List of Padma Bhushan award recipients (1990–99)

Padma Bhushan
Awarded by Government of India
Type Civilian
Category National
Obverse A centrally located lotus flower is embossed and the text "Padma" written in Devanagari script is placed above and the text "Bhushan" is placed below the lotus.
Reverse A platinum Emblem of India placed in the centre with the national motto of India, "Satyameva Jayate" (Truth alone triumphs) in Devanagari Script
Instituted 1954
First awarded 1954
Total awarded 113
Previous name(s) Padma Vibhushan "Dusra Warg" (Class II)
Award rank
 Padma Vibhushan Padma Shri 

The Padma Bhushan is India's third highest civilian honour which has been presented by the Government of India since 1954 for "distinguished service of a high order".[1] The award consists of a certificate and a medallion and the recipient's name is registered in The Gazette of India.[2]

In the 1990s, a total of one hundred and thirteen personalities were conferred with the award. Twenty-four awards were presented in both 1990 and 1991, followed by thirty-three in 1992. In February 1992, a writ petition was filed in the Kerala High Court questioning whether the civilian awards presented the Government of India were "titles" as per the Article 18 (1) of the Constitution of India. The subject constitutional article states that "no title, not being a military or academic distinction, shall be conferred by the State".[3] Similar petition was also filed in August 1992 in the Indore Bench of the Madhya Pradesh High Court and a notice was issued on 25 August that led to provisional suspension of all civilian awards.[4][5] A Special Divisional Bench of the Supreme Court of India was set up with a panel of five judges that delivered the verdict on 15 December 1995 that the "Bharat Ratna and Padma awards are not titles within Article 18 of the Constitution of India".[4][6] Later in 1998 when the awards were restored back, eighteen recipients received the award followed by fourteen in 1999. Five foreign recipients from Japan, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States were presented this award in the 1990s. Individuals from ten fields were honoured that included twenty-six from art, two from civil services, twenty-three from literature and education, fifteen from medicine, eleven from public affairs, eighteen from science and engineering, ten from social work, three sports persons, three from trade and industry and two for other fields.[7]

Journalist Nikhil Chakravarty declined the award in 1990 so as to "not be identified with the establishment".[8] Historian Romila Thapar declined to accept the award in 1992, and later again in 2005, stating that she would accept awards only "from academic institutions or those associated with my professional work".[8] Similar to Chakravarty, journalist and civil servant K. Subrahmanyam also refused the honour citing that "bureaucrats and journalists should not accept any award from the government because they are more liable to be favoured."[8]

List of recipients

Ram Narayan
Awarded in 1991, Sarangi player Ram Narayan popularised the instrument as a solo concert instrument and is considered as first internationally successful sarangi player.[9]
Shakuntala Paranjpye
Widely known for her "pioneering" work in the field of family planning, Shakuntala Paranjpye also acted in movies like Sairandhri (1933) and Kunku (1937). She was awarded with Padma Bhushan in 1991.[10]
Bindeshwar Pathak
1991 recipient Bindeshwar Pathak is an sociologist and founder of Sulabh International. The United Nations Environment Programme awarded him with Global 500 Roll of Honour in 2003.[11]
Considered as "the pioneer of satellite based imaging sensors in the country", George Joseph has made significant contribution to Electro-optical sensor development. Joseph was awarded with Padma Bhushan in 1999.[12]
Award recipients by year[7]
Year Number of recipients
Award recipients by field[7]
Field Number of recipients
Civil Service
Literature & Education
Public Affairs
Science & Engineering
Social Work
Trade & Industry
   # Indicates a posthumous honour
List of Padma Bhushan award recipients, showing the year, field, and state/country[7]
Year Recipient Field State
1990 Arole, RajanikantRajanikant Arole Social Work Maharashtra
1990 Bachhawat, Bimal KumarBimal Kumar Bachhawat Science & Engineering Delhi
1990 Deshpande, Purushottam LaxmanPurushottam Laxman Deshpande Arts Maharashtra
1990 Desikar, Sattaiyappa DhandapaniSattaiyappa Dhandapani Desikar Literature & Education Tamil Nadu
1990 Doraiswamy, L. K.L. K. Doraiswamy Science & Engineering   [upper-alpha 1]
1990 Ghosh, NikhilNikhil Ghosh Arts Maharashtra
1990 Goyal, B. K.B. K. Goyal Medicine Maharashtra
1990 Jasraj, Jasraj Arts Maharashtra
1990 Khalilullah, MohammadMohammad Khalilullah Medicine Delhi
1990 Malhotra, R. N.R. N. Malhotra Civil Service Maharashtra
1990 Matilal, Bimal KrishnaBimal Krishna Matilal Literature & Education   [upper-alpha 2]
1990 Mohan, InderInder Mohan Social Work Delhi
1990 Moolgaokar, SumantSumant Moolgaokar Trade & Industry Maharashtra
1990 Mukherjee, HirendranathHirendranath Mukherjee Literature & Education West Bengal
1990 Narasimhaiah, C. D.C. D. Narasimhaiah Literature & Education Karnataka
1990 Narasimhan, M. S.M. S. Narasimhan Science & Engineering Maharashtra
1990 Negi, Kunwar SinghKunwar Singh Negi Literature & Education Uttarakhand
1990 Pradhan, TrilochanTrilochan Pradhan Science & Engineering Odisha
1990 Ram, N.N. Ram Literature & Education Tamil Nadu
1990 Sen, SukumarSukumar Sen Literature & Education West Bengal
1990 Shourie, ArunArun Shourie Literature & Education Delhi
1990 Silverman, JuliusJulius Silverman Public Affairs   [upper-alpha 2]
1990 Srinivasan, M. R.M. R. Srinivasan Science & Engineering Maharashtra
1990 Valiathan, M. S.M. S. Valiathan Medicine Kerala
1991 Alkazi, EbrahimEbrahim Alkazi Arts Delhi
1991 Amarnath, LalaLala Amarnath Sports Delhi
1991 Bendre, Narayan ShridharNarayan Shridhar Bendre Arts Maharashtra
1991 Benegal, ShyamShyam Benegal Arts Maharashtra
1991 Deodhar, D. B.D. B. Deodhar Sports Maharashtra
1991 Khan, Amjad AliAmjad Ali Khan Arts Delhi
1991 Kumar, DilipDilip Kumar Arts Maharashtra
1991 Manaklao, Narayan SinghNarayan Singh Manaklao Social Work Rajasthan
1991 Mani, Muthu KrishnaMuthu Krishna Mani Medicine Tamil Nadu
1991 Narayan, RamRam Narayan Arts Maharashtra
1991 Nariman, Fali SamFali Sam Nariman Public Affairs Delhi
1991 Dev, KapilKapil Dev Sports Delhi
1991 Pancholi, ManubhaiManubhai Pancholi Public Affairs Gujarat
1991 Paranjpye, ShakuntalaShakuntala Paranjpye Social Work Maharashtra
1991 Pathak, BindeshwarBindeshwar Pathak Social Work Bihar
1991 Prasad, SamtaSamta Prasad Arts Uttar Pradesh
1991 Rajguru, BasavarajBasavaraj Rajguru Arts Karnataka
1991 Reddy, Prathap C.Prathap C. Reddy Medicine Andhra Pradesh
1991 Shankar, AmalaAmala Shankar Science & Engineering West Bengal
1991 Shirwadkar (Kusumagraj), Vishnu VamanVishnu Vaman Shirwadkar (Kusumagraj) Literature & Education Maharashtra
1991 Srinivasan, Kuthur RamakrishnanKuthur Ramakrishnan Srinivasan Literature & Education Tamil Nadu
1991 Suroor, Ale AhmadAle Ahmad Suroor Arts Uttar Pradesh
1991 Swindale, Leslie DenisLeslie Denis Swindale Science & Engineering   [upper-alpha 3]
1991 Umranangal, Jiwan SinghJiwan Singh Umranangal Public Affairs Punjab
1992 Bhagavati, Bijoy ChandraBijoy Chandra Bhagavati Public Affairs Assam
1992 Chaudhuri, DebuDebu Chaudhuri Arts Delhi
1992 Chaurasia, HariprasadHariprasad Chaurasia Arts Maharashtra
1992 Cherian, Thayil JohnThayil John Cherian Medicine Tamil Nadu
1992 Daniel, Ranjan RoyRanjan Roy Daniel Science & Engineering Tamil Nadu
1992 Dayal, VirendraVirendra Dayal Civil Service Delhi
1992 Devi, B. SarojaB. Saroja Devi Arts Karnataka
1992 Gill, Khem SinghKhem Singh Gill Science & Engineering Punjab
1992 Gopalakrishnayya, VavilalaVavilala Gopalakrishnayya Public Affairs Andhra Pradesh
1992 Hazare, AnnaAnna Hazare Social Work Maharashtra
1992 Hameed, Hakim AbdulHakim Abdul Hameed Medicine Delhi
1992 Jaggaiah, KongaraKongara Jaggaiah Arts Andhra Pradesh
1992 Karnad, GirishGirish Karnad Arts Karnataka
1992 Kasturirangan, KrishnaswamyKrishnaswamy Kasturirangan Science & Engineering Karnataka
1992 Khoshoo, Triloki NathTriloki Nath Khoshoo Science & Engineering Delhi
1992 Koyama, GoroGoro Koyama Others   [upper-alpha 4]
1992 Radha Krishna, AdusumalliAdusumalli Radha Krishna Arts Andhra Pradesh
1992 Krishnan, T. N.T. N. Krishnan Arts Tamil Nadu
1992 Lele, Ramachandra DatatrayaRamachandra Datatraya Lele Medicine Maharashtra
1992 Mahmood, TalatTalat Mahmood Arts Maharashtra
1992 Malik, Syed AbdulSyed Abdul Malik Literature & Education Assam
1992 Malvania, Dalsukh DahyabhaiDalsukh Dahyabhai Malvania Literature & Education Gujarat
1992 Mansingh, SonalSonal Mansingh Arts Delhi
1992 Menon, M. SaradaM. Sarada Menon Social Work Tamil Nadu
1992 Naushad, Naushad Arts Maharashtra
1992 Pagdi, Setu MadhavraoSetu Madhavrao Pagdi Literature & Education Maharashtra
1992 Parekh, HasmukhbhaiHasmukhbhai Parekh Trade & Industry Maharashtra
1992 Reddy, C. NarayanaC. Narayana Reddy Literature & Education Andhra Pradesh
1992 Sarabhai, MrinaliniMrinalini Sarabhai Arts Gujarat
1992 Talwar, GursaranGursaran Talwar Medicine Delhi
1992 Triguna, Brihaspati DevBrihaspati Dev Triguna Medicine Delhi
1992 Venkatalakshamma, K.K. Venkatalakshamma Arts Karnataka
1992 Vyas, C. R.C. R. Vyas Arts Maharashtra
1998 Ananthamurthy, U. R.U. R. Ananthamurthy Literature & Education Karnataka
1998 Chandrasekhar, SivaramakrishnaSivaramakrishna Chandrasekhar Science & Engineering Karnataka
1998 Chattopadhyaya, DebiprasadDebiprasad Chattopadhyaya Literature & Education West Bengal
1998 Dang, SatyapalSatyapal Dang Public Affairs Punjab
1998 Dhillon, Gurbaksh SinghGurbaksh Singh Dhillon Public Affairs Madhya Pradesh
1998 Dua, H. K.H. K. Dua Literature & Education Delhi
1998 Girinath, Maligali Ram KrishnaMaligali Ram Krishna Girinath Medicine Tamil Nadu
1998 Gupta, HemlataHemlata Gupta Medicine Delhi
1998 Mathew, K. M.K. M. Mathew Literature & Education Kerala
1998 Nair, G. MadhavanG. Madhavan Nair Science & Engineering Kerala
1998 Paroda, Rajendra SinghRajendra Singh Paroda Science & Engineering Delhi
1998 Parulkar, Gurukumar BalachandraGurukumar Balachandra Parulkar Medicine Maharashtra
1998 Rajaraman, VaidyeswaranVaidyeswaran Rajaraman Science & Engineering Karnataka
1998 Sahni, BhishamBhisham Sahni Literature & Education Delhi
1998 Satyam, Vempati ChinnaVempati Chinna Satyam Arts Tamil Nadu
1998 Singhvi, Laxmi MallLaxmi Mall Singhvi Public Affairs Delhi
1998 Tarkunde, V. M.V. M. Tarkunde Public Affairs Uttar Pradesh
1998 Venugopal, PanangipalliPanangipalli Venugopal Medicine Delhi
1999 Badrinath, S. S.S. S. Badrinath Medicine Tamil Nadu
1999 Chandra, Jag ParveshJag Parvesh Chandra Public Affairs Delhi
1999 Cherian, JacobJacob Cherian Social Work Tamil Nadu
1999 Das, PushpalataPushpalata Das Social Work Assam
1999 Godrej, Sohrab PirojshaSohrab Pirojsha Godrej Trade & Industry Maharashtra
1999 Joseph, GeorgeGeorge Joseph Science & Engineering Gujarat
1999 Kakodkar, AnilAnil Kakodkar Science & Engineering Maharashtra
1999 Kizhakemuri, D. C.D. C. Kizhakemuri# Literature & Education Kerala
1999 Kumar, AshokAshok Kumar Arts Maharashtra
1999 Mishra, Vidya NiwasVidya Niwas Mishra Literature & Education Uttar Pradesh
1999 Santhanam, KrishnamurthyKrishnamurthy Santhanam Science & Engineering Delhi
1999 Shourie, H. D.H. D. Shourie Social Work Delhi
1999 Suman, Shivmangal SinghShivmangal Singh Suman Literature & Education Madhya Pradesh
1999 Upadhyay, Ram KinkarRam Kinkar Upadhyay Others Uttar Pradesh

Explanatory notes

    Non-citizen recipients

    1. Indicates a citizen of the United States
    2. 1 2 Indicates a citizen of the United Kingdom
    3. Indicates a citizen of New Zealand
    4. Indicates a citizen of Japan


    1. Lal, Shavax A. (1954). "The Gazette of India—Extraordinary—Part I" (PDF). The Gazette of India. The President's Secretariat (published 2 January 1954): 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2016. The President is pleased to institute an award to be designated 'Padma Vibhushan' in three classes, namely: 'Pahela Varg', 'Dusra Varg' and 'Tisra Varg'
    2. "Padma Awards Scheme" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). Retrieved 14 March 2016.
    3. "The Constitution of India" (PDF). Ministry of Law and Justice (India). p. 36. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 September 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
    4. 1 2 "Balaji Raghavan S. P. Anand Vs. Union of India: Transfer Case (civil) 9 of 1994". Supreme Court of India. 4 August 1997. Archived from the original on 19 May 2014. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
    5. Akshaya Mukul, Vishwa Mohan, Himanshi Dhawan (6 February 2010). "Chatwal fiasco: Top civilian awards losing sheen". Times of India. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
    6. Edgar, Thorpe (2011). The Pearson General Knowledge Manual 2011. Pearson Education India. p. C-105. ISBN 978-81-317-5640-9.
    7. 1 2 3 4 "Padma Awards Directory (1954–2014)" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). 21 May 2014. pp. 94–117. Retrieved 22 March 2016.
    8. 1 2 3 "Those who said no to top awards". Times of India. 20 January 2008. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
    9. "Sarangi maestro Ram Narayan gets Bhimsen Joshi Award". Business Standard. Mumbai. Indo-Asian News Service. 3 February 2016. Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
    10. Saran, Renu (2014). Encyclopedia of Bollywood–Film Actresses. Diamond Pocket Books. p. 97. ISBN 978-93-5083-691-0.
    11. "April 14 declared as 'Bindeshwar Pathak Day' by New York Mayor". The Indian Express. Press Trust of India. 16 April 2016. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
    12. "Profile: George Joseph". Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in Asia and the Pacific (CSSTEAP). Retrieved 25 July 2016.
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