List of military occupations
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This article presents a list of military occupations. Only military occupations since the customary laws of belligerent military occupation were first clarified and supplemented by the Hague Convention of 1907 are included In this article.
Military occupation is effective provisional control of a certain power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the volition of the actual sovereign. Military occupation is distinguished from annexation by its intended temporary nature (i.e. no claim for permanent sovereignty), by its military nature, and by citizenship rights of the controlling power not being conferred upon the subjugated population.
Past military occupations
Former occupied territories in 21st century
|Occupied Territory||From- To||Occupied State||Occupying State||Conflict||Part of War(s)|
|Iraq||2003–2004||Iraq||United States United Kingdom||2003 Invasion of Iraq||Iraq War|
|Parts of Somalia||2006–2009||Somalia||Ethiopia||War in Somalia (2006–09)||Somali Civil War|
|Gori and Poti||2008||Georgia||Russia||Occupation of Gori and Poti||Russo-Georgian War|
|Perevi||2008–2010||Occupation of Perevi|
Current military occupations
|Territory occupied||Since||Occupied state||Occupying state||Status|
|East Jerusalem||1967|| Palestinian territories
||Israel||Seized during the Six-Day War from Jordan; de facto annexed in 1980 via the Jerusalem Law|
|Gaza Strip|| Palestinian territories
||Seized during the Six-Day War from Egypt; In 2005, Israel disengaged its military forces from the Gaza Strip and no longer considers itself to be occupying the territory, however the United Nations still considers it an occupying power. Gaza's border crossings with Israel and maritime and air space are controlled by Israel.|
|Golan Heights||Syria||Seized during the Six-Day War; de facto annexed in 1981 via the Golan Heights Law|
|West Bank|| Palestinian territories
||Seized during the Six-Day War from Jordan; administered by the Israeli Civil Administration. The Oslo II Accord, officially signed on 28 September 1995, divided the West Bank into the Area C administered by Israel and the Area A and B administered by the Palestinian National Authority.|
|Northern Cyprus||1974||Cyprus|| Turkey
|Seized during the Turkish invasion of Cyprus; administered as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, a state with no international recognition|
| Southern Provinces
(80% of Western Sahara)
|1975|| Spanish Sahara
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (claimed)
|Morocco||Seized during the Western Sahara War; de facto annexed; administered as the Southern Provinces; claimed by Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, a state with limited international recognition|
|Transnistria||1992||Moldova||Russia||Seized during the War of Transnistria; administered as the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, a state with limited international recognition|
|Karki||1992||Azerbaijan||Armenia||Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; de facto annexed; administered as part of Ararat Province|
(and surrounding territories)
|1994||Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; Nagorno-Karabakh administered as the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, a state with limited international recognition|
|Barxudarlı||1994||Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; de facto annexed; administered as part of Tavush Province|
|Yuxarı Əskipara||1994||Armenia||Azerbaijan||Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; de facto annexed; administered as part of Tavush Province|
|Artsvashen||1994||Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; de facto annexed; administered as part of Gadabay District|
|Kosovo||1999||Serbia||Kosovo (de facto)||Serbian state that was seized by the NATO-led Kosovo Force to cease hostilities with Serbia and two days after they were authorized to do so by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244. The Republic of Kosovo has recognition from 109 countries and various international institutions.|
|Badme||2002||Eritrea||Ethiopia||Ruled to be a part of Eritrea by the Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission at the Hague. Ethiopia continues to militarily occupy the territory and surroundings of the town in spite of the ruling. Boundary Commission was created at the end of the Eritrean-Ethiopian War, which was triggered around the town.|
|Abkhazia||2008||Georgia||Russia||Seized during the Russo-Georgian War; administered as the Republic of Abkhazia, a state with limited international recognition (See Occupied territories of Georgia)|
|South Ossetia||2008||Seized during the Russo-Georgian War; administered as the Republic of South Ossetia, a state with limited international recognition (See Occupied territories of Georgia)|
|Donetsk Oblast, Luhansk Oblast||2014||Ukraine|| Lugansk People's Republic
Donetsk People's Republic
|See Russian military intervention in Ukraine|
- Military occupations by the Soviet Union
- Peacekeeping - military deployments for peace-keeping purposes
- CSDP missions – foreign non-belligerent military missions of the European Union
- For a list of states that have seceded unilaterally see List of states with limited recognition
- For a list of cases where territory is disputed between countries, see List of territorial disputes
Footnotes and references
- On 17 June 1944, Iceland dissolved its union with Denmark and the Danish monarchy and declared itself a republic.
- On 7 July 1941, the defence of Iceland was transferred from Britain to the United States.
- On March 26, 1949, the US department of State issued a circular letter stating that the Baltic countries were still independent nations with their own diplomatic representatives and consuls.
- From Sumner Wells' declaration of July 23, 1940, that we would not recognize the occupation, the United States acted with a consistency and a tenacity of which we can all be proud. We housed the exiled Baltic diplomatic delegations. We accredited their diplomats. We flew their flags in the State Department's Hall of Flags. We never recognized in deed or word or symbol the illegal occupation of their lands.
- East Jerusalem, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip have been occupied by Israel since 1967. The State of Palestine, which claims these territories, did not declare its independence until 1988. See Palestinian Declaration of Independence. The State of Palestine is, as of November 2015, recognized by 136 countries.
- In 2005, Israel disengaged its military forces from the Gaza Strip and no longer considers itself to be occupying the territory. However, in a Spokesperson's Noon Briefing" on 19 January 2012, Martin Nesirky, Spokesperson for the United Nations Secretary-General, stated "under resolutions adopted by both the Security Council and the General Assembly on the Middle East peace process, the Gaza Strip continues to be regarded as part of the Occupied Palestinian Territory. The United Nations will accordingly continue to refer to the Gaza Strip as part of the Occupied Palestinian Territory until such time as either the General Assembly or the Security Council take a different view."
- The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic did not declare its independence until 1976.
- Past Military Occupations
- See also Manchukuo
- See also Second Sino-Japanese War#Full scale invasion of China
- See also Shanghai#History
- "Laws and Customs of War on Land (Hague IV); October 18, 1907". Retrieved June 20, 2015.
- A Roberts (1990). "Prolonged Military Occupation: The Israeli-Occupied Territories Since 1967". Am. J. Int'l L. 84: 47. doi:10.2307/2203016.
- Eyāl Benveniśtî (2004). The international law of occupation. Princeton University Press. pp. xvi. ISBN 0-691-12130-3.
- Eran Halperin, Daniel Bar-Tal, Keren Sharvit, Nimrod Rosler and Amiram Raviv (2005). "Socio-psychological implications for an occupying society: The case of Israel". Journal of Peace Research. 47: 47; 59. doi:10.1177/0022343309350013.
- Annexation refers to de jure Annexation or annexation as defined under international law.
- David M. Edelstein (2010). "Occupational Hazards: Why Military Occupations Succeed or Fail". Journal of Peace Research: 47; 59.
- Phillipson, Coleman (1916). Termination of War and Treaties of Peace. The Lawbook Exchange. p. 10. ISBN 9781584778608.
The difference between effective military occupation (or conquest) and annexation involves a profound difference in the rights conferred by each
- Stirk, Peter (2009). The Politics of Military Occupation. Edinburgh University Press. p. 44. ISBN 9780748636716.
The significance of the temporary nature of military occupation is that it brings about no change of allegiance. Military government remains an alien government whether of short or long duration, though prolonged occupation may encourage the occupying power to change military occupation into something else, namely annexation
- Hugo Kerchnawe; Rudolf Mitzka; Felix Sobotka; Hermann Leidl; Alfred Krauss (1928). Die Militärverwaltung in den von den österreichisch-ungarischen Truppen besetzten Gebieten, Nide 4.
- "Treaty of Lausanne". Retrieved June 20, 2015.
- Feldbrugge, Ferdinand (1985). Encyclopedia of Soviet law. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht. p. 461. ISBN 90-247-3075-9.
- "U.S.-Baltic Relations: Celebrating 85 Years of Friendship" (PDF) (Press release). U.S. Department of State. June 14, 2007. Archived from the original on August 19, 2012. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- "Far East (Formosa and the Pescadores)". Hansard. U.K. Parliament. 540 (cc1870–4). May 4, 1955. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
The sovereignty was Japanese until 1952. The Japanese Treaty came into force, and at that time Formosa was being administered by the Chinese Nationalists, to whom it was entrusted in 1945, as a military occupation.
- "1956: Jubilation as allied troops leave Suez". Retrieved June 20, 2015.
- Philippe Rekacewicz. "The occupation of Sinai". Retrieved June 20, 2015.
- "CONGO, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE". Retrieved June 20, 2015.
- "Ethiopia Marks Yearlong Occupation in Somalia". Retrieved June 20, 2015.
- "Palestinian territories - Timeline". 8 July 2015. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
- "Amid violence, 'glaring lack of hope,' UN deputy chief urges action to break Israeli-Palestinian impasse". UN News. 23 November 2015. Retrieved November 30, 2015.