Lists of foods
This is a categorically-organized list of foods. Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism and assimilated by the organism's cells in an effort to produce energy, maintain life, or stimulate growth.
Note: due to the high number of foods in existence, this article is limited to being organized categorically, based upon the main subcategories within the Foods category page, along with information about main categorical topics and list article links.
Baked goods are cooked by baking, a method of cooking food that uses prolonged dry heat.
- Breads – bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking. Throughout recorded history it has been popular around the world and is one of humanity's oldest foods, having been of importance since the dawn of agriculture.
- Dairy products – dairy products are food produced from the milk of mammals. Dairy products are usually high energy-yielding food products. A production plant for the processing of milk is called a dairy or a dairy factory. Apart from breastfed infants, the human consumption of dairy products is sourced primarily from the milk of cows, yet goats, sheep, yaks, horses, camels, and other mammals are other sources of dairy products consumed by humans.
- Eggs – eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years. Bird and reptile eggs consist of a protective eggshell, albumen (egg white), and vitellus (egg yolk), contained within various thin membranes. Popular choices for egg consumption are chicken, duck, quail, roe, and caviar, but the egg most often consumed by humans is the chicken egg, by a wide margin.
A batch of tea eggs
with shell still on soaking in a brew of spices and tea, an example of edible eggs
- Edible legumes – legumes are grown agriculturally, primarily for their food grain seed (e.g., beans and lentils, or generally pulse), for livestock forage and silage, and as soil-enhancing green manure. Legumes are notable in that most of them have symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in structures called root nodules. Well-known legumes include alfalfa, clover, peas, beans, lentils, lupins, mesquite, carob, soybeans, peanuts, and tamarind.
- Fruit – In common language usage, fruit normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour and edible in the raw state, such as apples, oranges, grapes, strawberries, bananas, and lemons. On the other hand, the botanical sense of "fruit" includes many structures that are not commonly called "fruits", such as bean pods, corn kernels, wheat grains, and tomatoes.
- Vegetables – in culinary terms, a vegetable is an edible plant or its part, intended for cooking or eating raw.
- Meat – meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food.:1 Humans are omnivorous, and have hunted and killed animals for meat since prehistoric times. The advent of civilization allowed the domestication of animals such as chickens, sheep, pigs and cattle, and eventually their use in meat production on an industrial scale.
Edible nuts and seeds
- Edible nuts and seeds – a nut is a fruit composed of a hard shell and a seed, where the hard-shelled fruit does not open to release the seed (indehiscent). In a culinary context, a wide variety of dried seeds are often called nuts, but in a botanical context, only ones that include the indehiscent fruit are considered true nuts. The translation of "nut" in certain languages frequently requires paraphrases, as the word is ambiguous.
- Many seeds are edible and the majority of human calories comes from seeds, especially from cereals, legumes and nuts. Seeds also provide most cooking oils, many beverages and spices and some important food additives.
- Cereals – True cereals are the seeds of certain species of grass. Maize, wheat, and rice account for about half of the calories consumed by people every year. Grains can be ground into flour for bread, cake, noodles, and other food products. They can also be boiled or steamed, either whole or ground, and eaten as is. Many cereals are present or past staple foods, providing a large fraction of the calories in the places that they are eaten.
- Staple foods – staple food, sometimes called food staple or staple, is a food that is eaten routinely and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet in a given population, supplying a large fraction of the needs for energy-rich materials and generally a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients as well. Most people live on a diet based on just a small number of staples. Most staple plant foods are derived either from cereals such as wheat, barley, rye, maize, or rice, or starchy tubers or root vegetables such as potatoes, yams, taro, and cassava. Other staple foods include pulses (dried legumes), sago (derived from the pith of the sago palm tree), and fruits such as breadfruit and plantains. Of more than 50,000 edible plant species in the world, only a few hundred contribute significantly to human food supplies. Just 15 crop plants provide 90 percent of the world's food energy intake (exclusive of meat), with rice, maize and wheat comprising two-thirds of human food consumption. These three alone are the staples of over 4 billion people.
- Appetizers (also known as hors d'oeuvre) – items served before the main courses of a meal, typically smaller than main dishes, and often meant to be eaten by hand (with minimal use of silverware). Hors d'oeuvre may be served at the dinner table as a part of the meal, or they may be served before seating. Stationary hors d'oeuvre served at the table may be referred to as "table hors d' oeuvre". Passed hors d'oeuvre may be referred to as "butler-style" or "butlered" hors d'oeuvre.
- Condiments – a condiment is something such as a sauce, that is added to some foods to impart a particular flavor, enhance its flavor, or in some cultures, to complement the dish. The term originally described pickled or preserved foods, but has shifted meaning over time.
- Confectionery – confectionery, or the making of confections, are food items that are rich in sugar. Confectionery is divided into two broad and somewhat overlapping categories, bakers' confections and sugar confections. Bakers' confectionery includes principally sweet pastries, cakes, and similar baked goods. Sugar confectionery includes sweets, candied nuts, chocolates, chewing gum, sweetmeats, pastillage, and other confections that are made primarily of sugar. Confections include sweet foods, sweetmeats, digestive aids that are sweet, elaborate creations, and something amusing and frivolous.
- Convenience foods – convenience food, also known as processed food, is commercially prepared food designed for ease of consumption.
- Desserts – dessert is a typically sweet course that may conclude a meal. The course usually consists of sweet foods, but may include other items.
Dips, pastes and spreads
- Dips – A dip or dipping sauce is a common condiment for many types of food. Dips are used to add flavor or texture to a food.
- Paste – A food paste is a semi-liquid colloidal suspension, emulsion, or aggregation used in food preparation or eaten directly as a spread. Pastes are often highly spicy or aromatic.
- Spread – foods that is literally spread, generally with a knife, onto bread, crackers, or other food products. Spreads are added to food to provide flavor and texture.
- Dried foods – drying is a method of food preservation that works by removing water from the food, which inhibits the growth of bacteria and has been practiced worldwide since ancient times to preserve food. Where or when dehydration as a food preservation technique was invented has been lost to time, however the earliest known practice of food drying is 12,000 B.C. by inhabitants of the modern Middle East and Asia regions.
- Fast food – fast food is the term given to food that is prepared and served very quickly, first popularized in the 1950s in the United States. While any meal with low preparation time can be considered fast food, typically the term refers to food sold in a restaurant or store with preheated or precooked ingredients, and served to the customer in a packaged form for take-out/take-away. Fast food restaurants are traditionally separated by their ability to serve food via a drive-through. The term "fast food" was recognized in a dictionary by Merriam–Webster in 1951.
- Kosher food – kosher foods are those that conform to the regulations of kashrut (Jewish dietary law). Food that may be consumed according to halakha (Jewish law) is termed kosher in English, from the Ashkenazi pronunciation of the Hebrew term kashér, meaning "fit" (in this context, fit for consumption). Food that is not in accordance with Jewish law is called treif or treyf, derived from Hebrew trāfáh.
- Noodles – The noodle is a type of staple food made from some type of unleavened dough which is rolled flat and cut into one of a variety of shapes. While long, thin strips may be the most common, many varieties of noodles are cut into waves, helices, tubes, strings, or shells, or folded over, or cut into other shapes. Noodles are usually cooked in boiling water, sometimes with cooking oil or salt added. They are often pan-fried or deep-fried. Noodles are often served with an accompanying sauce or in a soup. Noodles can be refrigerated for short-term storage, or dried and stored for future use.
- Pies – pie is a baked dish which is usually made of a pastry dough casing that covers or completely contains a filling of various sweet or savoury ingredients.
- Salads – salad is a ready-to-eat dish often containing leafy vegetables, usually served chilled or at a moderate temperature and often served with a sauce or dressing. Salads may also contain ingredients such as fruit, grain, meat, seafood and sweets. Though many salads use raw ingredients, some use cooked ingredients.
- Sandwiches – A sandwich is a food item consisting of one or more types of food placed on or between slices of bread, or more generally any dish wherein two or more pieces of bread serve as a container or wrapper for some other food. The sandwich was originally a portable food item or finger food which began its popularity primarily in the Western World, but is now found in various versions in numerous countries worldwide.
- Sauces – In cooking, a sauce is liquid, cream or semi-solid food served on or used in preparing other foods. Sauces are not normally consumed by themselves; they add flavor, moisture, and visual appeal to another dish. Sauce is a French word taken from the Latin salsa, meaning salted. Possibly the oldest sauce recorded is garum, the fish sauce used by the Ancient Greeks.
- Snack food – snack food is a portion of food often smaller than a regular meal, generally eaten between meals. Snacks come in a variety of forms including packaged and processed foods and items made from fresh ingredients at home.
- Soups – soup is a primarily liquid food, generally served warm (but may be cool or cold), that is made by combining ingredients such as meat and vegetables with stock, juice, water, or another liquid. Hot soups are additionally characterized by boiling solid ingredients in liquids in a pot until the flavors are extracted, forming a broth.
||Agriculture and agronomy
- ↑ Encyclopædia Britannica definition
- ↑ Kenneth F. Kiple, A Movable Feast: Ten Millennia of Food Globalization (2007), p. 22.
- ↑ Schlegel, Rolf H J (January 1, 2003). Encyclopedic Dictionary of Plant Breeding and Related Subjects. Haworth Press. p. 177. ISBN 1-56022-950-0.
- ↑ Mauseth, James D. (April 1, 2003). Botany: An Introduction to Plant Biology. Jones and Bartlett. pp. 271–272. ISBN 0-7637-2134-4.
- ↑ Rooting cuttings of tropical trees, London: Commonwealth Science Council, 1993, p. 11, ISBN 978-0-85092-394-0
- ↑ Vainio, Harri & Bianchini, Franca (2003). Fruits And Vegetables. IARC. p. 2. ISBN 9283230086.
- ↑ Chang, Shu-Ting; Phillip G. Miles (1989). Mushrooms: cultivation, nutritional value, medicinal effect, and Environmental Impact. CRC Press. pp. 4–6. ISBN 0-8493-1043-1.
- ↑ Arora D (1986). Mushrooms demystified. Ten Speed Press. p. 23. ISBN 0-89815-169-4.
- ↑ Mattila P, Suonpää K, Piironen V (2000). "Functional properties of edible mushrooms". Nutrition. 16 (7–8): 694–6. doi:10.1016/S0899-9007(00)00341-5. PMID 10906601.
- ↑ Lawrie, R. A.; Ledward, D. A. (2006). Lawrie’s meat science (7th ed.). Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Limited. ISBN 978-1-84569-159-2.
- ↑ Robert E. C. Wildman, Denis M. Medeiros (2000). Advanced Human Nutrition. CRC Press. p. 37. ISBN 0849385660. Retrieved October 6, 2013.
- ↑ Robert Mari Womack (2010). The Anthropology of Health and Healing. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 243. ISBN 0759110441. Retrieved October 6, 2013.
- 1 2 McArdle, John. "Humans are Omnivores". Vegetarian Resource Group. Retrieved October 6, 2013.
- ↑ Sabelli, P.A.; Larkins, B.A. (2009). "The Development of Endosperm in Grasses". Plant Physiology. 149 (1): 14–26. doi:10.1104/pp.108.129437. PMC 2613697. PMID 19126691.
- ↑ United Nations Food & Agriculture Organization: Agriculture and Consumer Protection. "Dimensions of Need – Staples: What do people eat?". Retrieved 2010-10-15.
- ↑ Staple foods — Root and Tuber Crops
- ↑ Staple Foods II -- Fruits
- ↑ "Dimensions of Need: An atlas of food and agriculture". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1995.
- ↑ "Merriam-Webster: Definition of condiment". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
- ↑ Smith, Andrew F. (May 1, 2007). The Oxford companion to American food and drink. Oxford University Press. pp. 144–146. ISBN 978-0-19-530796-2. Retrieved March 15, 2012.
- ↑ International Food Information Service, ed. (2009). Dictionary of Food Science and Technology (2nd ed.). Chichester, U.K.: Wiley–Blackwell. p. 106. ISBN 9781405187404.
- ↑ Confection | Define Confection at Dictionary.com. Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved on 2014-02-16.
- ↑ Kipfer, Barbara Ann (2012). The Culinarian: A Kitchen Desk Reference. New York: Wiley. p. 409. ISBN 978-1-118-11061-4.
- ↑ "Historical Origins of Food Preservation". Accessed June 2011.
- ↑ 4,000-Year-Old Noodles Found in China
- ↑ Abelson, Jenn. "Arguments spread thick". The Boston Globe, 10 November 2006. Retrieved 27 May 2009.
- ↑ "sandwich". Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
- ↑ Foundations of Restaurant Management & Culinary Arts Level Two. Pearson. 2011. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-13-138022-6.
- ↑ "sauce", Wiktionary
- ↑ "Definition of Snack at Dictionary.com". Retrieved 2011-03-13.
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