List of Padma Bhushan award recipients (1990–99)
|Awarded by Government of India|
|Obverse||A centrally located lotus flower is embossed and the text "Padma" written in Devanagari script is placed above and the text "Bhushan" is placed below the lotus.|
|Reverse||A platinum Emblem of India placed in the centre with the national motto of India, "Satyameva Jayate" (Truth alone triumphs) in Devanagari Script|
|Previous name(s)||Padma Vibhushan "Dusra Warg" (Class II)|
The Padma Bhushan is India's third highest civilian honour which has been presented by the Government of India since 1954 for "distinguished service of a high order". The award consists of a certificate and a medallion and the recipient's name is registered in The Gazette of India.
In the 1990s, a total of one hundred and thirteen personalities were conferred with the award. Twenty-four awards were presented in both 1990 and 1991, followed by thirty-three in 1992. In February 1992, a writ petition was filed in the Kerala High Court questioning whether the civilian awards presented the Government of India were "titles" as per the Article 18 (1) of the Constitution of India. The subject constitutional article states that "no title, not being a military or academic distinction, shall be conferred by the State". Similar petition was also filed in August 1992 in the Indore Bench of the Madhya Pradesh High Court and a notice was issued on 25 August that led to provisional suspension of all civilian awards. A Special Divisional Bench of the Supreme Court of India was set up with a panel of five judges that delivered the verdict on 15 December 1995 that the "Bharat Ratna and Padma awards are not titles within Article 18 of the Constitution of India". Later in 1998 when the awards were restored back, eighteen recipients received the award followed by fourteen in 1999. Five foreign recipients from Japan, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States were presented this award in the 1990s. Individuals from ten fields were honoured that included twenty-six from art, two from civil services, twenty-three from literature and education, fifteen from medicine, eleven from public affairs, eighteen from science and engineering, ten from social work, three sports persons, three from trade and industry and two for other fields.
Journalist Nikhil Chakravarty declined the award in 1990 so as to "not be identified with the establishment". Historian Romila Thapar declined to accept the award in 1992, and later again in 2005, stating that she would accept awards only "from academic institutions or those associated with my professional work". Similar to Chakravarty, journalist and civil servant K. Subrahmanyam also refused the honour citing that "bureaucrats and journalists should not accept any award from the government because they are more liable to be favoured."
List of recipients
# Indicates a posthumous honour
|1990||Arole, RajanikantRajanikant Arole||Social Work||Maharashtra|
|1990||Bachhawat, Bimal KumarBimal Kumar Bachhawat||Science & Engineering||Delhi|
|1990||Deshpande, Purushottam LaxmanPurushottam Laxman Deshpande||Arts||Maharashtra|
|1990||Desikar, Sattaiyappa DhandapaniSattaiyappa Dhandapani Desikar||Literature & Education||Tamil Nadu|
|1990||Doraiswamy, L. K.L. K. Doraiswamy||Science & Engineering||–|
|1990||Ghosh, NikhilNikhil Ghosh||Arts||Maharashtra|
|1990||Goyal, B. K.B. K. Goyal||Medicine||Maharashtra|
|1990||Khalilullah, MohammadMohammad Khalilullah||Medicine||Delhi|
|1990||Malhotra, R. N.R. N. Malhotra||Civil Service||Maharashtra|
|1990||Matilal, Bimal KrishnaBimal Krishna Matilal||Literature & Education||–|
|1990||Mohan, InderInder Mohan||Social Work||Delhi|
|1990||Moolgaokar, SumantSumant Moolgaokar||Trade & Industry||Maharashtra|
|1990||Mukherjee, HirendranathHirendranath Mukherjee||Literature & Education||West Bengal|
|1990||Narasimhaiah, C. D.C. D. Narasimhaiah||Literature & Education||Karnataka|
|1990||Narasimhan, M. S.M. S. Narasimhan||Science & Engineering||Maharashtra|
|1990||Negi, Kunwar SinghKunwar Singh Negi||Literature & Education||Uttarakhand|
|1990||Pradhan, TrilochanTrilochan Pradhan||Science & Engineering||Odisha|
|1990||Ram, N.N. Ram||Literature & Education||Tamil Nadu|
|1990||Sen, SukumarSukumar Sen||Literature & Education||West Bengal|
|1990||Shourie, ArunArun Shourie||Literature & Education||Delhi|
|1990||Silverman, JuliusJulius Silverman||Public Affairs||–|
|1990||Srinivasan, M. R.M. R. Srinivasan||Science & Engineering||Maharashtra|
|1990||Valiathan, M. S.M. S. Valiathan||Medicine||Kerala|
|1991||Alkazi, EbrahimEbrahim Alkazi||Arts||Delhi|
|1991||Amarnath, LalaLala Amarnath||Sports||Delhi|
|1991||Bendre, Narayan ShridharNarayan Shridhar Bendre||Arts||Maharashtra|
|1991||Benegal, ShyamShyam Benegal||Arts||Maharashtra|
|1991||Deodhar, D. B.D. B. Deodhar||Sports||Maharashtra|
|1991||Khan, Amjad AliAmjad Ali Khan||Arts||Delhi|
|1991||Kumar, DilipDilip Kumar||Arts||Maharashtra|
|1991||Manaklao, Narayan SinghNarayan Singh Manaklao||Social Work||Rajasthan|
|1991||Mani, Muthu KrishnaMuthu Krishna Mani||Medicine||Tamil Nadu|
|1991||Narayan, RamRam Narayan||Arts||Maharashtra|
|1991||Nariman, Fali SamFali Sam Nariman||Public Affairs||Delhi|
|1991||Dev, KapilKapil Dev||Sports||Delhi|
|1991||Pancholi, ManubhaiManubhai Pancholi||Public Affairs||Gujarat|
|1991||Paranjpye, ShakuntalaShakuntala Paranjpye||Social Work||Maharashtra|
|1991||Pathak, BindeshwarBindeshwar Pathak||Social Work||Bihar|
|1991||Prasad, SamtaSamta Prasad||Arts||Uttar Pradesh|
|1991||Rajguru, BasavarajBasavaraj Rajguru||Arts||Karnataka|
|1991||Reddy, Prathap C.Prathap C. Reddy||Medicine||Andhra Pradesh|
|1991||Shankar, AmalaAmala Shankar||Science & Engineering||West Bengal|
|1991||Shirwadkar (Kusumagraj), Vishnu VamanVishnu Vaman Shirwadkar (Kusumagraj)||Literature & Education||Maharashtra|
|1991||Srinivasan, Kuthur RamakrishnanKuthur Ramakrishnan Srinivasan||Literature & Education||Tamil Nadu|
|1991||Suroor, Ale AhmadAle Ahmad Suroor||Arts||Uttar Pradesh|
|1991||Swindale, Leslie DenisLeslie Denis Swindale||Science & Engineering||–|
|1991||Umranangal, Jiwan SinghJiwan Singh Umranangal||Public Affairs||Punjab|
|1992||Bhagavati, Bijoy ChandraBijoy Chandra Bhagavati||Public Affairs||Assam|
|1992||Chaudhuri, DebuDebu Chaudhuri||Arts||Delhi|
|1992||Chaurasia, HariprasadHariprasad Chaurasia||Arts||Maharashtra|
|1992||Cherian, Thayil JohnThayil John Cherian||Medicine||Tamil Nadu|
|1992||Daniel, Ranjan RoyRanjan Roy Daniel||Science & Engineering||Tamil Nadu|
|1992||Dayal, VirendraVirendra Dayal||Civil Service||Delhi|
|1992||Devi, B. SarojaB. Saroja Devi||Arts||Karnataka|
|1992||Gill, Khem SinghKhem Singh Gill||Science & Engineering||Punjab|
|1992||Gopalakrishnayya, VavilalaVavilala Gopalakrishnayya||Public Affairs||Andhra Pradesh|
|1992||Hazare, AnnaAnna Hazare||Social Work||Maharashtra|
|1992||Hameed, Hakim AbdulHakim Abdul Hameed||Medicine||Delhi|
|1992||Jaggaiah, KongaraKongara Jaggaiah||Arts||Andhra Pradesh|
|1992||Karnad, GirishGirish Karnad||Arts||Karnataka|
|1992||Kasturirangan, KrishnaswamyKrishnaswamy Kasturirangan||Science & Engineering||Karnataka|
|1992||Khoshoo, Triloki NathTriloki Nath Khoshoo||Science & Engineering||Delhi|
|1992||Koyama, GoroGoro Koyama||Others||–|
|1992||Radha Krishna, AdusumalliAdusumalli Radha Krishna||Arts||Andhra Pradesh|
|1992||Krishnan, T. N.T. N. Krishnan||Arts||Tamil Nadu|
|1992||Lele, Ramachandra DatatrayaRamachandra Datatraya Lele||Medicine||Maharashtra|
|1992||Mahmood, TalatTalat Mahmood||Arts||Maharashtra|
|1992||Malik, Syed AbdulSyed Abdul Malik||Literature & Education||Assam|
|1992||Malvania, Dalsukh DahyabhaiDalsukh Dahyabhai Malvania||Literature & Education||Gujarat|
|1992||Mansingh, SonalSonal Mansingh||Arts||Delhi|
|1992||Menon, M. SaradaM. Sarada Menon||Social Work||Tamil Nadu|
|1992||Pagdi, Setu MadhavraoSetu Madhavrao Pagdi||Literature & Education||Maharashtra|
|1992||Parekh, HasmukhbhaiHasmukhbhai Parekh||Trade & Industry||Maharashtra|
|1992||Reddy, C. NarayanaC. Narayana Reddy||Literature & Education||Andhra Pradesh|
|1992||Sarabhai, MrinaliniMrinalini Sarabhai||Arts||Gujarat|
|1992||Talwar, GursaranGursaran Talwar||Medicine||Delhi|
|1992||Triguna, Brihaspati DevBrihaspati Dev Triguna||Medicine||Delhi|
|1992||Venkatalakshamma, K.K. Venkatalakshamma||Arts||Karnataka|
|1992||Vyas, C. R.C. R. Vyas||Arts||Maharashtra|
|1998||Ananthamurthy, U. R.U. R. Ananthamurthy||Literature & Education||Karnataka|
|1998||Chandrasekhar, SivaramakrishnaSivaramakrishna Chandrasekhar||Science & Engineering||Karnataka|
|1998||Chattopadhyaya, DebiprasadDebiprasad Chattopadhyaya||Literature & Education||West Bengal|
|1998||Dang, SatyapalSatyapal Dang||Public Affairs||Punjab|
|1998||Dhillon, Gurbaksh SinghGurbaksh Singh Dhillon||Public Affairs||Madhya Pradesh|
|1998||Dua, H. K.H. K. Dua||Literature & Education||Delhi|
|1998||Girinath, Maligali Ram KrishnaMaligali Ram Krishna Girinath||Medicine||Tamil Nadu|
|1998||Gupta, HemlataHemlata Gupta||Medicine||Delhi|
|1998||Mathew, K. M.K. M. Mathew||Literature & Education||Kerala|
|1998||Nair, G. MadhavanG. Madhavan Nair||Science & Engineering||Kerala|
|1998||Paroda, Rajendra SinghRajendra Singh Paroda||Science & Engineering||Delhi|
|1998||Parulkar, Gurukumar BalachandraGurukumar Balachandra Parulkar||Medicine||Maharashtra|
|1998||Rajaraman, VaidyeswaranVaidyeswaran Rajaraman||Science & Engineering||Karnataka|
|1998||Sahni, BhishamBhisham Sahni||Literature & Education||Delhi|
|1998||Satyam, Vempati ChinnaVempati Chinna Satyam||Arts||Tamil Nadu|
|1998||Singhvi, Laxmi MallLaxmi Mall Singhvi||Public Affairs||Delhi|
|1998||Tarkunde, V. M.V. M. Tarkunde||Public Affairs||Uttar Pradesh|
|1998||Venugopal, PanangipalliPanangipalli Venugopal||Medicine||Delhi|
|1999||Badrinath, S. S.S. S. Badrinath||Medicine||Tamil Nadu|
|1999||Chandra, Jag ParveshJag Parvesh Chandra||Public Affairs||Delhi|
|1999||Cherian, JacobJacob Cherian||Social Work||Tamil Nadu|
|1999||Das, PushpalataPushpalata Das||Social Work||Assam|
|1999||Godrej, Sohrab PirojshaSohrab Pirojsha Godrej||Trade & Industry||Maharashtra|
|1999||Joseph, GeorgeGeorge Joseph||Science & Engineering||Gujarat|
|1999||Kakodkar, AnilAnil Kakodkar||Science & Engineering||Maharashtra|
|1999||Kizhakemuri, D. C.D. C. Kizhakemuri#||Literature & Education||Kerala|
|1999||Kumar, AshokAshok Kumar||Arts||Maharashtra|
|1999||Mishra, Vidya NiwasVidya Niwas Mishra||Literature & Education||Uttar Pradesh|
|1999||Santhanam, KrishnamurthyKrishnamurthy Santhanam||Science & Engineering||Delhi|
|1999||Shourie, H. D.H. D. Shourie||Social Work||Delhi|
|1999||Suman, Shivmangal SinghShivmangal Singh Suman||Literature & Education||Madhya Pradesh|
|1999||Upadhyay, Ram KinkarRam Kinkar Upadhyay||Others||Uttar Pradesh|
- Lal, Shavax A. (1954). "The Gazette of India—Extraordinary—Part I" (PDF). The Gazette of India. The President's Secretariat (published 2 January 1954): 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
The President is pleased to institute an award to be designated 'Padma Vibhushan' in three classes, namely: 'Pahela Varg', 'Dusra Varg' and 'Tisra Varg'
- "Padma Awards Scheme" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). Retrieved 14 March 2016.
- "The Constitution of India" (PDF). Ministry of Law and Justice (India). p. 36. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 September 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
- "Balaji Raghavan S. P. Anand Vs. Union of India: Transfer Case (civil) 9 of 1994". Supreme Court of India. 4 August 1997. Archived from the original on 19 May 2014. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
- Akshaya Mukul, Vishwa Mohan, Himanshi Dhawan (6 February 2010). "Chatwal fiasco: Top civilian awards losing sheen". Times of India. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
- Edgar, Thorpe (2011). The Pearson General Knowledge Manual 2011. Pearson Education India. p. C-105. ISBN 978-81-317-5640-9.
- "Padma Awards Directory (1954–2014)" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). 21 May 2014. pp. 94–117. Retrieved 22 March 2016.
- "Those who said no to top awards". Times of India. 20 January 2008. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
- "Sarangi maestro Ram Narayan gets Bhimsen Joshi Award". Business Standard. Mumbai. Indo-Asian News Service. 3 February 2016. Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
- Saran, Renu (2014). Encyclopedia of Bollywood–Film Actresses. Diamond Pocket Books. p. 97. ISBN 978-93-5083-691-0.
- "April 14 declared as 'Bindeshwar Pathak Day' by New York Mayor". The Indian Express. Press Trust of India. 16 April 2016. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
- "Profile:Bindeshwar Pathak". Global 500 Environmental Forum. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
- "Profile: George Joseph". Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in Asia and the Pacific (CSSTEAP). Retrieved 25 July 2016.
- "Awards & Medals". Ministry of Home Affairs (India). 14 September 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2015.