Law of Thailand

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The laws of Thailand are based on the civil law, but have been influenced by common law (see also world legal systems).[1]

Sources of law

Main article: Sources of law

The Rattanakosin Kingdom and the four traditionally counted preceding kingdoms, collectively called Siam, had a largely uncodified constitution until 1932. In the King of Siam's preamble to the penal code promulgated on 1 April 1908, and came into effect on 21 September, the king said: "In the ancient times the monarchs of the Siamese nation governed their people with laws which were originally derived from the Dhamasustra of Manu, which was then the prevailing law among the inhabitants of India and the neighbouring countries."[2]

The principal law sources in Thailand are:

Public Law

Constitutional Law

The Constitution of Thailand is the supreme law of Thailand which prevails over other laws passed by parliament. The 2007 Constitution of Thailand is the most recent constitution. The Constitutional Court of Thailand has jurisdiction to make rulings over the constitutionality of parliamentary acts, royal decrees, draft legislation, appointment and removal of public officials and issues regarding political parties (see Rulings of the Constitutional Court of Thailand).

Criminal law

Criminal offences (that can lead to arrest and imprisonment) are enumerated in the Thai Penal Code (or Criminal Code) as well as numerous other statutes. Criminal procedures are outlined in the Criminal Procedure Code.

Administrative law

Administrative law matters such as judicial review are handled by the Administrative Court, which was established under The Act on Establishment of Administrative Courts and Administrative Court Procedure BE 2542 (1999). The jurisdiction of the court includes unlawful act by an administrative agency or State official (e.g., ultra vires, inconsistent with law, bad faith etc.), neglecting or unreasonable delay in official duties, wrongful act or other liability of an administrative agency, administrative contracts, mandating a person to do something or an injunction.[11]

Immigration law

Visa and immigration law is outlined in the Immigration Act BE 2522 (1979) and its amendments. The Immigration Bureau of the Royal Thai Police administers the law, while the Immigration Commission shall have power and duty to make decision such as giving or revoking permission to stay.[12]

Private law

The most important reference of private law (or civil law) is the Civil and Commercial Code of Thailand (see also other civil codes). It is composed of several books. Books I and II were first promulgated on 11 November 1925 (BE 2466).[13] The Civil code is updated as required by amendment acts (for example Act Amending Civil and Commercial Code (No 14) BE 2548 (2005)).

Law of Obligations

The Law of Obligations in general is found in Civil and Commercial Code sections 194 to 353 (Book II, Title I).

Quasi-contracts include undue enrichment, sections 406 to 419 (Book II, Title IV), and management of affairs without mandate, sections 395 to 405 (Book II, Title III).[13]

Contract law

The main source of contract law is the Civil and Commercial Code sections 354 to 394 (Book II, Title II). Specific contracts (Sale, Hire, Mortgage, Insurance, Bills etc.) are found in the Civil and Commercial Code sections 453 to 1011 (Book III, Titles I to XXI).[13]

Tort or delict law

Tort law or delict law falls within the law of obligations. It is found in the Civil and Commercial Code sections 420 to 452 (Book II, Title V). The Code deals with wrongful acts: liability, compensation and exemptions to liability (justifiable acts).[13]

Corporate law

Basic corporate law is found in the Civil and Commercial Code sections 1012 to 1273 (Book II, Title XXII).[13] Foreign ownership of certain Thai industries and foreign companies in general are regulated by the Foreign Business Act BE 2542 (1999).

Personal property law

The main source of property law is the Civil and Commercial Code sections 1298 to 1434 (Book IV).

Land law

Land law is dealt with by the Land Code. This was established by Act Promulgating the Land Code, B.E. 2497 (1954).[14]

Land in Thailand is covered by a system consisting of several title deeds offering different rights of use, possession, ownership or alienation. Most titles are issued by the Land Department and fall within seven main categories. Another five categories are issued by other government departments for specific purposes.

The Chanote (or Nor Sor 4 Jor) category, found in more developed parts of Thailand, offers private ownership (similar to freehold land). Other land is considered to belong to the government or the King of Thailand.[15]

Intellectual property

Intellectual Property Law, that is patents, trademarks and copyright, are protected by the Patent Act BE 2522 (1979), Trademark Act BE 2534 (1991) and the Copyright Act BE 2521 (1978) and their amendments respectively. Trade secrets are protected by the Trade Secret Act BE 2545 (2002). The Department of Intellectual Property (DIP) manages intellectual property matters such as registration and enforcement. A registration system exists for trademarks and patents. Copyright is automatically protected for 50 years and does not need registration, however it can be filed with the DIP. Disputes are first heard in the Intellectual Property and International Trade Court.[3][16]

Family law

The main source of family law is the Civil and Commercial Code sections 1435 to 1598 (Book V).

Succession law

The main source of succession law is the Civil and Commercial Code sections 1599 to 1755 (Book VI).

Laws relating to foreigners

The Foreign Business Act of 1999 regulates foreign ownership of certain Thai industries and foreign companies. The Alien Business Law (N.E.C. Announcement 281) prohibits foreigners from holding certain professions which are reserved for Thai nationals.[17]

See also

Wikisource has original text related to this article:


  1. "Thailand". World Factbook. CIA. 2008-12-18. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
  2. T. Masao, D.C.L., LL.D., Senior Legal Adviser to H.S.M.'s Government and Judge of H.S.M.'s Supreme Court (1908). "Siamese law: old and new.". In Wright, Arnold; Breakspear, Oliver T. Twentieth Century Impressions of Siam (PDF). London: Lloyds Greater Britain Publishing Company. p. 91. Retrieved January 28, 2012. Such was also the conclusion arrived at by the author of the present article in a paper read before the Siam Society of Bangkok in 1905, in which he endeavoured to show by textual comparisons that ancient Siamese laws were derived from the Manuic laws of India.
  3. 1 2 "Law of the Land" (PDF). Thailand Legal Basics. Thailand Law Reform Commission. June–July 2007. Retrieved 2009-01-03.
  4. "Laws and Treaties". Databases. Tilleke & Gibbins International Ltd. 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-03.
  5. Joe Leeds (2008-12-01). "Introduction to the Legal System and Legal Research of the Kingdom of Thailand". GlobaLex. Hauser Global Law School Program. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
  6. "Thailand Supreme Court Opinion Summaries". Supreme Court Opinions. Thailand Law Forum. 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-02.
  7. "The Constitutional Court Rulings". Decision. Constitutional Court. 2009-01-01. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
  8. "Narcotics Laws". Thailand Legal Basics. Tilleke & Gibbins International Ltd. June–July 2007. Retrieved 2009-01-03.
  9. 1 2 "Narcotics Control Laws". The Narcotics Act BE 2522 (1979). Office of the Narcotics Control Board. 2008-12-03. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
  10. Anderson, Frank (April 28, 2008). "Lèse majesté in Thailand". Thai Traditions. United Press International. Retrieved 2009-01-21.
  11. "The Act On Establishment Of Administrative Courts And Administrative Court Procedure BE 2542 (1999) section 9". Thai Legislation. AsianLII. 1999. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
  12. "Immigration Act BE 2522 (1979) section 7" (PDF). Thai Legislation. ThaiLaws. 1979. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 Sandhikshetrin, Prof Kamol (2007). The Civil and Commercial Code. Nittibannagarn. ISBN 974-447-303-7.
  14. "Act Promulgating the Land Code, B.E. 2497" (PDF). Thai Laws. Retrieved 2010-10-26.
  15. "Land titles: ownership and claims of use or possession". Isaan Online Legal service. Siam Expat Law Co Ltd. 2008-01-01. Retrieved 2010-04-01.
  16. "IP System of Thailand". IP System of Thailand. Department of Intellectual Property. 2009-01-01. Archived from the original on 2008-07-30. Retrieved 2009-01-03.
  17. Declercq, Valentin. "Prohibited Jobs for Foreigners in Thailand". GAM Legal Alliance. GAM Legal Alliance. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
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