Lesson plan

A lesson plan is a teacher's detailed description of the course of instruction, or 'learning trajectory' for a lesson. A daily lesson plan is developed by a teacher to guide class learning. Details will vary depending on the preference of the teacher, subject being covered, and the needs of the students. There may be requirements mandated by the school system regarding the plan.[1] A lesson plan is the teacher's guide for running a particular lesson, and it includes the goal (what the students are supposed to learn), how the goal will be reached (the method, procedure) and a way of measuring how well the goal was reached (test, worksheet, homework etc.).[2]

Developing a lesson plan

While there are many formats for a lesson plan, most lesson plans contain some or all of these elements, typically in this order:

Herbartian Approach: John Fedrick Herbert (1776-1841)

1. Preparation/Instruction: It pertains to preparing and motivating children to the lesson content by linking it to the previous knowledge of the student, by arousing curiosity of the children and by making an appeal to their senses. This prepares the child's mind to receive new knowledge. "To know where the pupils are and where they should try to be are the two essentials of good teaching." Lessons may be started in the following manner: a. Two or three interesting but relevant questions b. Showing a picture/s, a chart or a model c. A situation Statement of Aim: Announcement of the focus of the lesson in a clear, concise statement such as "Today, we shall study the..."

2. Presentation/Development: The actual lesson commences here. This step should involve a good deal of activity on the part of the students. The teacher will take the aid of various devices, e.g., questions, illustrations, explanation, expositions, demonstration and sensory aids, etc. Information and knowledge can be given, explained, revealed or suggested. The following principles should be kept in mind. a. Principle of selection and division: This subject matter should be divided into different sections. The teacher should also decide as to how much he is to tell and how much the pupils are to find out for themselves. b. Principle of successive sequence: The teacher should ensure that the succeeding as well as preceding knowledge is clear to the students. c. Principle of absorption and integration: In the end separation of the parts must be followed by their combination to promote understanding of the whole.

3. Association comparison: It is always desirable that new ideas or knowledge be associated to daily life situations by citing suitable examples and by drawing comparisons with the related concepts. This step is important when we are establishing principles or generalizing definitions.

4. Generalizing: This concepts is concerned with the systematizing of the knowledge learned. Comparison and contrast lead to generalization. An effort should be made to ensure that students draw the conclusions themselves. It should result in student's own thinking, reflection and experience.

5. Application: It requires a good deal of mental activity to think and apply the principles learn to new situations. Knowledge, when it is put to use and verified, becomes clear and a part of the student's mental make-up.

6. Recapitulation: Last step of the lesson plan, the teacher tries to ascertain whether the students have understood or grasped the subject matter or not. This is used for assessing/evaluating the effectiveness of the lesson by asking students questions on the contents of the lesson or by giving short objectives to test the student's level of understanding; for example, to label different parts on a diagram, etc.

A well-developed lesson plan

A well-developed lesson plan reflects the interests and needs of students. It incorporates best practices for the educational field. The lesson plan correlates with the teacher's philosophy of education, which is what the teacher feels is the purpose of educating the students. [4]

Secondary English program lesson plans, for example, usually center around four topics. They are literary theme, elements of language and composition, literary history, and literary genre. A broad, thematic lesson plan is preferable, because it allows a teacher to create various research, writing, speaking, and reading assignments. It helps an instructor teach different literature genres and incorporate videotapes, films, and television programs. Also, it facilitates teaching literature and English together.[4] Similarly, history lesson plans focus on content (historical accuracy and background information), analytic thinking, scaffolding, and the practicality of lesson structure and meeting of educational goals.[5] School requirements and a teacher's personal tastes, in that order, determine the exact requirements for a lesson plan.

Unit plans follow much the same format as a lesson plan, but cover an entire unit of work, which may span several days or weeks. Modern constructivist teaching styles may not require individual lesson plans. The unit plan may include specific objectives and timelines, but lesson plans can be more fluid as they adapt to student needs and learning styles.

Unit Planning is the proper selection of learning activities which presents a complete picture. Unit planning is a systematic arrangement of subject matter. Samford "A unit plan is one which involves a series of learning experiences that are linked to achieve the aims composed by methodology and contents". Dictionary of Education:"A unit is an organization of various activities, experiences and types of learning around a central problem or purpose developed cooperatively by a group of pupils under a teacher leadership involving planning, execution of plans and evaluation of results".

Criteria of a good Unit Plan

1. Needs, capabilities, interest of the learner should be considered. 2. Prepared on the sound psychological knowledge of the learner. 3. Provide a new learning experience; systematic but flexible. 4. Sustain the attention of the learner till the end. 5. Related to social and Physical environment of the learner. 6. Development of learner's personality.

It is important to note that lesson planning is a thinking process, not the filling in of a lesson plan template. Lesson plan envisaged s a blue print, guide map for action, a comprehensive chart of classroom teaching-learning activities, an elastic but systematic approach for the teaching of concepts, skills and attitudes.

Setting objectives

The first thing a teacher does is to create an objective, a statement of purpose for the whole lesson. An objective statement itself should answer what students will be able to do by the end of the lesson. Harry Wong states that, “Each [objective] must begin with a verb that states the action to be taken to show accomplishment. The most important word to use in an assignment is a verb, because verbs state how to demonstrate if accomplishment has taken place or not.”[6] The objective drives the whole lesson, it is the reason the lesson exists. Care is taken when creating the objective for each day’s lesson, as it will determine the activities the students engage in. The teacher also ensures that lesson plan goals are compatible with the developmental level of the students. The teacher ensures as well that their student achievement expectations are reasonable.[4]

Selecting lesson plan material

A lesson plan must correlate with the textbook the class uses. The school usually selects the text books or provides teachers with a limited textbook choice for a particular unit. The teacher must take great care and select the most appropriate book for the students.[4]

Lesson Planning and Tools

Making use of technology is an absolute best way of meeting the target of lesson plan. Teacher can use various technology like Projectors, Computer, Television, Internet, Tablets, etc. to give that interesting learning atmosphere to the students.

YouTube: YouTube can be a useful tools for teacher and students. It provides both teaching and learning materials that are required in creating educational environment inside classroom. Teacher and students can surf this site whenever and wherever they want for acquiring knowledge.

Evernote: Anyone can access Evernote to get information and knowledge of anything. Teacher can refer it to make an effective lesson plan.

Prezi: Teacher can make use of this tool to make lesson plan more simple, effective and attractive. Its 3D like effect will put that astonishing feelings among students, leaving students and colleagues to say “Wow”. Further students will learn about Prezi and might utilize this tools for their future learning.

Power Point Presentation: Very easy to learn and create presentation, documents and upload pictures and videos. It can said to be a favorite and mostly used-tools used by teachers.

Glogster: Glogster is a social site that help teacher to create learning material such as music, photos and videos for making students to be creative to their work.

Smart Board: A unique designed board can be used in classroom. smart board is installed with all the subjects. It is very easy to use, time saver and attractive features. It should be handle with care though.

Google Docs: To meet the objectives of lesson plan, teachers can make use of this tool. Through this tools. teacher can create presentation of documents or of anything work and share in the classroom.

Wordle: Wordle is a useful tool for the implementation of language lesson plan. Teacher can upload stunning word clouds using Wordle.

Dropbox: Through this tool, teacher can access any kind of information and store and share with class.

Khan academy: Teachers uses this tools to strengthen the lesson plan. Teacher provide studying materials for the subjects like mathematics, science, commerce for the students. It is also helpful for the classes of primary sections.

Types of Assignments

The instructor must decide whether class assignments are whole-class, small groups, workshops, independent work, peer learning, or contractual:

These assignment categories (e.g. peer learning, independent, small groups) can also be used to guide the instructor’s choice of assessment measures that can provide information about student and class comprehension of the material. As discussed by Biggs (1999), there are additional questions an instructor can consider when choosing which type of assignment would provide the most benefit to students. These include:

See also


  1. O'Bannon, B. (2008). "What is a Lesson Plan?". Innovative Technology Center * The University of Tennessee. Retrieved May 17, 2011.
  2. "What Is A Lesson Plan?". English Club. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
  3. "Writing Lesson Plans." Huntington University: a Christian college ranked among America's best colleges. 15 Mar. 2009.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 Mitchell, Diana, and Stephen Tchudi, "Exploring and Teaching the English Language Arts" (4th Ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon, 1999.
  5. Lesson Plan Reviews Introduction. Teachinghistory.org. Accessed 15 June 2011.
  6. Wong, Harry K. (1998). The First Days of School: How to be an Effective Teacher. Mountainview, CA : Harry K. Wong Publications
  7. Biggs, J. (1999) Teaching for Quality Learning at University (pp. 165-203). Buckingham, UK: SRHE and Open University Press.

Further reading

See also

External links

This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 11/1/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.