List of active separatist movements in Europe

Active separatist movements in Europe.

This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Europe. Separatism often refers to full political secession,[1][2][3] though separatist movements may seek nothing more than greater autonomy or to be recognized as a national minority.[4]

What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:

  1. They are active movements with active members;
  2. They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy);
  3. They are citizens/peoples of the conflict area and do not come from another country.

Under each region listed is one or more of the following:

Various ethnic groups in Europe are seeking greater autonomy or independence. In the European Union (EU), several of these groups are members of the European Free Alliance (EFA). In some cases, the group seeks union with a neighbouring country.

Active separatist movements by country


Northern Epirus[5][6]


Further information: Partition of Belgium

 Flanders or Flemish Community (the latter includes  Brussels-Capital Region)


Province of Luxembourg

Bosnia and Herzegovina

 Republika Srpska

 Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia


Blagoevgrad Province



Free State of Fiume Rijeka

Primorje-Gorski Kotar County


Breakaway states:

 Northern Cyprus

Czech Republic


Czech Silesia


For movements in Greenland, see List of active separatist movements in North America.


 Faroe Islands




Secessionist movements

French Basque Country

Brittany and parts of  Pays de la Loire

Main article: Breton nationalism

Catalonia Northern Catalonia / Roussillon (predominantly Pyrénées-Orientales)


Main article: Corsican nationalism



Main article: Occitan nationalism


Autonomist movements




County of Nice





Breakaway states:


 South Ossetia



East Frisia





Friuli-Venezia Giulia

Main article: Friulian Front



Main article: Sardinian nationalism

Sicily Sicily

Main article: Sicilian nationalism

South Tyrol


Main article: Venetian nationalism


Serbia North Kosovo[27]

Gora region






Albanian community in Macedonia

Main article: Albanian nationalism


Breakaway state:


Proposed independent and autonomous movements:










Upper Silesia


The geographical distribution of Hungarians in Romania

Hungarian community in Romania


Russia's Black Sea

Crimean Federal District ( Crimea and  Sevastopol)

Russia's North Caucasus


North Caucasus



Abazinia in central-north Karachay–Cherkessia

Kumykia in north Dagestan

Russia's other European regions

Tatarstan Tatarstan

Udmurtia Udmurtia

Chuvashia Chuvashia

Mari El Mari El

Mordovia Mordovia

Bashkortostan Bashkortostan

Komi Republic Komi Republic


Kalmykia Kalmykia

Rostov Oblast

Krasnodar Krai (Kuban)

North Caucasus near Terek


Vojvodina Autonomous Province of Vojvodina

Preševo Valley


Breakaway state:

Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija (Kosovo)


The geographical distribution of Hungarians in Slovakia

Southern Slovakia:


Areas in Spain with separatist or autonomist movements, as well as their claims to territory in neighbouring countries.
The disputed territory of Olivenza.



Main article: Aragonese nationalism


Main article: Asturian nationalism

 Balearic Islands

Main article: Catalan nationalism

Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque Country (autonomous community)

 Canary Islands

Main article: Canarian nationalism




Main article: Castilian nationalism

Galicia (Spain) Galicia



Main article: Basque nationalism

Territory of Olivenza (Olivença)

Valencian Community Valencia

Additionally, there are a number of almost extinct secessionist or soveranist movements in other autonomous communities and historical territories, e.g. Extremadura and Murcia.



Local secessionist (mostly autonomist) movements include Aranesism, Bercianism, Cartagenism, Majorcanism, Manchego autonomism, Navarrism, Valencian Blaverism and Eastern Andalusian autonomism.

Aran Valley

Main articles: Aranese nationalism and Occitan nationalism







Northern Kurdistan[53]


Breakaway states
Map of protests by region, indicating severity of the unrest at its peak

 Luhansk Oblast (partially)

 Donetsk Oblast (partially)

Disputed status

 Republic of Crimea

City of Sevastopol

Proposed autonomous regions

Subcarpathian Ruthenia

United Kingdom

Secessionist movements





Northern Ireland


Autonomist movements





 Cornwall (possibly including the Isles of Scilly)



North East England or North East Combined Authority area (which excludes Tees Valley)

Northern Isles



Na h-Eileanan Siar

Independence movements of dependant territories

 Isle of Man

See also


  1. "Separatism", Free Dictionary
  2. Merriam; Webster, "Separatism", Dictionary
  3. "Separatism", The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English, Encyclopedia, 2008
  4. Harris, Jerry (2009). The Nation in the Global Era Conflict and Transformation. Brill. p. 320. ISBN 90-04-17690-X.
  5. "Directory of Minorities". Minority rights. Retrieved 10 April 2014. he size of the Greek minority is especially contentious on account of the history of claims to southern Albania made by the Greek government in Athens, and of the substantial support within Greece and among Greeks in Albania, for the establishment of an autonomous district of 'Northern Epirus'.
  6. Andreevska, Elena (1998). The national minorities in the Balkans under the European and UN system of protection of human and minority rights. Magor. ISBN 978-998985105-6. Retrieved 10 April 2014. Omonia's previous policy of improvements for ethnic Greeks within Albania has been progressively abandoned in favour of either autonomy or enosis
  7. Armed Peacekeepers in Bosnia. Diane. 2004. p. 122. ISBN 978-1-4289-1020-1.
  8. "Lista za Rijeku" [List of Rijeka] (in Bosnian). Retrieved 20 March 2014.
  9. Maxmilián Strmiska. "Rise and Fall of Moravian Regionalist Parties". The International Institute of Political Science. Retrieved 10 April 2009.
  10. 1 2 "Silesian Autonomy Movement". Silesian Autonomy Movement. Retrieved 10 April 2009.
  11. "Free Bornholm,". Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  12. "Amtsradsvalg,". Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  13. 1 2 Zubiaga, M. et al.: Towards a Basque State. Nation-building and institutions, Bilbo: UEU, 2012 ISBN 978-84-8438-421-2.
  14. Mateos, T. et al.: Towards a Basque State. Citizenship and culture, Bilbo: UEU, 2012 ISBN 978-84-8438-422-9.
  15. Antiguedad, I. et al.: Towards a Basque State. Territory and socioeconomics, Bilbo: UEU, 2012 ISBN 978-84-8438-423-6.
  16. 1 2 3 4 5 "Current Campaigns". Celtic League. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
  17. "Presentació del Grup de Suport a la CUP de Perpinyà" [Presentation of Candidatura d'Unitat Popular, in Perpignan]. (in Catalan). 6 November 2014.
  18. Parti niçois [Nice party] (in French)
  19. "South Ossetia, former part of Georgia, to hold 'special' referendum to join Russia". RT. 20 February 2016. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  20. Stehle, Anja (13 September 2014), "Freiheit für Bayern – mei', wär' des schee: Nach Schottland referendum entscheidend ist dass die bevölkerung das will" [Freedom for Bavaria – please consider the schee: Scotland referendum is crucial for the population will], Handelsblatt (in German)
  21. Shao Chuan Leng, Coping with Crises: How Governments Deal with Emergencies, pg.92
  22. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  23. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  24. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  25. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  26. (PDF) Missing or empty |title= (help)
  27. "The Brussels Agreement and Serbia's National Interests: A Positive Balance Sheet?" (PDF). KONRAD -ADE NAUER -ST I FT UNG. 25 April 2014. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  28. "Bulgarii din Republica Moldova cer autonomie și amenință Chișinăul cu alipirea la Găgăuzia". Retrieved 20 June 2014.
  29. "FNP program for the Provincial Elections 2007". Frisian National Party. Archived from the original on 6 October 2007. Retrieved 12 April 2009.
  30. "Borbély az autonómiatervezet ről: ejnye, hogy megijedtünk!" [Barber's autonomy from the draft: ahem, that scared!] (in Romanian). kronika. 28 March 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
  31. "Jövő héten egyeztet az MPP és az RMDSZ az autonómia-tervezetről". 25 March 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
  32. "Cultural autonomy and territorial federalism: two voting options for Hungarians in Transylvania". Nationalia. 13 November 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
  33. "Megalakult a Partiumi Autonómia Tanács" [The formation of the Partium Council Autonomy] (in Hungarian). Kitekinto. 22 July 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
  34. "Nyílt pályázat a Partium jelképeinek megtervezésére" [Open tender for the design of the Partium symbols] (in Hungarian). Erdely. 21 May 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
  35. 1 2 3 "Cooperating regionalist and autonomy movements in Europe" (PDF). Central European University. 2007. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
  36. "Szekler National Council". Transilvania. Retrieved 12 April 2009.
  37. "Petiţie pentru autonomia Transilvaniei, depusă la Prefectura Cluj" [Petition for the autonomy of Transylvania, Cluj filed Prefecture] (in Romanian). Romania libera. 12 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
  38. "De ce "Liga Transilvania Democrată"" [Why "Transylvania Democratic League"] (in Romanian). Neuerweg. 21 March 2014. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
  39. "Liga Transilvania Democrată a mai anunţat că se va implica şi din punct de vedere logistic pentru a obţine numărul necesar de semnături" [Transylvania Democratic League announced that it will involve and logistically to get the required number of signatures] (in Romanian). Nova TV. 15 October 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
  40. "Program" (in Romanian). Liga Banateana. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
  41. "Bănăţenii vor autonomie economică şi administrativă: "Acest lucru nu înseamnă independenţa sau ruperea de România"" [Economic and administrative autonomy of Banat: "This does not mean independence or breaking of Romania"] (in Romanian). Adevarul. 29 October 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
  42. "Zukorlić: Autonomija Sandžaka sve izvesnija".
  43. "Berényi: A tömbnek területi, a szórványnak kulturális autonómiát". 20 July 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
  44. "Head of party for ethnic Hungarians in Slovakia says autonomy necessary for minority's survival". 17 April 2013. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
  45. "A felvidéki önrendelkezés kilátásairól az autonómia albizottság ülésén". 16 April 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
  46. Llionesa, Ruchar Mocedá. "Ruchar Mocedá Llionesa: Presentación RUCHAR Mocedá Llionesa". Ruchar Mocedá Llionesa. Retrieved 2016-09-09.
  47. Independència Valenciana (Valencian)
  48. Valencia Freedom
  49. Daftary, Troebst (2004). Radical Ethnic Movements in Contemporary Europe. Berghahn Books. p. 192. ISBN 978-1-57181-695-5.
  50. "Mouvement Indépendantiste Jurassien" [Movement Indépendantiste Jura] (in French). Retrieved 23 June 2015.
  51. "Mouvement autonomiste jurassien" [Jura autonomist movement] (in French). Retrieved 23 June 2015.
  52. "Groupe Bélier – Mouvement de lutte pour l'Unité du Jura" [Aries Group – Movement struggling for Jura Unity] (in French). 14 March 2015. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
  53. Pike, John (21 May 2004). "Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK)". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 23 July 2008.
  54. "The Hungarians of Transcarpathia demand autonomy and double citizenship". 30 March 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-14.
  55. "Hungarians, Rusyns in Zakarpatie afraid of forced Ukrainization, want autonomy". 23 April 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-19.
  56. English Democrats seek independence for England, BBC News. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
  58. "Nå kan Shetland bli en del av Norge".
  59. "NA bankrupt economy, North Sea oil rights sold to China and Shetlanders defecting to Norway. What if Scotland DID go it alone?".
  60. "Shetland: Rather be part of Norway, than Scotland".
  61. "Norwegian politician: Welcomes closer ties to Shetland".
  63. English Democrats seek independence for England, BBC News. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
  64. "Section 5: Solutions – Economic, Legal and Political Measures", Restoring Britishness: UKIP Policy, UK Independence Party, archived from the original on 28 September 2011, retrieved 6 April 2010
  65. "Scottish government renews call for extra powers on tax and welfare". The Guardian. 16 June 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
  66. Daniel Boffey (30 May 2015). "London should be treated as city state, says Labour mayoral hopeful". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
  67. "Green Party will support calls for a Cornish Assembly". The Cornish Guardian. 8 May 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
  68. Graeme Demianyk (10 March 2014). "Liberal Democrats vote for Cornish Assembly". The Western Morning News. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
  69. "Spring Conference 2014". Liberal Democrats. 3 September 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  70. "Cornish Nation". Archived from the original on 11 June 2007.
  71. Stoyle, Professor Mark (17 February 2011), "The Cornish: A Neglected Nation?", British History, BBC
  72. Robins, David; Xylas, Nick (15 March 2003). The Case for Wessex (PDF). Wessex Constitutional Convention. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-9544667-0-1. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
  73. Robins, David; Xylas, Nick (15 March 2003). The Case for Wessex (PDF). Wessex Constitutional Convention. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-9544667-0-1. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
  74. Mark Stead (24 March 2012). "We want devolution, says York council leader". The York Press. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  75. "The official website of the "Yorkshire Independence – Campaign for devolution"". 22 November 2010. Archived from the original on 6 December 2010.
  76. The Yorkshire devolution movement, Facebook Account
  77. "David Blunkett MP suggests "Yorkshire Parliament"". News. BBC. 27 October 2010. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  78. The Yorkshire devolution movement, Word press
  79. Yorkshire devolution
  80. "Northumbria".
  81. "North-east devolution? We could be like Plaid Cymru says new party's leader". Retrieved 27 May 2014.
  82. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Dean Herbert (18 March 2013). "Lib Dem's Scott wants 'home rule' for Shetland isles". Scottish Express. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  83. 1 2 Severin Carrell (17 March 2013). "Scottish independence: islands consider their own 'home rule'". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 May 2013.

External links

"Manifest" (PDF), Politiskaprogram [Political program], AX: Ålands framtid, 2011 .

This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 12/3/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.