List of World Heritage Sites in Pakistan
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites are places of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common heritage of humanity. The programme was founded with the Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage which was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972 in Paris. Pakistan ratified the convention on 23 July 1976, making its historical sites eligible for inclusion on the list. Since then, UNESCO has designated six sites in Pakistan as World Heritage Sites and eighteen sites are on the tentative list.
The first sites to be inducted in the list were Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro, Buddhist Ruins of Takht-i-Bahi and Neighbouring City Remains at Sahr-i-Bahlol, and Taxila, all three of which were inscribed as places of cultural significance in 1980. In 1981 two other sites, Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore and Historical Monuments at Makli, were inscribed. The last site to be designated as a World Heritage Site was Rohtas Fort in 1997. All the six inscribed and eighteen tentative sites are listed under the cultural category.
The UNESCO list contains one designated site in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, with another three in Punjab, and two in Sindh. The maps below show all current World Heritage Sites.
The table lists information about each World Heritage Site:
- Name: as listed by the World Heritage Committee
- Region: one of the 8 administrative units of Pakistan
- Period: time period of significance, typically of construction
- UNESCO data: the site's reference number; the year the site was inscribed on the World Heritage List; the criteria it was listed under: criteria (i) through (vi) are cultural, while (vii) through (x) are natural; sites meeting both criteria are categorized as "mixed sites"
- Description: brief description of the site
|Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro||Sindh, Pakistan 27°19′45″N 68°8′20″E / 27.32917°N 68.13889°E||26th century BC to 19th century BC||138; 1980; ii, iii||Moenjodaro is an archaeological site located on the right bank of Indus River in Larkana District of Sindh. Dating back to the beginning of 3rd millennium BC, the 5000-year-old city was one of the largest and earliest urbanized settlements in South Asia. The ruins were first discovered in 1922 and major excavations were carried out in 1930's, however after 1965 further excavations were banned due to weathering and disintegration. Only one-third of the site has been revealed so far and site conservation works have been on-going since then.|
33°46′45″N 72°53′15″E / 33.77917°N 72.88750°E
|5th century BC to 2nd century AD||139; 1980; iii, vi||Taxila is an archaeological site located in the Rawalpindi District, 30 km northwest of Islamabad. The city dates back to the Gandhara period and contains the ruins of the Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā which was an important Hindu and Buddhist centre, and is still considered a place of religious and historical sanctity in those traditions.|
|Buddhist Ruins of Takht-i-Bahi and Neighbouring City Remains at Sahr-i-Bahlol||Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan 34°19′15″N 71°56′45″E / 34.32083°N 71.94583°E||1st century||140; 1980; iv||Takht-i-Bahi, meaning spring throne, is a Buddhist monastic complex dating to the 1st century BC located on top of a 152 m high hill. The ruins are located about 16 km from Mardan and 80 km from Peshawar. Sahr-i-Bahlol is a small fortified city, dating from the same era, located near Takht-i-Bahi. The historical complex is a complete Buddhist monastery consisting of four main groups; the Court of Stupas, a monastic complex, a temple complex, and a tantric monastic complex.|
|Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore||Punjab, Pakistan 31°35′25″N 74°18′35″E / 31.59028°N 74.30972°E||1556||171; 1981; i,ii,iii||The Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore are two distinct royal complexes from the Mughal era. The Fort is located at the northwest corner of the Walled City of Lahore and has been destroyed and rebuilt several times during its history. The Shalamar Gardens are example of Mughal Gardens which were constructed by the emperor Shah Jahan in 1642. The gardens are influenced by Persian and Islamic traditions and cover 16 hectares of land area.|
|Historical Monuments at Makli, Thatta||Sindh, Pakistan 24°46′0″N 67°54′0″E / 24.76667°N 67.90000°E||14th century to 18th century||143; 1981; iii||Makli is a necropolis in the archaeological city of Thatta dating back to 14th century. The monuments and mausoleums in Makli are built from high quality stone, brick, and glazed tiles representing the civilization of Sindh of the time. Tombs of famous saints and rulers including Jam Nizamuddin II are still preserved and are evidence of Hindu, Mughal, and Islamic architecture.|
|Rohtas Fort||Punjab, Pakistan 32°57′45″N 73°35′20″E / 32.96250°N 73.58889°E||1541||586; 1997; ii, iv||Rohtas Fort is a garrison fort built by Sher Shah Suri, located about 16 km from Jhelum in Punjab, Pakistan. The fort is an exceptional example of Islamic military architecture, integrating artistic traditions from Turkey and the Indian subcontinent. It was built at a strategic location on a small hill alongside Kahan River to control the Ghakkars. Its name is derived from Rohtasgarh, the site of Sher Shah's victory in 1539 over a Hindu ruler.|
The Tentative List is an inventory of important heritage and natural sites that a country is considering for inscription on the World Heritage List, thereby becoming World Heritage Sites. The Tentative List can be updated at any time, but inclusion on the list is a prerequisite to being considered for inscription within a five- to ten-year period.
|Badshahi Mosque, Lahore||Punjab, Pakistan||Cultural||1993||The mosque was commissioned by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in 1671. It is the second largest mosque in Pakistan after Faisal Mosque and can accommodate over 100,000 worshipers in its hall and surroundings. The mosque is located opposite to Lahore Fort and symbolizes the rich Mughal architecture. It was the largest mosque in the Mughal empire and held the record of being the largest mosque in the world for 313 years until 1986. Under Sikh and British rule from 1799 to 1939, the mosque was used as military garrison and was severely damaged. Extensive repair work were done after 1939 and by 1960 it was restored to its original conditions. A small museum containing relics of Prophet Muhammad, his cousin Ali, and his daughter Fatimah is established inside the mosque.|
|Wazir Khan Mosque, Lahore||Punjab, Pakistan||Cultural||1993||The Wazir Khan Mosque in Lahore, is famous for its extensive faience tile work. It has been described as 'a mole on the cheek of Lahore'. It was built in seven years, starting around 1634–1635 AD, during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jehan. It was built by Hakim Shaikh Ilm-ud-din Ansari, a native of Chiniot, who rose to be the court physician to Shah Jahan and a governor of Lahore. The mosque is inside the Inner City and is easiest accessed from Delhi Gate. The mosque contains some of the finest examples of Qashani tile work from the Mughal period.|
|Tombs of Jahangir, Asif Khan and Akbari Sarai, Lahore||Punjab, Pakistan||Cultural||1993||The Tomb of Jahangir is a mausoleum built for Jahangir, who ruled the Mughal Empire from 1605 to 1627. Tomb of Asif Khan belongs to Abul-Hasan ibn Mirza Ghiyas Beg, built by Shah Jahan when Khan died in 1641 while engaged in fighting against the forces of rebel Raja Jagat Singh Pathania. The series of open courtyard tombs called Akbari Sarai, is situated between the tombs of Jahangir and Asif Khan.|
|Hiran Minar and Tank, Sheikhupura||Punjab, Pakistan||Cultural||1993||Hiran Minar is set in peaceful environs near Lahore was constructed by Emperor Jahangir as a monument to Mansiraj, his favorite pet deer or antelope.|
|Katasraj Temple, Chakwal||Punjab, Pakistan||Cultural||2005||The Katas Raj Temples near Chakwal in Punjab province of Pakistan are attributed to the eras of the Hindu Shahis (kings) dating from about 615-950 CE and are dedicated to Lord Shiva. As such they constitute one of the most important Hindu pilgrimage sites in Pakistan and are still in use to this day by members of the Hindu community both in the country and those who make the journey there every year from abroad.|
|Ranikot Fort, Dadu||Sindh, Pakistan||Cultural||1993||Ranikot Fort is a historical fort near Sann, known as The Great Wall of Sindh is believed to be the world's largest fort with a circumference of approximately 26 kilometres (16 mi). The is compared to the Great Wall of China.|
|Shah Jahan Mosque, Thatta||Sindh, Pakistan||Cultural||1993||The mosque was built in 1647, during the reign of Mughal King Shah Jahan, as a gift to the people of Sindh for their hospitality.|
|Chaukhandi Tombs, Karachi||Sindh, Pakistan||Cultural||1993||The Chaukhandi tombs form an early Islamic cemetery are remarkable for their elaborate sandstone carvings. The style of architecture is typical to the region of Sindh. Generally, the tombs are attributed to the Jokhio (also spelt Jokhiya) and known as the family graveyard of the Jokhio tribe, although other, mainly Baluch, tribes have also been buried here. They were mainly built during Mughal rule sometime in the 15th and 18th centuries when Islam became dominant.|
|Archaeological Site of Mehrgarh||Balochistan, Pakistan||Cultural; iii, iv||2004||Mehrgar, is one of the most important Neolithic (7000 BCE to c. 2500 BCE) sites in archaeology. It is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming and herding in South Asia.|
|Archaeological Site of Rehman Dheri||Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan||Cultural; i, ii||2004||Rehman Dheri is a Pre-Harappan archaeological site and one of the oldest urbanised centres found to date in South Asia, Dates back about 4000 BC.|
|Archaeological Site of Harappa||Punjab, Pakistan||Cultural; ii, iv||2004||Harappa is an archaeological site which is site of the ancient city contains the ruins of a Bronze Age fortified city, which was part of the Cemetery H culture and the Indus Valley Civilization, centered in Sindh and the Punjab.|
|Archaeological Site of Ranigat||Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan||Cultural; ii, iv||2004||The archaeological site of Ranigat remains of the region's largest Buddhist monastic complex reside. Structures on the site include stupas, monasteries, shrines, drainage networks, and other buildings. Ranigat is a 2500-year-old Buddhist archaeological site belonging to the Gandhara civilization and is a good evidence of the Buddhist past of the area.|
|Shahbazgarhi Rock Edicts||Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan||Cultural; i, ii, vi||2004||Shahbazgarhi is the location of ancient rock-inscriptions that are cut into two large rock boulders and written in the Kharosthi script. They retain immense historical importance, as they appear to be the first examples of writing in South Asia. They were constructed during the 3rd Century BC, during the reign of Ashoka, the famous Mauryan emperor.|
|Mansehra Rock Edicts||Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan||Cultural; i, ii, vi||2004||Mansehra Rock Edicts are fourteen edicts of the Mauryan emperor Ashoka, inscribed on rocks in Mansehra. The edicts are cut into three boulders and date back to 3rd century BC and they are written in the ancient Indic script of Gandhara culture, Kharosthi. The edicts mention aspects of Ashoka’s dharma.|
|Baltit Fort||Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan||Cultural; i, ii||2004||Balti Fort is an ancient fort in the Hunza valley in Gilgit-Baltistan, founded in the 1st CE. The fort dates back to 700 years ago, with rebuilds and alterations over the centuries. In the 16th century the local prince married a princess from Baltistan who brought master Balti craftsmen to renovate the building as part of her dowry.|
|Tombs of Bibi Jawindi, Baha'al-Halim and Ustead and the Tomb and Mosque of Jalaluddin Bukhari||Punjab, Pakistan||Cultural; ii,iv,vi||2004|
|Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam||Punjab, Pakistan||Cultural; iii,iv,vi||1993, 2004||Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam is the mausoleum of the Sufi saint Sheikh Rukn-ud-Din Abul Fateh. The tomb was built between 1320 and 1324 CE in the pre-Mughal architectural style.|
|Port of Banbhore||Sindh, Pakistan||Cultural; iv,v,vi||2004||Port of Banbhore is an ancient city dating to the 1st century BC, dates back to the Scytho-Parthian era and was later controlled by Muslims from 8th to 13th century after which it was abandoned. Remains of one of the earliest known mosques in the region dating back to 727 AD are still preserved in the city.|
- List of cultural heritage sites in Pakistan
- List of parks and gardens in Pakistan
- List of forts in Pakistan
- List of museums in Pakistan
- "The World Heritage Convention". UNESCO. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
- "Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage". UNESCO. Retrieved 6 September 2012.
- "Pakistan". UNESCO. Retrieved 6 September 2012.
- "Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro". World Heritage Sites. UNESCO. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
- "Taxila". World Heritage Sites. UNESCO. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
- "Buddhist Ruins of Takht-i-Bahi and Neighbouring City Remains at Sahr-i-Bahlol". World Heritage Sites. UNESCO. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
- "Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore". World Heritage Sites. UNESCO. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
- "Historical Monuments at Makli, Thatta". World Heritage Sites. UNESCO. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
- "Rohtas Fort". World Heritage Sites. UNESCO. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
- "Tentative Lists". UNESCO. Retrieved September 8, 2012.
- "Badshahi Mosque, Lahore". World Heritage Sites. UNESCO. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- "Badshahi Mosque". Oriental Architecture. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- "Wazir Khan's Mosque, Lahore, Lahore". World Heritage Sites. UNESCO. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- "Tombs of Jahangir, Asif Khan and Akbari Sarai, Lahore". World Heritage Sites. UNESCO. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- "Hiran Minar and Tank, Sheikhupura". World Heritage Sites. UNESCO. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- "Katas Raaj Chakwal".
- "Rani Kot Fort, Dadu". World Heritage Sites. UNESCO. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- "Shah Jahan Mosque, Thatta". World Heritage Sites. UNESCO. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- "Chaukhandi Tombs, Karachi". World Heritage Sites. UNESCO. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- "Archaeological Site of Mehrgarh". World Heritage Sites. UNESCO. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- "Archaeological Site of Rehman Dheri". World Heritage Sites. UNESCO. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- "Archaeological Site of Harappa". World Heritage Sites. UNESCO. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- "Archaeological Site of Ranigat". World Heritage Sites. UNESCO. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- "Shahbazgarhi Rock Edicts". World Heritage Sites. UNESCO. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- "Mansehra Rock Edicts". World Heritage Sites. UNESCO. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- "Baltit Fort". World Heritage Sites. UNESCO. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- "Tomb of Bibi Jawindi, Baha'al-Halim and Ustead and the Tomb and Mosque of Jalaluddin Bukhari". World Heritage Sites. UNESCO. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- "Tomb of Hazrat Rukn-e-Alam, Multan". World Heritage Sites. UNESCO. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- "Port of Banbhore". World Heritage Sites. UNESCO. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
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