Liberalism by country
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This article gives information on liberalism worldwide. It is an overview of parties that adhere to some form of liberalism and is therefore a list of liberal parties around the world.
The definition of liberal party is highly debatable. In the list below, it is defined as a political party that adheres to the basic principles of political liberalism. This is a broad political current, including left-wing, centrist and right-wing elements. All liberal parties emphasise individual rights, but they differ in their opinion on an active role for the state. This list includes parties of different character, ranging from classical liberalism to social liberalism, conservative liberalism to national liberalism.
Several conservative and/or Christian-democratic parties, such as the British Conservative Party, Germany's Christian Democratic Union and Spain's People's Party, are also considered to be liberal leaning or have strong liberal conservative and/or classical liberal factions, whereas some conservative parties, such as Poland's Law and Justice and Hungary's Fidesz, similar to social-democratic parties, favour more state intervention and harbour more of a distrust of the free market/free market solutions and therefore cannot be considered liberal in any conventional form. Conversely, some social-democratic parties, such as the British Labour Party and the Italian Democratic Party, include liberal elements. Social liberalism and social conservatism are not mutually exclusive either, in fact some parties espouse socially liberal economic policies, while maintaining more socially conservative or traditionalist views on society: examples of this include Finland's Centre Party (see also Nordic agrarian parties) and Ireland's Fianna Fáil, both members of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party (ALDE Party). In the United States, the two major political forces, the Republican Party and the Democratic Party, are to some extent, liberal (see Liberalism in the United States and Modern liberalism in the United States).
Many liberal parties are members of the Liberal International and/or one of its regional partners, such as the ALDE Party in Europe, the Liberal Network for Latin America and the Council of Asian Liberals and Democrats. Generally, membership in these international organizations is an indication that that party is indeed liberal. However, other international organisations, such as the International Democrat Union and the Centrist Democrat International, and regional organisations, such as the European People's Party, the Alliance of European Conservatives and Reformists, the European Democratic Party and the Christian Democrat Organization of America, also have liberal or liberal leaning parties as significant proportions of their membership.
Not all the parties using the "Liberal" or "Freedom" labels are actually liberal. Moreover, some parties, such as the Freedom Party of Austria, were originally liberal, but have since tilted toward a populist direction and abandoned most of the tenets of liberalism. Finally, some parties, such as the United States Republican Party, Australia's Liberal Party or Norway's Progress Party are liberal mainly from an economic point of view (see economic liberalism, libertarianism and right-libertarianism).
International organizations of parties
- Liberal International
- Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party
- Liberal Network for Latin America
- Council of Asian Liberals and Democrats
- Africa Liberal Network
- Arab Alliance for Freedom and Democracy
Parliamentary parties and other parties with substantial support
- This list includes also parties which were represented in the last previous legislature and still exists as well as some banned or exiles parties (Burma, Cuba). Liberals might be active in other parties, but that is no reason to include a party.
- See the remarks above about the criteria. Minor parties are listed below
- There are very few liberal political parties in Algeria. Ahd 54 and the Algerian Natural Law Party may be considered liberal. The main Berber party, the Rally for Culture and Democracy (Rassemblement pour la Culture et la Démocratie) could be considered to embrace some liberal values.
- In Angola, the Liberal Democratic Party (Partido Liberal Democratico, member LI) is a small liberal party.
- In Benin, the Rebirth Party of Benin (Parti de la renaissance du Bénin), might be considered a liberal party, but its exact profile is not available.
- In Burkina Faso, the Alliance for Democracy and Federation (Alliance pour la Démocratie et la Fédération), might be considered a liberal party, but it exact profile is not available.
- In Cape Verde, the Movement for Democracy (Movimento para a Democracia, member CDI), might be considered a liberal party, but its exact profile is not available.
- In Côte d'Ivoire, the Rally of the Republicans (Rassemblement des Republicains, member LI, CDI) is the liberal, main government party.
- In Egypt, the Democratic Front Party (Hizb al-Gabha Al-dimocratia) and the New Delegation Party (Hizb al-Wafd-al-Jadid) could be considered "liberal parties". The newest liberal party in Egypt is El-Ghad Party (Tomorrow's Party) led by the opposition leader Ayman Nour . Also, the newly established Free Egyptians Party. See for more information: Liberalism in Egypt.
- In Equatorial Guinea, the National Democratic Union of Equatorial Guinea (Unión Democratica Nacional de Guinea Ecuatorial, member LI) claims to be a liberal party.
- In Gambia, the United Democratic Party, might be considered a liberal party, but it exact profile is not available.
- In Ghana, the New Patriotic Party is a right of center liberal party that is unclear about its international affiliations.
- In Kenya, the Orange Democratic Movement (observer LI) might be considered a liberal party.
- In Malawi, the liberal character of the United Democratic Front is despite its membership of the LI disputable. The Democratic Progressive Party was formed in 2005 by President Bingu wa Mutharika after a dispute with the UDF. There were allegations that members of the former governing UDF did not adequately tackle corruption. It is unclear if the party will be ideological or personalist in style.
- In Morocco, two center-right parties, the Constitutional Union (Union Constitutionnelle) and the Popular Movement (Mouvement Populaire) are both member of the LI. However both are conservative in social issues, something abnormal for a true liberal party.The National Rally of Independents (observer LI, member ALN), founded in 1978 as a royalist party, is nowadays a liberal party.
- In Mozambique, the Liberal Democratic Party of Mozambique (Partido Liberal e Democrático de Moçambique) and the Social Liberal and Democratic Party (Partido Social-Liberal e Democrático) claim to be liberal parties, but both lost parliamentary representation.
- In Senegal, the Senegalese Democratic Party (Parti Démocratique Sénégalais, member LI) is a liberal party with a strong personalist character. See for more information: Liberalism in Senegal.
- In Seychelles, the Seychelles National Party (observer LI) is a liberal party.
- In South Africa, the Democratic Alliance (member LI) is a liberal party. See for more information: Liberalism in South Africa.
- In Sudan, the Liberal Party of Sudan (member ALN, AAFD) is a social-liberal party struggling for human rights and a social market economy.
- In Tanzania, the Civic United Front (Chama Cha Wananchi), member LI) and the United Democratic Party, observer LI are liberal parties.
- In Tunisia, the Social Liberal Party (Parti Social Libéral, observer LI) is a more or less liberal party.
- In Zambia, the main opposition party, the United Party for National Development (observer LI) takes a liberal position in the political spectrum.
- In Zimbabwe, liberalism is not organized, but the left-leaning opposition Movement for Democratic Change includes liberals and social democrats opposed to President Robert Mugabe.
In many Latin American countries, liberalism and radicalism have been associated with generally left-of-center political movements such as Colombia's Liberal Party, historically concerned mostly with effecting government decentralization and regional autonomy (liberals were influential in the total dissolution of at least two defunct countries, the United Provinces of Central America and Gran Colombia) and separation of church and state. At times, the anti-clerical and secularist stances promoted by Latin American liberals have resulted in limitations on the civil rights of clergy or others associated with the Church (as in Mexico, where law still prohibits priests from public office). Liberalism in North America has a different background.
- In Argentina, the Radical Civic Union (Unión Cívica Radical) historically was a centrist progressive-liberal party, while nowadays it adheres to the Socialist International and its platform is a combination of liberal and social democratic ideas. The UCR's long-time rivals have been Peronism and the Peronist-inspired Justicialist Party. Recreate for Growth (Recrear para el Crecimiento) had been a short lived attempt to form a market liberal party and has observer status in the Liberal International. This party was in alliance with conservative-liberal Republican Proposal (Propuesta Republicana). Also smaller parties, such as the Union of the Democratic Centre (Unión del Centro Democrático), the Progressive Democratic Party (Partido Demócrata Progresista), the Liberal Party of Corrientes (Partido Liberal de Corrientes) and the Democratic Party of Mendoza (Partido Demócrata Mendoza), adhere to conservative-liberal principles. On the libertarian side, stands the Liberal Libertarian Party (Partido Liberal Libertario), whose focus is on free markets and individual rights.
- In Aruba, the character of the Aruban Liberal Organization (Organisacion Liberal Arubiano) is not clear. The party lost parliamentary representation in the 2005 election.
- In Bahamas, the dominant party is the left of center liberal Progressive Liberal Party.
- In Bolivia, the Liberal Party was dominant until 1952.(Main article: Liberalism in Bolivia).
- In Brazil, Liberalism (in a general, international acceptance) is currently unrepresented, and there are no mainstream parties currently holding unambiguous liberal principles nor any members of the Liberal International. While at least three parties label themselves as "liberal", the Party of the Liberal Front (Partido da Frente Liberal), renamed Democrats (Democratas) in 2007, is actually a conservative party. The Liberal party (Partido Liberal), renamed Republic Party (Partido da Republica) in 2006, is a populist-conservative party with links to religious organizations, and the Social Liberal Party (Partido Social Liberal) can be considered a liberal party in the US sense.(Main article: Liberalism in Brazil).
- In Canada, Liberal refers mainly to the policies and ideas of the Liberal Party of Canada/Parti Libéral du Canada (member LI), the most frequent governing party of Canada for the last century and one of the largest liberal parties in the world. The Liberal Party of Canada has in the past generally supported a welfare state, and is regarded as a centre-left party. The British Columbia Liberal Party, Quebec Liberal Party and Saskatchewan Party combine liberalism with conservative ideas. (Main article: Liberalism in Canada).
- In Chile, originally the Social Democrat Radical Party (Partido Radical Social-Democráta, member SI) was a left of center liberal party, but nowadays it is a social democratic party. It has still some liberal tendencies. The Liberal Party of Chile (Partido Liberal de Chile, member LI) is a centrist social liberal party. (Main article: Liberalism and radicalism in Chile).
- In Colombia, the liberal current developed into the Colombian Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Colombiano, despite its name an active member of the SI), which is a left of center, somewhat populist party, somewhere between liberalism and social democracy. Newer parties like Partido Cambio Radical and Social National Unity Party have taken classical liberal ideas. (Main article: Liberalism in Colombia).
- In Costa Rica, the Libertarian Movement Party (Partido Movimiento Libertario, observer LI) is a classical liberal (libertarian) party.
- In Cuba, it has been legal to form political parties since 1992, but only the Communist Party of Cuba is allowed to be the ruling party. The three liberal parties Liberal Democratic Party (Partido Liberal Democratico, observer LI), Democratic Solidarity Party (Partido Solidaridad Democratica, observer LI), Cuban Liberal Union (Unión Liberal Cubana, member of the Liberal International) and the Cuban Liberal Movement (Movimiento Liberal Cubano) are located in Havana, but they are not allowed to participate in elections.
- In Dominican Republic, the originally left-wing Dominican Liberation Party (Partido de la Liberacíon Dominicana) developed into a center liberal party. The Liberal Reformist Party i(Partido Reformista Liberal) is also a center liberal party.
- In Ecuador, the Alfarista Radical Front (Frente Radical Alfarista) and the Ecuadorian Radical Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Radical Ecuatoriana) are two small remainders of the traditional liberal current. (Main article: Liberalism and radicalism in Ecuador).
- In Greenland, the Feeling of Community Party (Atássut) is a right of center liberal party. The Democrats (Demokraatit) is a social liberal party. Both oppose separation from Denmark.
- In Grenada, the National Democratic Congress is a center liberal party.
- In Honduras, the Liberal Party of Honduras (Partido Liberal de Honduras, member LI) is the traditional center liberal party. (Main article: Liberalism in Honduras).
- In Mexico, liberalism is represented by the Partido Nueva Alianza (New Alliance Party, member LI and Liberal Network for Latin America). "(Main article: Liberalism in Mexico)."
- In Nicaragua, the liberal character of the right-wing Constitutionalist Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Constitucionalista, former member LI) is disputable. (Main article: Liberalism in Nicaragua).
- In Panama, the Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement (Partido Movimiento Liberal Republicano Nacionalista) is a center-right liberal party. (Main article: Liberalism in Panama).
- In Paraguay, the Authentic Radical Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Radical Auténtico, member LI) is a center liberal party. (Main article: Liberalism and radicalism in Paraguay).
- In Peru, the only political party from classical liberalism roots is Liberal Party of Peru, founded in April 2003. Other parties as the Popular Action (Acción Popular) and the Union for Peru (Unión por el Perú) are more or less liberal parties. (Main article: Liberalism in Peru).
- In Puerto Rico, the Popular Democratic Party (Partido Popular Democrático) is a left of center liberal party.
- In Suriname, the Democratic Alternative '91 (Democratisch Alternatief '91) is a center liberal party.
- In Trinidad and Tobago, the dominant party is the social liberal People's National Movement.
- In the United States, the primary use of the term liberal is at some variance with European and worldwide usage. In the United States today it is most associated with the definition of modern liberalism which is a combination of social liberalism, public welfare and a mixed economy, which is in contrast to classical liberalism. In the 19th century it was not a common term in American philosophy or politics, partially because the two main parties were a mixture of populist and nationalist elements. ("Conservatism" was not a common term until the mid-20th century as well.) The Democratic Party was the party of free trade, low tariffs and laissez-faire entrepreneurialism, while the Republican Party advocated national citizenship, transparency and government efforts to stabilize the currency. Liberalism in the United States was primarily defined by the self-proclaimed liberal presidents Woodrow Wilson and Franklin Roosevelt. While the emphasis on mutual collaboration through liberal institutions as an alternative to the threat and use of force remained consistent with international liberalism, United States liberals also claimed that individuals have a right to expect the government to guarantee social justice. This was in part a consequence of the influence of the ideas of British economist John Maynard Keynes on Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal. The New Deal had the effect of stealing the thunder of social democratic forces and the necessity to prevent social unrest strengthened this development. As the term socialism can be understood as communistic (as in U.S.S.R.), many to the left of center moderated their views, aligning with the New Deal liberals. The Democratic Party is identified as the liberal party within the broader definition of liberalism thus putting it in contrast with most other parties listed here. Democrats advocate more social freedoms, affirmative action, and a mixed economy (and therefore modern liberalism). The Republican Party experiences a somewhat fractured economic viewpoint with some members supporting strong free-market and libertarian views (and therefore economic liberalism) and others championing pro-business stances, though both sectors typically mix their fiscal views with strong aspects of social conservatism. The Libertarian Party is the third largest political party in the United States, (though still only getting 1–2% of the vote in congressional elections), and particularly centers itself on free markets and individual liberty, which is more in line with classical liberalism. (Main article: Liberalism in the United States and Modern liberalism in the United States)
- In Uruguay, liberalism organized itself in the nineteenth century in the Colorado Party (Partido Colorado) nowadays a heterogeneous party, divided in factions ranging from conservative to social-democratic; however, its general profile is more or less liberal. (Main article: Liberalism in Uruguay).
- In Venezuela, liberalism was a strong force in the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth century. Nowadays there are three important classical liberal movements (still no parties): Organization for the Liberal Democracy in Venezuela (Organización por la Democracia Liberal en Venezuela), a classical liberal, pro-capitalism think-tank; Liberal Democratic Movement (Movimiento Demócrata Liberal) and "Rumbo Propio para el Zulia" from Maracaibo, Zulia, a classical liberal autonomist movement. They are going to create together a political party in the next years. (Main article: Liberalism in Venezuela).
Liberalism has or had some tradition in some countries. Nowadays it is a growing current in East Asia, but in many of these countries liberals tend not to use the label liberal.
- Armenia, Azerbaijan, Cyprus, Georgia, Russia, and Turkey are listed under Europe.
- In Bangladesh, the Bangladesh Liberal Democratic Party is a small liberal democratic party.
- In Burma, the National Council of the Union of Burma, member CALD, is active in exile.
- In Cambodia, the Kanapak Sam Rainsy (Sam Rainsy Party, member CALD, claims to be a more or less liberal party, though some dispute this and consider it a xenophobic party.
- In Hong Kong, the Democratic Party is a liberal party, strongly emphasizing the need of democratic reforms. The Civic Party is also a liberal party. The Liberal Party is often considered to be a conservative, pro-business party.
- In India, liberalism has become a strong current and nowadays it is unrepresented. (Main article: Liberalism in India).
- In Iran, liberalism is forbidden and its members have been killed in the past. The Liberal Democratic Party of Iran is forced to exist in exile (based in Sweden). (Main article: Liberalism in Iran).
- In Israel, Shinui (שינוי, in English Change, member LI) is a strongly anti-clerical, market liberal party without parliamentary representation since 2006. One of its founders, some of its members, and many of its voters joined the new Kadima Party. The center-right Likud calls itself a "National-Liberal Party."
- In Japan, the word liberal is used by the main conservative party, the Liberal Democratic Party (Jiyu Minshuto). The Democratic Party (Minshintō) is a social liberal centrist party. The Liberal League (Jiyu Rengo) was considered to be a free-market liberal party. Your Party was a market liberal or libertarian party. (Main article: Liberalism in Japan).
- In South Korea, The current Minjoo Party of Korea (Minjudand, Democratic Party) is a social liberal center-left party. The predecessors of Democratic Party, which included the disbanded Uri Party (Yeollin Uri Dang), the UNDP (Daetonghap Minju Sindang) , Democratic Party), Democratic United Party and Korea Creative Party are center-left social liberal parties. (Main article: Liberalism in South Korea).
- In Lebanon, the National Liberal Party (Hizb al-Ahrar al-Watani) is a liberal pro-independence party.
- In Malaysia, the Malaysian People's Movement Party (Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia, member CALD) seems to be a more or less liberal party.
- In Mongolia the Civil Will-Green Party (Irgenii Zorig-Nogoon Nam, member LI, CALD, GG) was founded in 2012 by a merger of the market liberal Civil Will Party (Irgenii Zorig Nam) and the Mongolian Green Party (Mongolyn Nogoon Nam) who both had worked for protecting human rights and democracy. The new party combines market liberal and green values.
- In Pakistan the Jeay Sindh Liberal Front is a nationalist, liberal and anti-fundamentalist political Party active in Sindh. Founded in 2015, it works for democracy, liberalism and freedom for Sindh. Sindhi intellectual, writer and politician Nawaz Khan Zaor is its leader.
- In Philippines, the Liberal Party, member LI, CALD) is a center liberal party. (Main article: Liberalism in the Philippines).
- In Singapore, due to the electoral system the liberal Singapore Democratic Party (member CALD) is not represented in parliament. The less intransigent liberal Singapore People's Party is represented in parliament.
- In Sri Lanka, the Liberal Party of Sri Lanka is a small liberal party.
- In Taiwan (Republic of China), the Democratic Progressive Party (Min-chu Chin-pu Tang, member LI, CALD) is a centrist liberal party. The Taiwan Solidarity Union is a progressive-centrist party characterised primarily by its Taiwanese nationalism and derives its membership from both the Chinese Nationalist Party's former moderate and Taiwan-oriented fringe and DPP supporters disgruntled by the party's moderation on the question of Taiwanese sovereignty. Its liberal character is questionable, although it its part of the DPP's left-of-centre and pro-Taiwanese Independence Pan-Green alliance (in contrast with the conservative Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang) and People First Party.) (Main article: Liberalism in Taiwan).
- In Thailand, the Democrat Party (Pak Prachatipat, member LI, CALD) is a conservative-liberal party. (Main article: Liberalism in Thailand).
At a pan-European level liberalism exists in some form within generally all members of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party (ALDE), within most members of the European Democratic Party (EDP), within many members of the European People's Party (EPP) and some members of the Alliance of European Conservatives and Reformists (AECR).
- In Albania, liberalism is weak. Two parties could be considered to embrace liberal values: the Democratic Alliance Party (Partia Aleanca Demokratike, member LI, ALDE) and the Unity for Human Rights Party (Partia Bashkimi për të Drejtat e Njeriut), which is the party of the ethnic minorities. (Main article: Liberalism in Albania.)
- In Andorra, the Liberal Party of Andorra (Partit Liberal d'Andorra, member LI, ALDE) is a right of center liberal party and became the dominant political party.
- In Armenia, traditional liberalism does not play a role any more, but the Republican Party of Armenia (Hayastani Hanrapetakan Kusaktsutyun) joined the ALDE group in the Council of Europe. (Main article: Liberalism in Armenia.)
- In Austria, liberalism almost disappeared, when the Liberal Forum (Liberales Forum) became a micro-party before re-entering parliament in 2013 on the electoral list of NEOS – The New Austria, a new liberal party which it merged with in January 2014 to become NEOS – The New Austria and Liberal Forum (NEOS – Das Neue Österreich und Liberales Forum, member ALDE). Historically the now right-wing populist Freedom Party of Austria was considered to be liberal and was a member of the Liberal International until 1993. (Main article: Liberalism in Austria.)
- In Belarus, one of the main opposition parties is the liberal United Civil Party of Belarus (Abjadnanaja Hramadzianskaja Partyja Biełarusi).
- The Belgian party system is divided by language. In Flanders the liberal Open Flemish Liberals and Democrats (member LI, ALDE), comprising both market and social liberals, is one of the dominant parties. Smaller liberal parties are the Social Liberal Party, now part of Groen!, and the recent more populist right List Dedecker. In the French-speaking part of the country the nowadays center-liberal Reformist Movement (member LI, ALDE) is one of the mayor parties. Affiliated with this party is the German-speaking Party for Freedom and Progress and until 2011 Democratic Federalist Independent from the Brussels region whose aim is the expansion of the linguistic rights of French-speakers. (Main article: Liberalism in Belgium.)
- In Bosnia-Herzegovina, liberalism is weak, because of the domination by ethnic parties. A small and rather unsuccessful liberal party is the Liberal Democratic Party (Liberalno demokratska stranka, member ALDE).
- In Bulgaria, organized liberalism was initially quite unsuccessful. Liberalism is now represented by the mainly Turkish minority party Movement for Rights and Freedoms (Dviženie za prava i svobodi, observer LI, member ALDE) and the National Movement for Stability and Progress (Nacionalno Dviženie za Stabilnost i Vazhod, member LI, ALDE), both taking a more or less liberal position. (Main article: Liberalism and radicalism in Bulgaria.)
- In Croatia, liberalism is very divided. One could distinguish four parties: the center Croatian People's Party-Liberal Democrats (Croatian Hrvatska narodna stranka – Liberalni Demokrati, member ALDE), its splinter People's Party - Reformists (Narodna stranka - Reformisti, member EDP), the left of center and Istrian regionalist Istrian Democratic Assembly (Istarski demokratski sabor – Dieta democratica istriana, member ALDE, observer LI) and the right of center Croatian Social Liberal Party (Hrvatska socijalno liberalna stranka, member LI, ALDE). (Main article: Liberalism in Croatia).
- In Cyprus, the centre-right Liberal Democrats www.liberalscy.org(Fileleftheri Dimokrates, member of the Interlibertarians) and the centre-left United Democrats (Enomeni Dimokrates, member ALDE) are considered liberal parties. See also Liberalism in Cyprus.
- In the Czech Republic, liberalism is clearly unsuccessful. Four parliamentary liberal parties work together, the Civic Democratic Alliance (Obcanska demokraticka alliance, member ALDE), the Freedom Union-Democratic Union (Unie Svobody - Demokratická unie) and the Liberal Reform Party (Liberální Reformní Strana) and the Path of Change (Cesta zmeny, member of EDP). They were unsuccessful at the last European elections, obtained only 1,69%. At these elections the European Democrats (Evropští demokraté) proved to be a liberal alternative, but it joined the EPP. (Main article: Liberalism in the Czech lands).
- In Denmark, most parties support liberalism in one form or another, and three parties mark themselves as liberal: centrist social-liberal Social Liberal Party (Det Radikale Venstre, member LI, ALDE), the much larger conservative-liberal Venstre (member LI, ALDE) and the right-wing liberal Liberal Alliance. (Main article: Liberalism and radicalism in Denmark).
- In Estonia, the Estonian Reform Party (Eesti Reformierakond, member LI, ALDE) is a free market liberal party. The liberal character of the centrist Estonian Centre Party (Eesti Keskerakond, member ALDE) can be disputed. (Main article: Liberalism in Estonia).
- In the Faroe Islands, the conservative-liberal Union Party (Sambandsflokkurin) and the social liberal New Self-Government (Nýtt Sjálvstýri) were or are aligned with the Danish liberal parties. In addition, there are two separatist parties: the liberal-conservative People's Party (Fólkaflokkurin, member AECR) and the market liberal Progress (Framsókn), founded in 2011.
- In Finland, the dominant LI and ALDE member party is the original agrarian Finnish Centre Party (Suomen Keskusta), however the liberal character of this party is questioned. In actuality, the Centre Party has long since become socially more conservative than the liberal-conservative National Coalition Party, since it has opted not to support same-sex marriage. The Swedish minority party Swedish People's Party (Svenska Folkpartiet i Finland, member LI, ALDE) has a clearer liberal profile. The original liberal current was until 2011 organized in the Liberals (Liberaalit), after 1995 a very small extra-parliamentary party. At the autonomous islands of Åland the Liberals for Åland (Liberalerna på Åland) and the centrist agrarian Ålandic Centre (Åländsk Center, member ALDE) are the dominant forces. (Main article: Liberalism and centrism in Finland).
- In France, the Radical Party of the Left (Parti radical de gauche) is a former member of ELDR but not of LI. France had an important liberal tradition, generally associated to Republicanism, from which the right and the left of the political spectrum were generated. On the right-wing there were the Republicans, which organized themselves in 1901-03 in the moderate-liberal Democratic Republican Alliance and in the liberal-conservative Republican Federation; on the left-wing the Radicals, which founded the Republican, Radical and Radical-Socialist Party in 1901. After World War II, the Republicans gathered in the liberal-conservative National Center of Independents and Peasants, from which the conservative-liberal Independent Republicans seceded in 1962. The original centre-left Radical Party was a declining force in French politics until 1972 when it joined the centre-right, causing the split of Radical-Socialist faction and the foundation of the Left Radical Party, closely associated to the Socialist Party. In 1978 both the Republican Party (successor of the Independent Republicans) and the Radical Party were founding components, alongside with Centre of Social Democrats, of the Union for French Democracy (UDF), an alliance of liberal and Christian-democratic forces. The Republican Party, re-founded as Liberal Democracy in 1997 and re-shaped as a free-market libertarian party, left UDF in 1998 and merged in the Gaulist conservative Union for a Popular Movement (UMP), of which it represents the libertarian wing. Also the Radical Party left UDF in 2002 in order to join UMP, of which it is the main social-liberal component, as an associate party. In some ways we can say that the Republican tradition and the Radical one are now re-composed in UMP. Anyway, the lack of a true liberal and libertarian force in France led to the creation in 2006 of Liberal Alternative, whose chances of success are unclear. (Main article: Liberalism and radicalism in France).
- In Georgia, the United National Movement (Nacionaluri Modraoba, member IDU, observer EPP) is a liberal-conservative pro-western party oriented on North-Atlantic integration. Republican Party of Georgia (Sakartvelos respublikuri partia, member ALDE) and Our Georgia – Free Democrats (Chveni Sakartvelo – tavisupali demokratebi, member ALDE) are liberal pro-western parties.
- In Germany, the Free Democratic Party (Freie Demokratische Partei, member LI, ALDE) is a liberal party. (Main article: Liberalism in Germany).
- In Gibraltar, the Liberal Party of Gibraltar (member LI, ALDE) is a social liberal party favouring Gibraltar's self-determination.
- In Greece, the liberal current disappeared, leading to liberals joining the centre-right New Democracy, est. in 1974 and the centre-left PASOK, est. in 1974, parties. Meanwhile, new liberal initiatives have been taken, like e.g. the purely liberal Liberal Alliance (Greek: «Φιλελεύθερη Συμμαχία», Fileleftheri Simmakhia), est. in 2007 and mostly liberal Drassi (Greek: Δράση, Drassi, member ALDE), est. in 2009 and Recreate Greece (Greek: «δημιουργία, ξανά!», Dimiourgia, Xana), est. in 2011. In the latest parliamentary election the social liberal The River (Greek: Το Ποτάμι, To Potami) and the Union of Centrists (Greek:Ένωση Κεντρώων, Enosi Kentroon), claimer of Venizelist heritage, became the leading liberal forces (Main article: Liberalism in Greece).
- In Hungary, the Alliance of Free Democrats (Szabad Demokraták Szövetsége) was a center market liberal party. Now there are Together 2014 (Együtt 2014), a social liberal party, and the Hungarian Liberal Party (Magyar Liberális Párt), a market liberal party, in parliament. (Main article: Liberalism and radicalism in Hungary).
- In Iceland, the Progressive Party (Framsóknarflokkurinn, member LI) is an agrarian-centrist and liberal party. Bright Future (Björt framtíð, member ALDE), founded in 2012, is a social liberal party favouring Iceland's membership in the EU. (Main article: Liberalism and centrism in Iceland).
- In Ireland, the Progressive Democrats was a centre-right liberal party with an emphasis on economic liberalism. In recent years the traditionally Irish republican centre-right Fianna Fáil (observer LI, member ALDE) has tried to rebrand itself as a liberal party, however the party membership remains conservative on social issues.
- In the Isle of Man the Liberal Vannin Party (observer LI) is the only party represented in the House of Keys since most Members are elected as independents. It favours accountability and transparency in government and a further devolution from the United Kingdom.
- In Italy, liberals are now divided over the centre-right Forza Italia (originally a merger of liberal and Christian-democratic forces in 1994, and reconstituted in 2013 from The People of Freedom), the Civic Choice party founded in 2013 to support then-Prime Minister Mario Monti, Democratic Centre and Alliance for Italy, small social-liberal parties, and various minor extra-parliamentary movements including the libertarian Stop the Decline and Italian Radicals (member ALDE Party). Also the centrist-populist Italy of Values is a member of ALDE Party, although it is not classifiable as a liberal party in whichever sense. Most members of the late Italian Liberal Party (refounded as a very small party in 2004) and many former members of the Italian Republican Party joined Forza Italia, which is often presented and defined in Italy as a liberal party. This is the reason why the term 'liberals' is more often used when speaking of the centre-right coalition, dominated by Forza Italia, which combines economic liberalism with freedom of conscience on ethical matters. (Main article: Liberalism and radicalism in Italy).
- In Latvia, the Latvia's First Party/Latvian Way party (member LI, ALDE) was a centre-right liberal party. (Main article: Liberalism in Latvia).
- In Lithuania, the Liberal Movemant (Liberalų Sąjūdis) and the Liberal and Centre Union (Liberalų ir centro sąjunga, member LI), ALDE) are a center liberal parties and the New Union Social Liberals (Naujoji Sąjunga (socialliberalai), observer LI), member ALDE) is a left of center liberal party. (Main article: Liberalism in Lithuania).
- In Luxembourg, the Democratic Party (Demokratesch Partei//Parti Démocratique, member LI, ALDE) is the traditional liberal party. (Main article: Liberalism in Luxembourg).
- In Malta there are two liberal parties: Alleanza Liberal-Demokratika Malta and Alpha Liberal Democratic Party.
- In Moldova, liberalism is divided over the conservative-liberal Liberal Party (Partidul Liberal, member ALDE) and the market liberal Liberal Reformist Party (Partidul Liberal Reformator, observer LI), which splintered of the Liberal Party to stay in government and be part of the Pro-European Coalition in 2013. (Main article: Liberalism in Moldova).
- In Montenegro, liberalism is organized in the Liberal Party of Montenegro (Liberalna Partija Crne Gore, observer LI, member ALDE), more or less a liberal party. (Main article: Liberalism in Montenegro).
- In the Netherlands, liberalism is divided over two parties. The center social-liberal Democrats 66 (Democraten 66, member LI, ALDE) and the right-of-center conservative-liberal People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie, member LI, ALDE). Furthermore, in 2004 the Green Left started profiling itself as a 'leftist liberal' party, thus possibly breaking with its socialist roots. (Main article: Liberalism in the Netherlands).
- In Norway, Venstre (litt. Left, member LI, ALDE) is a centrist liberal party. The Capitalist Party (Norwegian: Liberalistene) is a newer party grounded in classical liberalism. (Main article: Liberalism in Norway).
- In Poland, the Democratic Party (member ALDE) is a centre-liberal party. It did not succeed in entering parliament in the 2005 election. Civic Platform is economically liberal. (Main article: Liberalism in Poland).
- In Portugal, liberalism was a strong force in history. The Social Democratic Party was once an Liberal International member, but left the organisation in 1996, and has taken a more conservative orientation since then. However, many observers still see it as a conservative-liberal party. Currently there is small movement called Movimento Liberal Social trying to achieve the status of political party. The Earth Party (member ALDE, WEP) is a party which advocates both market economy and environmentalism. (Main article: Liberalism in Portugal).
- In the Republic of Macedonia, the liberals are divided over the Liberal Democratic Party (Liberalna Demokraticka Partija, member LI), part of the left of center government coalition and the Liberal Party of Macedonia (Liberalna Partija na Makedonija, member ALDE), part of the right of center opposition coalition. (Main article: Liberalism in the Republic of Macedonia).
- In Romania, the National Liberal Party (Partidul Naţional Liberal, member LI and ex-member ALDE) is a centre-right liberal party, part of the governing Social Liberal Union coalition from 2011 to 2014. (Main article: Liberalism in Romania).
- In Russia, Civic Platform (Russia) is the only actual liberal party, founded by Mikhail Prokhorov for Russia to have an actual classic liberal free market party. Yabloko (Yabloko, Russian Democratic Party, Jabloko - Rossijskaja Demokratičeskaja Partija, member LI, ALDE) and the Right Cause (Pravoye Delo, member IDU) are more or less sharing the ideas of liberalism. While Yabloko is social liberal party, the Right Cause can be seen as a democratic conservative market party. The so-called Liberal Democratic Party of Russia is not at all liberal; it is a nationalist, right-wing populist party. (Main article Liberalism in Russia).
- In San Marino, the Popular Alliance (member EDP) is a centrist liberal party.
- In Serbia, the Liberal Democratic Party is the only functioning liberal party, which had parliamentary representation until the 2013 Serbian general election. (Main article: Liberalism in Serbia).
- In Slovakia, the Alliance of the New Citizen (Aliancia Nového Občana) and Freedom and Solidarity (Sloboda a Solidarita) are right of center market liberal parties. (Main article: Liberalism in Slovakia).
- In Slovenia the largest 'liberal' party is the Modern Centre Party (Stranka modernega centra, member ALDE), a centrist liberal party. The second largest is the Alliance of Alenka Bratušek (member ALDE), a liberal spin-off from centre-left Positive Slovenia which went a more social democratic direction. The third largest is the classical-liberal Civic List (member ALDE),. Two minor extra-parliamentary liberal parties in Slovenia are the Liberal Democracy of Slovenia (Liberalna demokracija Slovenije, member LI, ALDE), a centrist liberal party, and Zares, a social-liberal party, and also an ALDE member. (Main article: Liberalism in Slovenia).
- In Spain, there is a long tradition of liberalism. This ended with the Franco dictatorship. On a national level there were attempts to establish liberal parties, but they did not succeed until Union, Progress and Democracy (Unión, Progreso y Democracia), a social liberal and centralist party. It was replaced as major liberal party in 2015 by Citizens – Party of the Citizenry which is politically similar but originally mainly active in Catalonia. On a regional level, the Canarian Coalition (Coalición Canaria) and the Democratic Convergence of Catalonia (Convergència Democrática de Catalunya, member ALDE) are regionalist liberal parties, but also nationalist. (Main article: Liberalism and radicalism in Spain).
- In Sweden, The Liberals (Liberalerna, member LI, ALDE) is a center-right liberal party. The Center Party (Centerpartiet, member LI, ALDE) is a historically agrarian party that has gradually developed into a liberal party, since 2013 referring to themselves as such. (Main article: Liberalism and centrism in Sweden).
- In Switzerland, the main liberal party is FDP.The Liberals (member of LI, ALDE), formed in 2007 by a merger of the Free Democratic Party of Switzerland and the Liberal Party of Switzerland. (Main article: Liberalism and radicalism in Switzerland).
- In Turkey, liberalism was never a strong force, though there were some significant liberal parties. Today only active liberal party is Liberal Democratic Party (Main article: Liberalism in Turkey).
- In Ukraine, the position of liberalism is unclear. The Liberal Party (Liberalna Partia, observer LI) is a small liberal party and the Electoral Blok Juli Tymoshenko (Viborcyj Blok Julii Tymošenko) seems to develop into a more or less liberal party. A clear liberal party is the Our Ukraine (Naša Ukrajina), which should be distinguished from the People's Union Our Ukraine. (Main article: Liberalism in Ukraine).
- In the United Kingdom, liberalism is now organized mainly in the radical centrist Liberal Democrats (member LI, ALDE), formed in 1988 from a merger of the historical Liberal Party with the Social Democratic Party. The Liberal Party still exists, has a number of Councillors in England, but has no Parliamentary representation, at present. The Liberal Democrats were the junior party in a governing coalition with the Conservative Party (UK) from 2010-2015. The counterpart of the Liberal Democrats in Northern Ireland is the Alliance Party of Northern Ireland (member LI, ALDE), which was formed in 1970 as a non-ideological cross-community party. (Main article Liberalism in the United Kingdom)
- In Scotland, liberalism is present with the ruling Scottish National Party.
- In Australia, the Liberal Party is a party considered to be of the centre-right. Within the Liberal Party of Australia, conservatism and monetarist economics are both in a position of dominance. Many would argue that this party is indeed a liberal party, simply a classical liberal party and that it is the perception of what liberalism is that has changed, not the Liberal Party (which promotes the free market approach that liberals worldwide used to promote before the 20th century). Other would stress conservatism as its ideology. The term small-l liberal generally refers to someone who champions civil liberties and progressive causes such as Australian republicanism and reconciliation with Indigenous Australians, as in parties such as the Australian Democrats, which began its life as a fusion of social-liberals disaffected with the Liberal Party. The Liberal Democratic Party is a classical liberal and libertarian party. (Main article: Australia).
- In the Cook Islands the liberal Democratic Party is one of the two major parties opposing the nationalist Cook Islands Party.
- In New Zealand, liberalism is not organized anymore, although the Liberal Party was the first organised political party, and the Liberal Government from 1891 to 1912 was responsible for many reforms. Liberalism nowadays refers to a support for individual liberties and limited government. The term is generally used with a reference to a particular policy area, e.g. "market liberalism" or "social liberalism". Unqualified liberalism is less common; in its extreme form it is known by the American term libertarianism. The left of centre New Zealand Democratic Party takes a more or less progressive liberal position in the spectrum, but lost popular support. ACT New Zealand is a classical liberal or libertarian party. (Main article: Liberalism in New Zealand).
- In the Solomon Islands, the Solomon Islands Liberal Party considers itself a liberal party.
Non-parliamentary liberal parties
- Afghanistan: Liberal Democratic Party of Afghanistan
- Armenia: Armenian Liberal Democratic Party, Armenian Democratic Liberal Party, Liberal Democratic Union of Armenia
- Austria: The Democrats, The Social Liberals
- Bangladesh: Liberal Party Bangladesh
- Canada: Libertarian Party of Canada
- Cyprus Liberal Democratic Party member of the Interlibertarians International
- Ecuador: Movement Forwards Ecuador (Moviminiento Fuerza Ecuador, observer LI)
- France: Pole of freedoms, the French liberal movement, Liberal Alternative
- Greece: The Liberals
- Guatemala: Reform Movement (observer LI), Liberal Party of Guatemala
- Haiti Liberal Party
- India: Swatantra Bharat Party, Freedom Team of India
- Iran: Liberal Democratic Party of Iran
- Italy: Federation of Italian Liberals (observer LI), Italian Liberal Party
- Kosovo: Liberal Party of Kosovo (observer LI, member ALDE), Independent Liberal Party (member LI)
- Laos: Lao Liberal Democratic Party
- Mongolia: Mongolian Liberal Democratic Party
- Netherlands: Liberal Democratic Party
- Netherlands Antilles: Democratic Party
- Norway: Liberal People's Party
- Peru: Liberal Party of Peru
- Portugal: Liberal Social Movement
- Spain: Liberal Coalition, Mallorcan Union (member LI)
- Sri Lanka: Liberal Party of Sri Lanka (member LI and CALD)
- Turkey: Liberal Democratic Party (member LI)
- United Kingdom: Liberal Party, UK Libertarian Party
- United States: Libertarian Party, Personal Choice Party, Independence Party of Minnesota, Liberal Party, US Marijuana Party
- Uruguay: Liberal Party
- Venezuela: Organization for the Liberal Democracy in Venezuela, Civil Resistance, Democratic Liberal Movement, Rumbo Propio
- Liberal Manifesto of Oxford 1947
- Liberal Declaration of Oxford 1967
- Liberal Manifesto of Oxford 1997
- "Liberalism in America: A Note for Europeans" by Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. (1956)from: The Politics of Hope (Boston: Riverside Press, 1962).