List of colonial governors of Pennsylvania
Three generations of Penns acted as proprietors of the Province of Pennsylvania and the Lower Counties (Delaware) from the founding of the colony until the American Revolution removed them from power. William Penn was granted the new proprietary colony in 1681 by Charles II of England in payment for debts owed to Penn's father. After Penn became ill in 1712, his second wife Hannah Callowhill Penn served as acting proprietor.
After William's death in 1718, interest in the proprietorship passed to his three sons by Hannah: John Penn "the American", Thomas Penn, and Richard Penn, Sr., with John inheriting the largest share and becoming the chief proprietor. When John died without children, his brother Thomas inherited his share and became chief proprietor.
|#||Chief proprietor||Years||Percentage interest||Other proprietors|
|1||William Penn||1681–1718||100%||Hannah Penn served as acting proprietor after 1712|
|2||John Penn ("the American")||1718–1746||50%||25%: Thomas Penn, 25%: Richard Penn, Sr.|
|3||Thomas Penn||1746–1775||75%||25%: Richard Penn, Sr. (1746–71), Governor John Penn (1771–75)|
|4||John Penn "of Stoke"||1775–1776||75%||25%: Governor John Penn|
During the British occupation of Philadelphia from 26 September 1777 until June 1778, Joseph Galloway was "in charge of policing the city, and of imports and exports".
- Miller, Randall M. and William Pencak, eds. Pennsylvania: A History of the Commonwealth. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2002.
- Treese, Lorett. The Storm Gathering: The Penn Family and the American Revolution. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1992. ISBN 0-271-00858-X.