederation creating a new system of government July 4, 1776 Independence from Great Britain declared August 21, 1959 United States territory:
Territory of Hawaii joins as the state of Hawaii
September 3, 1783 Independence from Great Britain recognized September 7, 1981 Insular area:
The United States cedes Serrana Bank and Roncador Bank to the Republic of Colombia as a result of a treaty signed in 1972
 Uruguay December 8, 1996 Uruguayan constitutional referendum, 1996 August 25, 1825 Independence from Empire of Brazil declared, joined in union with United Provinces of the River Plate (current Argentina).    
August 27, 1828 Treaty of Montevideo signed, recognizing Uruguay's independence by Brazil
 Venezuela     April 19, 1810[7] Independence from Spain declared    
January 13, 1830 Dissolution of Gran Colombia

Asia

Country Date Birth of current form of government Date Date of acquisition of sovereignty Date Date of most recent significant territorial modification
 Afghanistan January 26, 2004 Constitution of Afghanistan establishes Islamic Republic    
 Bahrain     August 15, 1971 End of treaties with the United Kingdom July 1, 1521 Portuguese conquest of current territory
 Bangladesh November 4, 1972 De jure: Constitution of Bangladesh March 26, 1971 Independence from Pakistan declared July 31, 2015 India and Bangladesh exchange exclaves
February 27, 1991 De facto: First general election since restoration of parliamentary democracy.
 Bhutan March 24, 2008 First elections to the National Assembly 1885 Ugyen Wangchuck ends period of civil war and unites Bhutan November 11, 1865 Treaty of Sinchula
 Brunei September 29, 1959 De jure: Constitution of Brunei January 1, 1984 Brunei regains its independence after an agreement with the British on 4 January 1979 August 18, 1841 Kingdom of Sarawak founded
December 12, 1962 De facto: Martial law declared during the Brunei Revolt, suspending democratic elections indefinitely.
 Cambodia September 21, 1993 Constitution of Cambodia September 9, 1953 France grants Cambodia independence    
September 26, 1989 Becomes free from Vietnamese occupation; it gets back its name instead of the People's Republic of Kampuchea
 China October 1, 1949 Establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC) as the Chinese Civil War nears its end 1800 BC Beginning of the Shang dynasty October 6, 2011 Tajikistan ceded to China 1158 square kilometers
 India January 26, 1950 De jure: Constitution of India August 15, 1947 Independence from British Empire July 31, 2015 India and Bangladesh exchange exclaves
March 21, 1977 De facto: The end of The Emergency restores democratic elections
 Iran February 11, 1979 Iranian Revolution ends monarchism and establishes an Islamic Republic 3200 BC 3200–2700 BCE: Part of Proto-Elamite February 22, 1828 Signing of the Treaty of Turkmenchay, whereby the territories that nowadays constitute Armenia, Azerbaijan (the remaining part which hadn't been lost by the Treaty of Gulistan (1813) and Igdir are ceded to Russia
 Iraq October 15, 2005 Constitution of Iraq following the Iraq War[8] October 3, 1932 Kingdom of Iraq February 28, 1991 Kuwait liberated.[8]
 Israel May 14, 1948 Democratic state of Israel. Reading of the Declaration of Independence of Israel May 14, 1948 Independence from the British Mandate of Palestine September 12, 2005 Completion of Israel's unilateral disengagement from the Gaza Strip
 Japan May 3, 1947 Coming into force of the current Constitution of Japan, whereby the emperor was deprived of his powers and a liberal democracy was established 660 BC (Traditional) Victory of Emperor Jimmu, and the capital established in Yamato. May 15, 1972 Return of the Ryukyu Islands to Japan and abolition of the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands
 Jordan January 1, 1952 Constitution of Jordan May 25, 1946 End of the British Mandate for Palestine October 26, 1997 Signing of the Israel–Jordan Treaty of Peace, whereby most of the disputed 400 square-kilometer area in the Arabah was handed back to Jordan
June 12, 2011 The Cabinet of Jordan is made an elected body[9]
 North Korea September 9, 1948 Kim Il-sung declared Premier of North Korea, establishing the still-ruling Kim dynasty. September 9, 1948 Declaration of creation of North Korea July 27, 1953 Cease-fire in the Korean War creates the southern border along the Military Demarcation Line
December 25, 1972 Constitution of North Korea replaces Communism with Juche as North Korea's governing philosophy.[10]
 South Korea August 15, 1948 First Republic of Korea established 676 Korean monarch establishes kingdom over north Korean peninsula and southern Manchuria (Silla) July 27, 1953 Cease-fire in the Korean War creates the northern border along the Military Demarcation Line
October 29, 1987 Current Sixth Republic of South Korea founded, ending military rule
 Kuwait November 11, 1962 Constitution of Kuwait February 28, 1991 End of Iraqi occupation (Gulf War) December 18, 1969 Formal division of Saudi-Kuwaiti neutral zone
 Kyrgyzstan June 10, 2010 Constitution of Kyrgyzstan introduces parliamentary system. August 31, 1991 Independence from the Soviet Union[11] December 5, 1936 Establishment of the Kirghiz SSR
 Laos December 2, 1975 Lao PDR formed October 22, 1953 Independence from France    
 Lebanon May 23, 1926 Lebanese Republic formed November 26, 1941 Independence from France declared September 1, 1920 France establishes State of Greater Lebanon with current boundaries
November 22, 1943 Independence from France recognized
 Malaysia September 16, 1963 Formation of Malaysia[12][13] August 31, 1957 Malayan Independence[14] from the United Kingdom was declared in Dataran Merdeka (Independence Square) August 9, 1965 Singapore expelled from the Federation of Malaysia[15][16][17]
September 16, 1963 Malaysia was formed by the federation of North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore with the existing States of the Federation of Malaya.[12][18]
 Maldives November 11, 1968 Declaration of Republic July 26, 1965 Independence from the United Kingdom    
 Mongolia February 12, 1992 Constitution of Mongolia declares the country a parliamentary democracy. 209 BC Xiongnu Empire formed
December 29, 1911 Proclamation of Mongolian independence from Manchu's Qing Dynasty
 Myanmar March 30, 2011 The military junta is replaced by an elected government January 4, 1948 Myanmar (Burma) declares independence from the British Empire 1956 Signing of border treaty with the People's Republic of China
   Nepal May 28, 2008 Formation of Republic December 21, 1768 Nepali unification December 2, 1815 Sugauli Treaty ends the Gurkha War
 Oman June 10, 1749 Beginning of the Al Said dynasty, current absolute monarchical line of Oman. January 26, 1650 Expulsion of the Portuguese December 8, 1958 Gwadar sold to Pakistan
1996 Basic Law of Oman
 Pakistan August 14, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan August 14, 1947 Independence from British India in the Partition December 16, 1971 De facto: Province of East Pakistan dissolved following the surrender of the Pakistani Army at the end of the Bangladesh Liberation War
February 22, 1974 De jure: Recognition by Pakistan of Bangladesh as an independent country, whereby Pakistan definitely surrenders claims over the former province of East Pakistan
 Philippines[lower-alpha 1] November 30, 1935 The Commonwealth of the Philippines was established through provisions of the Tydings–McDuffie Act. June 12, 1898 The evolving revolutionary movement in the Philippines declares itself independent from the Spanish Empire.[19][20][21] 1930[22][24] Seven of the Turtle Islands were returned by the United Kingdom to the United States as the successor of the Sultanate of Sulu, becoming part of the Philippine Archipelago. The remaining three islands became the Turtle Islands National Park (Malaysia).
July 4, 1946 The United States recognises independence under the provisions of the Treaty of Manila (1946). The 1935 Constitution remained in effect until 1973, when the Marcos regime promulgated a new a newer one, in turn replaced by the present 1987 Constitution.
 Qatar     September 3, 1971 Independence from the United Kingdom    
 Saudi Arabia September 23, 1932 Regions of Al-Hasa, Qatif, Nejd and Hejaz unified to become Saudi Arabia May 20, 1927 Kingdom of Nejd and Hejaz recognized as independent in Treaty of Jeddah (1927) June 12, 2000 Border with Yemen finalized by Treaty of Jeddah (2000)
 Singapore August 9, 1965[15] Singapore ceased to be a state of Malaysia June 3, 1959 Self-government under the United Kingdom August 9, 1965 Establishment of Singapore as an independent sovereign state[17]
August 9, 1965 separate from and independent of Malaysia[15][16]
 Sri Lanka May 22, 1972 Constitution of Sri Lanka February 4, 1948 Independence from United Kingdom 1817 De jure: The Kandyan Kingdom is annexed by British Ceylon
May 18, 2009 De facto: The Sri Lankan government regains control of the whole island following the end of the Sri Lankan Civil War.
 Syria February 27, 2012 Constitution of Syria[25] September 28, 1961 End of the United Arab Republic November 8, 1941 Lebanon declares independence from the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon[25]
 Taiwan (Republic of China) October 10, 1911 After the Xinhai Revolution the Republic of China formally replaced the Qing Dynasty December 7, 1949[26] Republic of China government moved to Taiwan after the Chinese Civil War[27] February 25, 1955 Withdrawal of the Republic of China from the Dachen Archipelago
 Tajikistan     September 9, 1991 Independence from the Soviet Union[11] December 5, 1929 Establishment of the Tajik SSR
 Thailand May 22, 2014 2014 interim constitution of Thailand following 2014 Thai coup d'état November 6, 1767 Expulsion of Burmese and reunification of Thailand March 10, 1909 Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909
 Timor-Leste May 20, 2002 Constitution of East Timor November 28, 1975 East Timor declares its independence but was suppressed by the Indonesian invasion 1914 The borders of Portuguese Timor are agreed.[28]
May 20, 2002 Independence was recognized by the international community following the UN-sponsored act of self-determination of 1999
 Turkmenistan September 28, 2008 Constitution of Turkmenistan October 27, 1991 Independence from the Soviet Union[11] August 7, 1921 Establishment of the Turkmen SSR
 United Arab Emirates     December 2, 1971 End of treaty relationship with the United Kingdom February 11, 1972 Ras al-Khaimah joins the UAE
 Uzbekistan     August 31, 1991 Independence from the Soviet Union declared[11] October 24, 1924 Establishment of the Uzbek SSR
 Vietnam December 31, 1959 North Vietnam declared a socialist republic September 2, 1945 withdrawal of the Japanese after WWII July 2, 1976 Reunification of North Vietnam and South Vietnam as Socialist Republic of Vietnam
January 1, 2014 Current Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam
 Yemen     May 22, 1990 Unification of North Yemen and South Yemen May 22, 1990 Unification of North Yemen and South Yemen
Table notes
  1. Philippines: For some clarification and more detail, see Timeline of Philippine Sovereignty.

Europe

Country Date Birth of current form of government Date Date of acquisition of sovereignty Date Date of most recent significant territorial modification
 Albania April 29, 1991  Socialist People's Republic of Albania was replaced by the Republic of Albania. 1190 c. Principality of Arbër was established by archon Progon. 1945 Occupied Kosovo, west Macedonia and border region of Montenegro returned to Yugoslavia
November 28, 1912 Declaration of independence from Ottoman Empire
November 28, 1944 Albanian state re-established after Italian/German occupation
 Andorra April 28, 1993 Current Constitution of Andorra entered force 1813 Reversal of annexation of Andorra by the Napoleonic Empire, through the Peninsular war August 28, 2001 The Andorra–France border is adjusted to allow Andorra to construct the Envalira Tunnel access bridge
 Austria November 12, 1918 Declaration of the Republic of German-Austria May 15, 1955 Austrian Independence Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state December 14, 1921 City of Sopron, and 8 other towns moved to Hungary after plebiscite
September 17, 1156 Privilegium Minus: Sovereignty from Duchy of Bavaria as a Duchy of the Holy Roman Empire
August 11, 1804 Proclamation of the Austrian Empire
 Belarus November 28, 1996 Constitutional amendment abolishes the Supreme Soviet and establishes the National Assembly July 27, 1990 Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic 1945 Curzon Line
August 25, 1991 Independence recognized by Soviet Union[11]
 Belgium July 21, 1831 King Leopold I of Belgium swears allegiance to the constitution making the country a constitutional monarchy October 4, 1830 Independence was proclaimed by the provisonial government June 28, 1919 Belgian proper:
Treaty of Versailles and annexation of the East Cantons
July 1, 1962 Belgian colonial empire:
Ruanda-Urundi declares independence and split within two countries: Rwanda and Burundi.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina March 3, 1992 Independence declared from the SFRY 1154 Formation of the Banate of Bosnia November 25, 1943 Establishment of SR Bosnia in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
 Bulgaria November 10, 1989 People's Republic of Bulgaria was replaced by the Republic of Bulgaria 632 Formation of Old Great Bulgaria September 7, 1940 Under the First and Second Vienna Awards, Southern Dobruja was returned to Kingdom of Bulgaria
681 First Bulgarian Empire formed
1185 Second Bulgarian Empire formed
July 13, 1878 Autonomy within Ottoman Empire recognized internationally by the Treaty of Berlin
September 22, 1908 Independence from Ottoman Empire
 Croatia October 8, 1991 Independence from SFR Yugoslavia 626 c. First Croatian duke Porga February 10, 1947 Annexation of most of Istria to SR Croatia as a result of signing the 1947 Paris Peace Treaties
925 Formation of Kingdom of Croatia by King Tomislav
 Czech Republic January 1, 1993 Dissolution of Czechoslovakia, creating Czech Republic and Slovakia 895 Independence from Great Moravia    
 Denmark June 5, 1953 Constitutional Act of Denmark 935 (Or prior) The Jelling stones, a pair of rune stones considered to be the "birth certificate" of Denmark reads: "King Haraldr ordered this monument made ... who won for himself all of Denmark and Norway and made the Danes Christian." June 15, 1920 Denmark proper:
Sønderjylland was recovered from Germany.[29]
June 17, 1944 Danish Realm:
Kingdom of Iceland secedes from the union.
 Estonia February 24, 1918 Estonian Declaration of Independence, whereby a republic was declared February 24, 1918 Independence declared from the Russian Empire July 1, 1920 De jure: Signing of the Estonia–Latvia Border Treaty whereby Valga proper was ceded to Estonia
August 20, 1991 Independence (from the Soviet Union) reasserted, end of occupation[30] January 1, 1945 De facto: Eastern coast of Narva river and most of Petseri County were transferred to Russian SFSR
 Finland March 29, 1809 Diet of Porvoo, birth of Finland as an autonomous state entity within Russian Empire December 6, 1917 Independence from Russian Empire declared January 26, 1956 Porkkala returned from Soviet control
January 3, 1918 Independence from Russia recognized by the highest Soviet executive body, VTsIK
 France October 5, 1958 Establishment of the current semi-presidential system known as the Fifth Republic 843 Creation of the Kingdom of France (West Francia), Treaty of Verdun February 10, 1947 Metropolitan France:
Annexation of Tende, La Brigue and other villages formerly in Italy.[31][32]
July 5, 1962 Overseas France:
Loss of the French departments in Algeria following the latter's independence.
 Germany May 23, 1949 The Basic Law of Germany comes into effect. January 18, 1871 German Realm (Empire) founded October 3, 1990 Reunification of West Germany and East Germany
1954 Democratic Republic of Germany (commonly referred to at the time as East Germany) declared fully sovereign
May 5, 1955 Federal Republic of Germany (commonly referred to at the time as West Germany) declared fully sovereign
May 15, 1991 Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany ends the Four Power occupation.
 Greece June 11, 1975 Third Hellenic Republic March 25, 1821 (Traditional)

February 23, 1821 (Actual)

Greek Revolution starts, various regional administrations established during 1821 February 10, 1947 Peace treaty with Italy awards the Dodecanese to Greece
January 1, 1822 First Hellenic Republic proclaimed
March 4, 1832 Independence recognized (as Kingdom of Greece)
 Hungary October 23, 1989 People's Republic of Hungary was replaced by the Republic of Hungary 895 Principality of Hungary formed February 10, 1947 With the Paris Peace Treaty, Hungary loses all territories that were regained with the First and Second Vienna Awards and during World War II, thus it returns to the 1921 borders (except for three villages in the northwest given to Czechoslovakia).
1000 Formation of the Kingdom of Hungary by Stephen I of Hungary.
 Iceland 930 The Icelandic Commonwealth established. June 17, 1944 Secedes from a Union with Denmark formally as an independent republic. September 1, 1972 No territorial changes on land have taken place, however the expansion of the Exclusive Economic Zone was such an important change in territory for Iceland that it merits a special inclusion here.
July 1, 1845 First meeting of the modern Althing.
 Ireland January 21, 1919 Elected Irish Parliament Dáil Éireann unilaterally declares Ireland's independence from the United Kingdom December 6, 1922 Irish Free State secedes from United Kingdom by agreement in accordance with the terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty but remains a dominion of the British Empire December 8, 1922 De facto: Northern Ireland secedes from the Irish Free State and rejoins the United Kingdom in accordance with the Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922
December 11, 1931 Statute of Westminster confers legislative independence from the United Kingdom
December 29, 1937 Constitution of Ireland establishes the roles of Taoiseach and President, and replaces the Irish Free State with a new state named Ireland or Éire. April 18, 1949 Republic of Ireland Act 1948 declares the state to be a republic and thus no longer subject in any way to the British Crown December 2, 1999 De jure: Amendment to the Irish constitution removes irredentist claims to Northern Ireland.[33]
 Italy January 1, 1948 Constitution of Italy creating the Italian Republic March 17, 1861 Italian unification
August 23, 476 Establishment of the Kingdom of Italy, an independent successor state created after the Fall of the Western Roman Empire
January 2, 888 c. Sovereignty of the Kingdom of Italy, an independent successor state of the dissolved Carolingian Empire
April 25, 1945 Disestablishment of the German-backed Italian Social Republic, whereby the unity and independence of the Italian state was restored January 1, 1948 The Peace treaty with Italy officially determines the boundaries of the Republic of Italy. The Italian Constitution of 1948 implements it at articles 10 and 117.
 Latvia November 7, 1922 Constitution of Latvia enforced November 18, 1918 Independence declared from Russia 1944 Abrene district ceded to Russian SFSR (modern Russia)
May 4, 1990 Independence (from Soviet Union) reasserted[30]
 Liechtenstein March 16, 2003 The Liechtenstein constitutional referendum, 2003 increases the Prince's powers and makes the country an absolute monarchy[34] October 19, 1813 Dissolution of the Confederation of the Rhine January 23, 1719 Purchase of Vaduz
 Lithuania March 11, 1990 Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania independence (from the Soviet Union) reasserted, end of occupation[30] 1253 Coronation of King Mindaugas (state established some time earlier, perhaps in the 1230s) October 27, 1939 and
August 3, 1940
Western part (approximately half) of Vilnius Region ceded to Lithuania
February 16, 1918 Independence declared from Germany and Russia
 Luxembourg November 23, 1890 Separates from union with the Kingdom of the Netherlands, becomes Grand Duchy in its own right 1945 End of German occupation during World War II April 19, 1839 Partition of Luxembourg under the Treaty of London
 Macedonia November 17, 1991 Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia September 8, 1991 After a referendum, the Socialist Republic of Macedonia declared independence from Yugoslavia August 2, 1944 Establishment of SR Macedonia
 Malta December 13, 1974 The State of Malta became a republic September 21, 1964 Independence from United Kingdom August 20, 1801 Gozo rejoined Malta
 Moldova August 27, 1997 Constitution of Moldova (1997) August 27, 1991 Independence from Soviet Union[11] August 2, 1940 De jure: Moldavian SSR formed
September 2, 1990 De facto: Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic declares independence. The government is not recognized by any UN member, but has de facto control over the Transnistria region.
 Monaco December 17, 1962 Amendment to Constitution of Monaco curtails the power of the prince and establishes the modern National Council 1861 Franco-Monegasque Treaty confirms Monaco's sovereignty (formerly a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia) 1848 Secession of Menton and Roquebrune-Cap-Martin.
 Montenegro October 22, 2007 Constitution of Montenegro 1077 Formation of Kingdom of Duklja/Zeta by King Mihajlo I November 25, 1943 Establishment of SR Montenegro
July 13, 1878 Independence officially confirmed by Ottoman Empire internationally by the Treaty of Berlin other countries recognized earlier.
June 3, 2006 Declaration of independence from Serbia and Montenegro.
 Netherlands August 24, 1815 Adoption of the constitution of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. May 15, 1648 Treaty of Münster signed, independence from Spain March 16, 1839 European Netherlands:
The United Kingdom of the Netherlands divided under the Treaty of London (1839).
December 15, 1954 Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands signed May 5, 1945 Surrender of Nazi forces occupying the Netherlands November 25, 1975 Kingdom of the Netherlands:
Suriname declares independence.
 Norway 1814 Constitution of Norway 872 King Harald I of Norway unifies the Petty kingdoms of Norway. February 27, 1930 Jan Mayen was made part of the Kingdom of Norway.
1814 Dissolution of the union between Norway and Denmark
June 7, 1905 Dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden
May 8, 1945 German occupying forces surrender.
 Poland June 4, 1989 The first partially free Parliament's vote after 45-year-long Soviet domination 966 adoption of Christianity by the first historically documented Polish ruler Mieszko I. February 15, 1951 Polish-Soviet border adjustment treaty
1025 formation of the Kingdom of Poland by Mieszko's son Bolesław I Chrobry.
 Portugal April 2, 1976 Constitution of Portugal July 26, 1139 County of Portugal becomes independent from the Kingdom of León after the Battle of Ourique as part of the Reconquista. Recognized by León in 1143 and by the Pope in 1179. June 6, 1801 Continental Portugal:
Spain occupies the present day border town of Olivença since the War of the Oranges.
December 20, 1999 Portuguese Overseas:
De facto: Portuguese Macau transferred to the People's Republic of China
May 20, 2002 Portuguese Overseas:
De jure: Portuguese Timor, occupied by Indonesia since 1975, officially dissolved to form the independent state of East Timor.[35]
 Romania December 22, 1989 Romanian Revolution of 1989 May 21, 1877 Independence declared from the Ottoman Empire February 10, 1947 Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina
July 13, 1878 International recognition by the Treaty of Berlin.
 San Marino 1600 Constitution of San Marino September 3, 301 Traditional founding 1463 Added Fiorentino, Montegiardino, Serravalle, and Faetano
1243 Formation of republican government
 Serbia June 8, 2006 Republic of Serbia declared legal successor to Serbia and Montenegro, ending the process of the dissolution of Yugoslavia. 768[36] Independence of Serbian Principality from the Byzantine Empire. February 17, 2008 (disputed)[37] The region of Kosovo declared independence unilaterally on 17 February 2008, and is recognized by 108 UN states. Serbia recognizes the government of Kosovo but claims its territory as an Autonomous Province.
 Slovakia January 1, 1993 Dissolution of Czechoslovakia January 1, 1993 Dissolution of Czechoslovakia, creating Slovakia and Czech Republic    
 Slovenia December 13, 1991 Constitution of Slovenia June 25, 1991 Declaration of independence from Yugoslavia
June 25, 1991
 Spain December 6, 1978 Spanish Constitution 718 Kingdom of Asturias(718-925), Kingdom of Navarra (810-1789), Kingdom of León (910-1230), Kingdom of Castile (1035-1230), Kingdom of Aragón (1035-1707), Kingdom of Granada (1238-1492) February 26, 1976 Spanish Sahara is lost following the Madrid Accords
1479 1479: Territorial and religious unification of the Crown of Castile and the Crown of Aragon by the Catholic Monarchs, and under the House of Austria (1516). The governments, institutions, and legal traditions of each kingdom remained independent of each other. Alien laws (Leyes de extranjeria) determined that the national of one kingdom was a foreigner in the other Crowns/States.[38] Spain, in the 16th and 17th centuries, was the name of the Iberian Peninsula.
1715 De Jure
1831 Dissolution of crowns and kingdoms and creation de jure, of the unified Kingdom of Spain.
 Sweden January 1, 1974 Instrument of Government 970 (Or prior) Eric the Victorious, the first king of Sweden about whom anything definite is known, becomes king. March 29, 1809 Loss of Finland to Imperial Russia.
June 6, 1523 Gustav Vasa elected King of Sweden and marking a definite secession from the Kalmar Union.
  Switzerland November 12, 1848 Foundation of the federal state after Sonderbund war 1291 Traditional founding 1815 The cantons of Valais, Neuchâtel and Geneva join the Swiss Confederation.
August 7, 1815 Restoration of the Ancien Régime (federalism), reverting the changes imposed by Napoleon Bonaparte.
 Ukraine August 24, 1991 Independence from Soviet Union March 18, 2014 Annexation of Crimea by Russia
January 25, 1918 Independence of Ukrainian People's Republic from Russian Republic declared.
August 24, 1991 Independence of former Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic from Soviet Union declared.[11]
 United Kingdom January 1, 1800 The Acts of Union united the two kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland[39][40][41] 927 Kingdom of Wessex
Kingdom of England

United with Scotland in 1707 (devolved Parliament as of 1999)

December 6, 1922
then December 8, 1922
Irish Free State secedes from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland by agreement in accordance with the terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty and the Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922, and Northern Ireland opts to exclude itself from the Free State two days later.[31]
843 Kingdom of Scotland

United with England in 1707

May 1, 1707 Kingdom of Great Britain
1171 then
1542
Lordship of Ireland
Kingdom of Ireland
1216 Principality of Wales

United with or annexed to England in 1542

  Vatican City 1274 Birth of current form of government the Papal conclave in 1274 June 7, 1929 Ratification of the Lateran Treaty, making the Vatican City a sovereign State February 11, 1929 Signing of the Lateran Treaty

Oceania

Country Date Birth of current form of government Date Date of acquisition of sovereignty Date Date of most recent significant territorial modification
 Australia January 1, 1901 Commonwealth of Australia established as federation. January 1, 1901 Independence from United Kingdom. September 16, 1975 Papua New Guinea becomes formally independent of Australia
 Fiji     October 10, 1970 Independence from United Kingdom    
 Kiribati     July 12, 1979 Independence from United Kingdom October 1, 1975 Separation of Gilbert Islands (later Kiribati) and Ellice Islands (later Tuvalu)
 Marshall Islands May 1, 1979 Constitution and local government established October 21, 1986 Compact of Free Association with the United States    
 Federated States of Micronesia May 10, 1979 Constitution ratified November 3, 1986 Compact of Free Association with the United States May 10, 1979 Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei, and Kosrae unite to form the Federated States of Micronesia
 Nauru     January 31, 1968 Independence from UN Trusteeship (Australian, British and New Zealand administration ends)    
 New Zealand February 6, 1840 Treaty of Waitangi between the British Crown and the indigenous Māori tribes cedes kawanatanga of New Zealand to Queen Victoria. January 17, 1853 Self-Government June 1, 1962 Samoa becomes fully independent from New Zealand. It is also the first small-island country in the Pacific to become independent.
April 18, 1856 Responsible Government
September 26, 1907 Granted nominal independence (Dominion status).
October 25, 1926 Balfour Declaration of 1926 — Great Britain and the Dominions are “autonomous Communities within the British Empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs”
July 27, 1938 Governor-General ceases to represent the British Government and becomes the personal representative of the King.
November 25, 1947 Statute of Westminster adopted — Britain loses the power to legislate for New Zealand except by request
December 10, 1947 Full power to amend own constitution
December 1, 1967 Governor-General becomes a New Zealand appointment
 Palau January 1, 1981 Republic of Palau created upon adoption of constitution October 1, 1994 Emerged from United Nations trusteeship (administered by the United States).    
 Papua New Guinea     December 1, 1973 Self-governing territory    
September 16, 1975 Independence from Australia
 Samoa     June 1, 1962 Independence from New Zealand    
 Solomon Islands     January 2, 1976 Self-government granted by United Kingdom    
July 7, 1978 Independence from United Kingdom
 Tonga     July 4, 1970 Independence from United Kingdom December 4, 1845 Unification of what is now the islands of Tonga by George Tupou I of Tonga
 Tuvalu October 1, 1975 Separation of Gilbert Islands (later Kiribati) and Ellice Islands (later Tuvalu) October 1, 1978 Independence from United Kingdom February 7, 1979 Treaty with United States recognizing Tuvaluan control over Funafuti, Nukufetau, Nukulaelae, and Niulakita atolls
 Vanuatu     July 30, 1980 Independence from joint British-French condominium[42]    

Transcontinental states

Country Date Birth of current form of government Date Date of acquisition of sovereignty Date Date of most recent significant territorial modification
 Armenia December 6, 2015 Armenian constitutional referendum, 2015 creates a parliamentary republic May 28, 1918 Establishment of the Republic of Armenia.[11] December 5, 1936 Establishment of the Armenian SSR
September 21, 1991 Independence recognized by the Soviet Union
 Azerbaijan October 18, 1991 Declaration of independence from the Soviet Union May 28, 1918 Establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.[11] April 28, 1920 Establishment of the Azerbaijan SSR
 Colombia August 4, 1886 Creation of the Republic of Colombia July 20, 1810 Independence declared from Spain November 3, 1903 Separation of Panama from Colombia
August 7, 1819 Independence recognized by Spain
1830 Dissolution of Gran Colombia
 Cyprus August 16, 1960 Constitution of Cyprus establishes consocial government. Consociationalism de facto suspended in 1963.[43][44][45] August 16, 1960 Independence from United Kingdom July 23, 1974 Establishment of the United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus
November 15, 1983 (disputed) Northern Cyprus declares independence. The government has de facto control of the northern part of the island, but is only recognised by Turkey
 Egypt July 23, 1952 Egyptian Revolution of 1952 February 28, 1922 Unilateral recognition of independence by the United Kingdom but continued British military occupation April 25, 1982 Withdrawal of last Israeli troops and settlers from Sinai as agreed upon in the peace treaty with Israel
January 18, 2014 New Egyptian constitution enters force following the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état June 18, 1956 Withdrawal of last British troops from the Suez Canal Zone
September 28, 1961 De facto disestablishment of the United Arab Republic following a military coup in Damascus
 Georgia April 9, 1991 Independence from the Soviet Union declared May 26, 1918 Establishment of the Democratic Republic of Georgia[11] July 23, 1992 Abkhazia asserted its declared independence from the Soviet Union
November 28, 1991 South Ossetia declared independence from Georgia
 Indonesia August 18, 1945 Ratification of the Constitution of Indonesia by the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence August 17, 1945 Indonesian Declaration of Independence from Netherlands May 20, 2002 Independence of East Timor, formerly administered as a province of Indonesia
December 27, 1949 Independence from the Netherlands recognized
 Kazakhstan August 30, 1995 Constitution of Kazakhstan December 16, 1991 Independence declared from the Soviet Union[11] December 5, 1936 Establishment of the Kazakh SSR
March 30, 1993 (disputed) Baikonur Cosmodrome and surrounding areas leased to Russia.[46]
 Panama     November 3, 1903 Separation of Panama from Colombia, independence from Spain October 1, 1979 Panama Canal Zone
 Russia December 25, 1993 Russian constitutional referendum, 1993 replaces the Supreme Soviet with the Federal Assembly and increases presidential power. 1480 Grand Duchy of Muscovy secures its independence from the Golden Horde March 18, 2014 (disputed) Annexation of Crimea by Russia
June 12, 1990 Russian SFSR declares sovereignty over its own territory[11]
 Turkey October 29, 1923 Turkey was declared as a republic. June 24, 1923 Treaty of Lausanne recognizes the new Turkish state as the successor state of the Ottoman Empire June 29, 1939 Syrian province of Iskanderun transferred by French Mandatory Government to Turkey. Annexed by Turkey as Hatay State

Sortable list

In this list, "date of last subordination" refers to the last date of control by an external government. In some cases this is the same as the date of independence marking decolonization or dissolution of a political union. In other cases, a sovereign state submitted to foreign military occupation or political subjugation for a period of time and later regained its independence.

Dates refer to de facto rule or occupation of the major territory, whether or not legitimized by international recognition.

In a union such as Czechoslovakia, the Soviet Union, or the Kalmar Union, one of the constituents can be considered the dominant power – generally where the seat of government was located. The United Kingdom is a particularly complicated case. If England is viewed as the dominant member, then history can be traced from Roman conquest, Saxon invasions, 10th century unification, and the 1066 Norman Conquest before the union of England and Scotland in 1707. However, if viewed from a Scottish perspective, an unbroken history of sovereignty can be traced from unification in 843 through the 1707 union with England (with a brief annexation by England from 1657 to 1660). Some Scots view the 1707 union as a ceding of sovereignty to England.[47]

Country First acquisition
of sovereignty
Date of last
subordination
Previous governing power Notes
 Afghanistan Apr 1709 1823 Durrani Empire 2001–present: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
1992–2001: Islamic State of Afghanistan (UN-supported occupation by United States in 2001)
1978–92: Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (occupied by Soviet Union 1979-89)
1973–78: Republic of Afghanistan
1926–29; 1929–73: Kingdom of Afghanistan
1823–1926; 1929: Emirate of Afghanistan (Treaty of Rawalpindi granted sovereignty from United Kingdom in 1919)
1747–1826: Durrani Empire
1736–1796: Part of Afsharid Empire.
1709–1736: Hotaki Empire
1526–1709: Part of Mughal Empire.
1370–1526: Part of Timurid Kingdom.
1256–1335: Part of Ilkhanate.
1294–1370: Part of Chagatai Khanate.
1219–1294 Part of Mongol Empire.
1077–1219: Part of Khwarazemid Empire
1037–1077: Part of the Great Seljuq Empire.
963–1187: Part of Ghaznavid Empire.
861–963: Part of Saffarid Emirate.
821–861: Part of various territories governed by the Tahirids.
750–821: Part of the Abbasid Caliphate.
708–750: Part of the Umayyad Caliphate.
632–708: Yagbu of Tukhara.
224–632; Part of the Sassanid Empire.
227 BCE–224: Part of the Parthian Empire.
312 BCE–227 BCE: Part of the Seleucid Empire.
336 BCE–312 BCE: Part of the Macedonian Empire.
549 BCE–336 BCE: Part of the Achaemenid Empire.
678 BCE–545 BCE: Part of the Median Empire.
Before 678 BCE various Indo-Iranian tribes and early Iranian city-states.
 Albania Nov 28, 1912 Nov 1944[48] Germany 1992–present: Republic of Albania
1944–92: People's Socialist Republic of Albania
1928–44: Albanian Kingdom (de facto protectorate of Italy 1928-1939; occupied by Italy 1939-43; occupied by Germany 1943-44)
1925–28: Albanian Republic (de facto protectorate of Italy)
1914–25: Principality of Albania (via Albanian Declaration of Independence)
1912–14: Provisional Government of Albania
1479–1912: Part of Ottoman Empire
1444–79: League of Lezhë
1190–1444: Various Albanian principalities
Before 1190: Part of Byzantine Empire
 Algeria Jul 3, 1962[49] Jul 3, 1962  France 1962–present: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria (via Évian Accords)
1830–1962: integral part of France (as French Algeria)
1556–1830: part of the Ottoman Empire (as the Eyalet of Algiers)
 Andorra Sep 7, 1278[50][51] Nov 1944[52] France 1278–present: Principality of Andorra (via Paréage of Andorra; occupied by France 1812-13, 1870, 1914, 1936, 1939, 1944)
 Angola Nov 11, 1975[53] Nov 11, 1975  Portugal 1992–present: Republic of Angola
1975–1992: People's Republic of Angola (via the Alvor Agreement)
1575–1975: Portuguese Angola (colony of Portugal)
 Antigua and Barbuda Nov 1, 1981[54] Nov 1, 1981  United Kingdom 1981–present: Antigua and Barbuda
1632–1981: Colony of England/Great Britain/United Kingdom (ruled by France in 1666)
Before 1632: Inhabited by indigenous peoples of the Americas
 Argentina May 25, 1810 July 9, 1816[55] Spain 1861–present: Argentine Republic
1831–1861: Argentine Confederation
1810–1831: Part of the United Provinces of the River Plate (via the May Revolution; on 9 July 1816, the Congress of Tucumán issued formal Declaration of Independence)
1776–1810: Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata (colony of Spain)
1542–1824: Part of Viceroyalty of Peru (colony of Spain)
1528–1542: Part of Spanish colony
Before 1528: Inhabited by indigenous peoples of the Americas, including the Inca Empire
 Armenia 190 BC Sep 23, 1991[56] Soviet Union 1991–present: Republic of Armenia
1920–1991: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic
1918–1920: Democratic Republic of Armenia
1829–1918: Part of Russian empire
Before 1829: Part of Ottoman Empire
321 BC–AD 428: First independent as Kingdom of Armenia
549 BC–331 BC: Part of Achaemenid Empire
860 BC–590 BC: Kingdom of Ararat
2492 BC: Traditional foundation
 Australia Jan 1, 1901 Oct 9, 1942 United Kingdom 1901–present: Commonwealth of Australia (via Constitution of Australia[57])
1788–1901: Part of British empire
Before 1788: Inhabited by Indigenous Australians
 Austria Nov 12, 1918[58] May 15, 1955[59] World War II Allies (Allied-occupied Austria) 1955–present: Republic of Austria (via Austrian State Treaty)
1945–55: Allied-occupied Austria
1938–45: Occupied by Nazi Germany
1934–38: Federal State of Austria (client state of Italy)
1919–34: First Republic of Austria (via Treaty of Saint Germain)
1918–19: Republic of German-Austria (via Proclamation of Charles I)
1867–1918: Austria-Hungary (via Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867)
1804–67: Austrian Empire
1457–1804: Archduchy of Austria (state of the Holy Roman Empire)
1156–1457: Duchy of Austria (state of the Holy Roman Empire)
 Azerbaijan May 28, 1918 Aug 30, 1991 Soviet Union 1995–present: Republic of Azerbaijan (independence from Soviet Union declared 1991; constitution adopted 1995)

1920-1995: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
1918-1920: Azerbaijan Democratic Republic
1824-1918: Part of Russian Empire
1796–1824: Part of Qajar Empire
1747–1796: Part of Afsharid Dynasty
(1760–1794): Part of Zand Dynasty
1736–1747: Part of Afsharid Empire
(1722–1729): Part of Hotaki Dynasty
1501–1736: Part of Safavid Empire
1468–1508: Part of Agh Qoyunlu
1405–1507: Part of Timurid Dynasty
1406–1468: Part of Qara Qoyunlu
1370–1405: Part of Timurid Empire
1337–1376: Part of Sarbadars
1336–1432: Part of Jalayirid Dynasty
1335–1393: Part of Muzaffarid Dynasty
1335–1357: Part of Chobanid Dynasty
1256–1335: Part of Ilkhanate Empire
1077–1231: Part of Khwarazmian Empire
1037–1194: Part of Great Seljuq Empire
963–1186: Part of Ghaznavid Empire
875–999: Part of Samanid Dynasty
934–1055: Part of Buyid Dynasty
867–1002: Part of Saffarid Dynasty
928–1043: Part of Ziyarid Dynasty
750–1258: Part of Abbasid Caliphate
661–750: Part of Umayyad Caliphate
(642–759/760): Part of Dabuyid dynasty
224–651: Part of Sassanid Empire
247 BCE – 224 CE: Part of Parthian Empire
312–63 BCE: Part of Seleucid Empire
550–330 BCE: Part of Achaemenid Empire
(652–625 BCE): Part of Scythian Kingdom
678–550 BCE: Part of Median Empire
850–616 BCE: Part of Mannaeans
2700–539 BCE: Part of Elam
3200–2700 BCE: Part of Proto-Elamite

 Bahamas July 10, 1973[60] July 10, 1973  United Kingdom 1973–present: Commonwealth of the Bahamas(Self-government gained from the United Kingdom in 1964; independence gained on 10 July 1973)
1718-1973:Part of the British West Indies
1492-1718: Part of the Spanish Empire
500to 800-1492: Inhabited by the Lucayans
 Bahrain Dec 16, 1971 Dec 16, 1971  United Kingdom 1971–present Kingdom of Bahrain
1861–1971: Protectorate of the British Empire by way of the Perpetual Truce of Peace and Friendship
1783–1861: Ruled by the Bani Utbah
1717–1783: Ruled by Oman after a successful invasion
1602–1717: Part of Persia under the Safavid dynasty
1521–1602: Part of the Portuguese Empire
Mid-1400s–1521: Ruled by the Jabrid dynasty
1253-mid–1400s: Ruled by the usfurid dynasty
1076–1235:Ruled by the Uyunid dynasty
976–1076: Ruled as part of the Abbasid Caliphate
899–976: Ruled by the Qarmatians
3rd Century CE–899: Ruled by the Sassanids of Persia
130 BCE–3rd Century BCE: Ruled by the Parthians
6th Century BCE–3rd Century BCE: Part of the Persian Empire under the Achaemenids
4th millennium BCE–6th century BCE: Dilmun civilization
 Bangladesh Mar 26, 1971[61] Dec 16, 1971  Pakistan 1972–present: People's Republic of Bangladesh
1971–1972: Provisional Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh
1955–1971: East Pakistan (Part of Pakistan)
1947–1955: East Bengal (Part of Pakistan)
1858–1947: Part of the British Raj
1717–1880: Ruled by the Nawabs (Lost ruling power after the Battle of Plassey)
1576–1717: Part of the Mughal Empire
1556–1576: Ruled by the Karrani Dynasty
1540–1556: Ruled by the Sur dynasty
1538–1540: Part of the Mughal Empire
1494–1538: Ruled by the Hussain Shahi Dynasty
1414–1494: Ruled by the Ganesha Dynasty
1342–1487: Shamsuddin lliyas Shah ruled an independent city-state within modern Bangladesh
 Barbados Nov 30, 1966 Nov 30, 1966  United Kingdom
 Belarus Jul 27, 1990 Aug 25, 1991 Soviet Union
 Belgium Oct 4, 1830 1945 Germany 1813–1830: Part of the Netherlands
1795–1813: Ruled by France
1713–1795: Austrian Netherlands
1581–1714: Spanish Netherlands
 Belize Sep 21, 1981[62] Sep 21, 1981  United Kingdom
 Benin Aug 1, 1960[63] Aug 1, 1960  France
 Bhutan 1634 1634 (none) Autonomous since at least the 10th century.[64] Unified 1634, after the Battle of Five Lamas. Early history is sketchy, but may have been part of Kamarupa kingdom, and may have been occupied by Tibetan-Mongol forces ca. 10th century.[65]
 Bolivia Aug 6, 1825 Aug 6, 1825 Spain 1836–39 as dominant partner in Peru–Bolivian Confederation, governed from Tacna, Peru.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1377 Mar 3, 1992 Yugoslavia Subject to Kingdom of Hungary 1154-1377 as a Banate of Bosnia, then independent as Kingdom of Bosnia 1377–1463. Later under Ottoman Empire until 1908, Austria-Hungary until 1918, and Yugoslavia until 1992.
 Botswana Sep 30, 1966[66] Sep 30, 1966  United Kingdom
 Brazil Sep 7, 1822[67] Sep 7, 1822 United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves
 Brunei Jan 1, 1984 Jan 1, 1984  United Kingdom Previously occupied by Japan
 Bulgaria 681[68] Oct 5, 1908 Ottoman Empire Occupied by Byzantine Empire 1018–1185 and Ottoman Empire 1393–1908.
 Burkina Faso Aug 5, 1960[69] Aug 5, 1960  France
 Burundi July 1, 1962 July 1, 1962  Belgium
 Cambodia 802 Nov 9, 1953[70]  France Khmer Empire founded 802 according to Sdok Kok Thom Inscription
 Cameroon Jan 1, 1960 Oct 1, 1961  United Kingdom French Cameroons gained independence in 1960; added British Southern Cameroons in 1961.
 Canada July 1, 1867 Dec 11, 1931 United Kingdom Dominion status 1867, Statute of Westminster 1931.[71]
 Cape Verde July 5, 1975 July 5, 1975[72]  Portugal
 Central African Republic Aug 13, 1960 Aug 13, 1960  France
 Chad Aug 11, 1960 Aug 11, 1960  France
 Chile Sep 18, 1810 Feb 12, 1818 Spain
 China, People's Republic of
 China, Republic of
Oct 10, 1911 Oct 1, 1949
Oct 25, 1945
 China
 Japan

c. 8500–c. 2070 BC: Neolithic
c. 2070–c. 1600 BC: Xia dynasty
c. 1600–c. 1046 BC: Shang dynasty
c. 1046–256 BC: Zhou dynasty
221–206 BC: Qin dynasty
206 BC–220 AD: Han dynasty
220–280: Three Kingdoms
265–420: Jin dynasty
420–589: Northern and Southern dynasties
581–618: Sui dynasty
618–907: Tang dynasty
907–1125: Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms / Liao dynasty
960–1279: Song dynasty
1271–1368: Yuan dynasty
1368–1644: Ming dynasty
1624–1662: Dutch Formosa / Spanish Formosa
1644–1912:  Qing dynasty
1895: Republic of Formosa
1895–1945: Japanese Taiwan
1912–present: Republic of China (1912-49)  Republic of China
1949–present:  People's Republic of China
Note: Although the Mongol's Yuan Dynasty and the Manchu's Qing Dynasty were considered foreign by many Han Chinese in their times, current Chinese official position considers these two dynasties as Chinese, as they were established by Chinese ethnic minorities and had their capitals in present-day Beijing. The PRC government considers itself the successor of the Republic of China.

 Colombia Jul 20, 1810 Aug 7, 1819 Spain 1886–present: Republic of Colombia

1863–1886: United States of Colombia
1858–1863: Granadine Confederation
1831–1858: Republic of New Granada
1819–1831: Gran Colombia
1810–1816: United Provinces of New Granada
1739–1819: Viceroyalty of New Granada
1723–1739: New Kingdom of Granada
1717–1723: Viceroyalty of New Granada
1550–1717: New Kingdom of Granada

 Comoros Jul 6, 1975 Jul 6, 1975  France
 Congo, Democratic Republic of the 1885 Jun 30, 1960  Belgium 1885 Berlin Conference established Congo Free State as sovereign entity (private domain of King Leopold of Belgium); annexed to Belgium 1908–1960.
 Congo, Republic of the Aug 15, 1960 Aug 15, 1960  France
 Costa Rica Sep 15, 1821 1838 Federal Republic of Central America Previously part of Mexico 1822–23 and a colony of Spain before 1821.
 Côte d'Ivoire Aug 7, 1960 Aug 7, 1960  France
 Croatia May 21, 879[73] Oct 8, 1991 Yugoslavia First Croats came to Roman Dalmatia as free people from White Croatia in the 6th century.
 Cuba May 20, 1902 May 20, 1902  United States A colony of Spain until 1898, then occupied but not annexed by United States 1899–1902.
 Cyprus Aug 16, 1960 Aug 16, 1960  United Kingdom
 Czech Republic 870 Jan 1, 1993 Czechoslovakia Duchy of Bohemia first independent from Great Moravia ca. 870; unified with Moravia and Silesia under Boleslaus I, Duke of Bohemia, who acceded to the throne in 935. Later part of Austria-Hungary until 1918 independence as Czechoslovakia. Occupied by Germany in 1938, by WWII Allies in 1945, and by Warsaw Pact armies in 1968.
 Denmark 980 May 5, 1945 Germany Unified ca 980 by Harald Bluetooth.
 Djibouti Jun 27, 1977 Jun 27, 1977  France
 Dominica Nov 3, 1978 Nov 3, 1978  United Kingdom
 Dominican Republic 1821 ( Republic of Spanish Haiti) Feb 27, 1844 Haiti Previously occupied by Spain, France, and Haiti
 Ecuador May 24, 1822 May 13, 1830 Gran Colombia Previously a colony of Spain
 Egypt 3100 BC Feb 28, 1922 United Kingdom Unified in 3100 BC by Pharaoh Menes or probably Narmer, founder of the First Dynasty. Conquered at various times by Achaemenid, Macedonian, Roman, Arab/Islamic, Ottoman, and Napoleonic Empires.
 El Salvador Sep 15, 1821 Nov 21, 1898 Greater Republic of Central America Previously a part of the Federal Republic of Central America 1823–38, Mexico 1822–23, and a colony of Spain before 1821.
 Equatorial Guinea Oct 12, 1968 Oct 12, 1968 Spain
 Eritrea 1137 May 24, 1993 Ethiopia Independent 1137–1889 as Medri Bahri kingdom. Occupied 1889 by Italy, 1941 by Britain. Ruled 1952-1993 by Ethiopia.
 Estonia Feb 24, 1918[74] Aug 20, 1991 Soviet Union Previously ruled by Sweden and occupied by Denmark, Poland, Russia, and Germany.
 Ethiopia 50 May 5, 1941 Italy Aksumite Empire founded ca 50. Occupied 1936–1941 by Italy. on 5 May 1941 the ousted Emperor of Ethiopia restored its power.[75]
 Fiji Oct 10, 1970 Oct 10, 1970  United Kingdom
 Finland Dec 6, 1917 Jan 4, 1918 Russia Previously ruled by Sweden.
 France 843 1944 Germany 843 Treaty of Verdun established West Francia. Occupied by Germany in WWII.
 Gabon Aug 17, 1960 Aug 17, 1960  France
 Gambia Feb 18, 1965 Feb 18, 1965  United Kingdom
 Georgia 1300 BC Apr 8, 1991 Soviet Union 1991–Present: Republic of Georgia
1921–1991: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
1918–1921 : Democratic Republic of Georgia
1801–1918: Part Of Russian Empire
1490–1801 Fragmentized into three independent kingdoms – Kartli, Kakheti, and Imereti and five semi-independent principalities – Odishi, (Mingrelia), Guria, Abkhazia, Svaneti, and Samtskhe
978–1490: Kingdom of Georgia
 Germany Jan 18, 1871 March 15, 1991 West Germany
East Germany
West Berlin
Unified in 1871. Occupied 1945–1955 until ratification of Bonn–Paris conventions. Become fully sovereign on 15 March 1991 after the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany came into effect.
 Ghana Mar 6, 1957 Mar 6, 1957  United Kingdom
 Greece 800 BC 1822 Ottoman Empire Previously occupied jointly by Italy, Germany and Bulgaria; before 1821 by Ottoman Empire.
 Grenada Feb 7, 1974 Feb 7, 1974  United Kingdom
 Guatemala Sep 15, 1821 1838 Federal Republic of Central America Guatemala Republic of Guatemala: 1838–present
Federal Republic of Central America: 1823–1838
Mexico First Mexican Empire: 1821–1823
Spanish Empire Spanish Empire: 1519–1821
 Guinea Oct 2, 1958 Oct 2, 1958  France
 Guinea-Bissau Sep 24, 1973 Sep 10, 1974  Portugal
 Guyana May 26, 1966 May 26, 1966  United Kingdom Previously colonized by Dutch
 Haiti Jan 1, 1804 Jan 1, 1804 France Previously a colony of France.
 Honduras Sep 15, 1821 1838 Greater Republic of Central America Occupied several times by United States. Previously a part of the Greater Republic of Central America 1896–98, the Federal Republic of Central America 1823–38, Mexico 1822–23 and a colony of Spain before 1821.
 Hungary 895 1918  Austria-Hungary Principality of Hungary founded 895. Ruled by Austria 1526/1699–1867, part of Austria-Hungary 1867–1918.
 Iceland 930 Dec 1, 1918  Denmark Icelandic Commonwealth formed 930. Ceded to Norway 1262; Kingdom of Iceland (1918–1944) with a Personal union with Denmark, Republic of Iceland founded 1944.
 India 2000 BC Aug 15, 1947  United Kingdom India's local name Bhārat derives from the scriptural Bharata, held by tradition as the first emperor to unite India in 2000 BC. Modern Indian subcontinent was united by Mahajanapadas in 600 BC. Political unity in verified historiography was first achieved by Chandragupta Maurya's founding of the Mauryan Empire in 322 BC, followed by the Gupta Empire of 320 AD and Maratha Empire in 1674 before era of the Mughals and then British Raj from 1857 to Independence in 1947.
 Indonesia Aug 17, 1945 Dec 27, 1949 Netherlands 1949–present: Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia (NKRI)

1945–1949: Indonesian Struggle for Independence
1942–1945: Part of Japan in World War II
1816–1942: Part of Dutch East Indies
1812–1816: Part of British India (following Dutch-French defeat in the Napoleonic War)
1802–1812: Part of Batavian Republic (Client State of the Napoleon French)
1619–1802: Under Administration of VOC
15th–17th Century: Various Islamic Kingdoms, most notably Mataram, Demak, and Banten in Java; Malaka, Johor-Riau, Minang and Aceh in Sumatra; Brunei and Banjarmasin in Kalimantan, Makassar in Sulawesi, and Ternate and Tidore in Moluccas
1292–1478: Majapahit Empire, united Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia and parts of Philippines under the reign of Hayam Wuruk
4th Century–13th Century: Various Hindu-Buddhist Kingdoms, most notably Srivijaya in 8th–10th Century AD
4th Century: First Hindu Kingdom of Kutai in Kalimantan
2nd Century: Alleged Indian Kingdom of Salakanagara in Java

 Iran 3200 BC 1789 Qajar dynasty 1980–present: Part of Islamic Republic

1979–1980: Part of Interim Government
1925–1979: Part of Pahlavi Dynasty (Anglo-Soviet occupation 1941-1946)
1796–1925: Part of Qajar Empire
1747–1796: Part of Afsharid Dynasty
(1760–1794): Part of Zand Dynasty
1736–1747: Part of Afsharid Empire
(1722–1729): Part of Hotaki Dynasty
1501–1736: Part of Safavid Empire
1468–1508: Part of Agh Qoyunlu
1405–1507: Part of Timurid Dynasty
1406–1468: Part of Qara Qoyunlu
1370–1405: Part of Timurid Empire
1337–1376: Part of Sarbadars
1336–1432: Part of Jalayirid Dynasty
1335–1393: Part of Muzaffarid Dynasty
1335–1357: Part of Chobanid Dynasty
1256–1335: Part of Ilkhanate Empire
1077–1231: Part of Khwarazmian Empire
1037–1194: Part of Great Seljuq Empire
963–1186: Part of Ghaznavid Empire
875–999: Part of Samanid Dynasty
934–1055: Part of Buyid Dynasty
867–1002: Part of Saffarid Dynasty
928–1043: Part of Ziyarid Dynasty
750–1258: Part of Abbasid Caliphate
661–750: Part of Umayyad Caliphate
(642–759/760): Part of Dabuyid dynasty
224–651: Part of Sassanid Empire
247 BCE – 224 CE: Part of Parthian Empire
312–63 BCE: Part of Seleucid Empire
550–330 BCE: Part of Achaemenid Empire
(652–625 BCE): Part of Scythian Kingdom
678–550 BCE: Part of Median Empire
850–616 BCE: Part of Mannaeans
2700–539 BCE: Part of Elam
3200–2700 BCE: Part of Proto-Elamite

 Iraq Apr 26, 1926 Apr 26, 1926 Ottoman Empire founded in 4000 BC by Sumer Civilization (the first Civilization on the world), and then unified under Sargon of Akkad the founder of Akkadian Empire, but Iraq was part of Persian Empire (Iran), and Ottoman Empire (until 1922). see History of Iraq. Occupied by United States 2003–2004[76]
 Ireland Oct 18, 1171 Dec 11, 1931 United Kingdom Independence declared 1919, Dominion status 1922, Statute of Westminster 1931, declared a republic 1948.
 Israel May 14, 1948 May 14, 1948  United Kingdom Kingdom of Israel unified under King Saul, c. 1020 BC, divided into separate kingdoms of Israel and Judea, which fall to Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian empires in 722 and 586 BC, respectively. In the 2nd century BC, Judea re-gains independence as Hasmonean kingdom after revolt against the Hellenist Seleucid Empire. Conquered by Pompey of the Roman Empire in 63 BC, and subsequently falls to Byzantine, Umayyad, Abbasid, Crusader, Mamluk, Ottoman Turkish, and British rule, before regaining independence as the State of Israel in 1948.
 Italy Mar 17, 1861 Mar 17, 1861 Sardinia
Lombardy–Venetia
Papal States
Unified in 1861.
 Jamaica Aug 6, 1962 Aug 6, 1962  United Kingdom Previously a Spanish colony
 Japan 400 April 28, 1952 Allied occupation of Japan Founded 660 BC by Emperor Jimmu according to legend. Unified state emerged during the Kofun period c. 400 AD. 1952 Treaty of San Francisco ended postwar occupation.
 Jordan May 25, 1946 Aug 2, 1958 Arab Federation Part of Arab Federation Feb–Aug 1958 governed from Baghdad, Iraq. Previously ruled by Persian, Roman, Islamic, and Ottoman Empires; UK, etc.
 Kazakhstan Dec 16, 1991 Dec 16, 1991 Soviet Union Russian Empire
Ottoman Empire
Timurid dynasty
Mongol Empire
Various Turkic tribes.
 Kenya Dec 12, 1963 Dec 12, 1963  United Kingdom Various nomadic tribes.
 Kiribati Jul 12, 1979 Jul 12, 1979  United Kingdom
 Kuwait Jun 19, 1961 Feb 1991  Iraq Previously ruled by Ottoman Empire and United Kingdom.
 Kyrgyzstan Aug 31, 1991 Aug 31, 1991 Soviet Union
 Laos 1354 Oct 22, 1953  France Occupied by Japan during World War II
 Latvia Nov 18, 1918[77] May 4, 1990 Soviet Union Previously ruled by Lithuania, Sweden, and Russia
 Lebanon Nov 8, 1943 Dec 31, 1946  France Previously ruled by Ottoman Empire
 Lesotho 1822 Oct 4, 1966  United Kingdom
 Liberia Jul 26, 1847 Jul 26, 1847 American Colonization Society Settled but not claimed by United States[78]
 Libya Dec 24, 1951 Dec 24, 1951 Cyrenaica Emirate
 France
 United Kingdom
Previously occupied by Italy and by Ottoman Empire
 Liechtenstein Jan 23, 1719 Jan 23, 1719 (Lordship of) Schellenberg
(Principality of) Vaduz
Previously subject to the Confederation of the Rhine. Formed 1719 from Vaduz and Schellenberg, but under the Holy Roman Empire.
 Lithuania 1253[79] Mar 11, 1990 Soviet Union Kingdom of Lithuania; Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania
 Luxembourg 1815 1945 Germany Independent from France 1815 but in personal union with Netherlands until 1890
 Macedonia Sep 8, 1991 Sep 8, 1991 Yugoslavia
 Madagascar 1787 Jun 26, 1960  France
 Malawi Jul 6, 1964 Jul 6, 1964  United Kingdom
 Malaysia Aug 31, 1957[14] Aug 31, 1957  United Kingdom The Federation of Malaya gained independence in 1957; in 1963 it added territories of Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore, and changed its name to Malaysia.[12] Singapore became independent in 1965.
 Maldives 1140 Jul 26, 1965  United Kingdom Unified according to legend by King Koimala (1117–1141). Independent sultanate until 1887, when it became a British protectorate.
 Mali 1230 Sep 22, 1960  France Mali Empire ca. 1230. A colony of France 1890–1960, then part of Mali Federation governed from Dakar, Senegal.
 Malta Sep 21, 1964 Sep 21, 1964  United Kingdom 1974–present: Republic of Malta

1964-1974: State of Malta
1813-1964: Crown Colony of Malta
1800-1813: Protectorate of Malta
1798-1800: French occupation of Malta, the insurrection and independent Gozo
1530-1798: Order of Saint John
1130-1530: part of the