Laura Nader (born 1930) is an American anthropologist. She has been a Professor of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley since 1960. She was the first woman to receive a tenure-track position in the department.
Early life and education
Nader is a native of Winsted, Connecticut. Her father Nathra owned a restaurant/store in Connecticut, which served as a place for many political discussions. Her mother, Rose, was a schoolteacher who had a strong interest in justice and would express her views in letters to the press. Her older deceased brother, Shafeek; her older sister, Claire and her younger brother, Ralph have all served in public interest careers. Gamal Nkrumah (2005) profiled Dr. Nader in the weekly online news out of Egypt and commented on her loyalties to her father who emigrated from Lebanon for political reasons, “Nader is very much her father's daughter. And it was her elder brother who first suggested she read anthropology at university."
She received a BA in Latin American Studies from Wells College in Aurora, NY in 1952. She received her Ph.D. in Anthropology from Radcliffe College/Harvard in 1961 under the mentorship of Clyde Kluckhohn. Her education included fieldwork in a Zapotec village in Oaxaca, Mexico, and later in South Lebanon.
Nader’s areas of interest include comparative ethnography of law and dispute resolution, conflict, comparative family organization, the anthropology of professional mindsets and ethnology of the Middle East, Mexico, Latin America and the contemporary United States. She was involved in conferences, determining the direction the study of law in society as a part of society and not insulated and isolated from other human institutions, should take as it developed. Nader edited and published essays from these conferences as well as authoring several books on the anthropology of law, establishing herself as one of the most influential figures in the development of the field. She has been a visiting professor at Yale, Stanford, and Harvard Law Schools. In the 1960s she taught a joint course at Boalt School of Law.
Some of her work focuses on conflict resolution in the Zapotec village she studied. Nader notes that people confront each other face to face on a personal scale. Judges strive to find solutions that are balanced rather than placing one hundred percent of the blame on one party. Nader believes this reflects the society, their economic system, hierarchal structure and any other institution or variable. In contrast, she finds that in the United States, conflict often escalates to polarized blame and violence. The group of people a person may need to confront may be large and impersonal and much more powerful than themselves. She concludes that the kinds of cases people bring to court, reflect areas of stress in the social structure of a community.
However, Nader has written extensively about "harmony ideology," the ideology centered around the belief that the existence of conflict is necessarily a bad or dysfunctional thing and that a healthy society is one that achieves harmony between people and minimizes conflict and confrontation. She has argued in her book Harmony Ideology that harmony ideology has been spread amongst colonized peoples around the world by missionaries prior to (and facilitating) their military colonization and that the Zapotec used it in a "counter-hegemonic" way by maintaining the appearance of harmony (while in practice engaging in a great deal of litigation) in order to prevent the Mexican government from interfering with their relative autonomy. Nader has also argued that harmony ideology has been an important basis for unsubstantiated ideas that have developed in the United States since the 1960s about a "litigation explosion" and for the development of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) as a method for removing so-called "garbage cases" (for instance, the then newly appearing civil rights cases of the 1960s) from the courtroom into an arena that emphasizes harmony, compromise and the language of therapy over talk of injustice.
While Nader's career began with a strong interest in law and forms of social control, over time she became more interested in questions of cultural control and "controlling processes" (also the title of an immensely popular undergraduate course she taught from 1984 until 2010), a concept described further in her 1997 article, "Controlling Processes: Tracing the Dynamic Components of Power."
One of Nader's best known contributions was in writing the at the time highly controversial "Up the Anthropologist--Perspectives Gained From Studying Up" in 1969, which was "one of the first calls to anthropologists to think more about the 'study of the colonizers rather than the colonized, the culture of power rather than the culture of the powerless, the culture of affluence rather than the culture of poverty.'" This call led many anthropologists to begin to "study up," although many misinterpreted Nader's call and did not simultaneously study "down" and "sideways." Nader's works for the field of anthropology and discipline have led her to be described as "the embodied moral conscience of post-Boasian American anthropology.". Her interest in the anthropology of science has developed throughout her career.
Nader has coined the term "trustanoia" to describe the antonym of paranoia and the state of Americans' feeling of trust of others. She contends that people in the United States trust that there is always someone there to take care of them, and that everyone (including legislators and politicians) acts in their interest.
- Morgan Spanish Prize, Wells College
- Wells College Alumnae Award, Wells College
- Radcliffe College Alumnae Award
- Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences
- Woodrow Wilson Center for Advanced Study in Washington, D.C.
- Harry Kalven Prize (1995), Law and Society Association
- American Anthropological Association, Distinguished Lecture Award (2000), American Anthropological Association
- Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
- CoGEA (Committee on Gender Equity in Anthropology) Award (aka "The Squeaky Wheel Award") (2010)
Nader is the author or coauthor of over 280 published books and articles, including:
- Laura Nader (1964). Talea and Juquila; a comparison of Zapotec social organization. University of California Press. OCLC 2958459.
- Laura Nader (1965). The ethnography of law. Menasha, Wisconsin: American Anthropological Association. OCLC 3075225.
- Laura Nader; Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research (1969). Law in culture and society. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company. OCLC 59266.
- Laura Nader; Thomas Maretzki; Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (Stanford, Calif.) (1973). Cultural illness and health; essays in human adaptation. Washington: American Anthropological Association. OCLC 741222. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Laura Nader; University of California; Berkeley. Dept. of Anthropology (1976). The Kroeber Islanders ; a handbook of anthropology at Berkeley. University of California, Dept. of Anthropology. OCLC 29557308.
- Laura Nader (1977). The problem of order in a faceless society. s.l. : s.n. OCLC 4865456.
- Laura Nader; Harry F Todd (1978). The Disputing process : law in ten societies. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-04536-0.
- Laura Nader (July 1980). Energy Choices in a Democratic Society. National Academy of Sciences. ISBN 0-309-03045-5.
- Laura Nader (August 1981). No Access to Law: Alternatives to the American Judicial System. Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-513562-9.
- Gary B Melton; Laura Nader (1986). The law as a behavioral instrument. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-3100-8.
- Laura Nader (1990). Harmony ideology : justice and control in a Zapotec mountain village. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-1809-1.
- Laura Nader (1992). The Cheyenne way : conflict and case law in primitive jurisprudence : K.N. LLewellyn and E. Adamson Hoebel : notes from the editors. Delran, New Jersey: The Legal Classics Library. OCLC 28897832.
- Laura Nader (1994). Essays on controlling processes. Berkeley, CA: Kroeber Anthropological Society. OCLC 31980852.. Reprinted in 1996 OCLC 36139409, 2002 OCLC 50922612 and 2005 OCLC 68178289.
- Laura Nader (1996). Naked science : anthropological inquiry into boundaries, power, and knowledge. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-91464-7.
- Laura Nader (1997). Law in culture and society. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20833-1.
- Laura Nader (2002). The life of the law : anthropological projects. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22988-6. Reprinted in 2005 ISBN 0-520-23163-5.
- Ugo Mattei; Laura Nader (2008). Plunder: When the Rule of Law is Illegal. Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4051-7894-5. Printed in 2008 ISBN 978-1-4051-7894-5.
- Laura Nader (2010). The Energy Reader. Wiley-Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 1405199849.
- Laura Nader (2012). Culture and Dignity: Dialogues Between the Middle East and the West. Wiley-Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 111831901X.
- Laura Nader (1966) To Make the Balance 33 min.
- Laura Nader (1980) Little Injustices- Laura Nader Looks at the Law 60 min.
- Laura Nader (2011) Losing Knowledge: Fifty Years of Change 40 min.
- Laura Nader (2004). "The Link Between Justice and International Law". Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology. 10 (3): 297–299. doi:10.1207/s15327949pac1003_6. ISSN 1532-7949.
- Gamal Nkrumah (2005). "Speaking Out in Al-Ahram Weekly". Web Ezine: 1–5.
- Laura Nader (997). "Controlling Processes - Tracing the Dynamic Components of Power". Current Anthropology. pp. 711–737.
- "Anthropology: Berkeley's Imprint - Laura Nader - "Up the Anthropologist: Perspectives Gained from Studying Up"". Lib.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
- David H. Price (2004), Threatening Anthropology. p. xv. Durham: Duke University Press
- Archived September 11, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
- Archived July 12, 2005, at the Wayback Machine.
- "CoGEA Award". Aaanet.org. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
- Laura Nader oral history interview.
- Laura Nader's biosketch at UC-Berkeley
- The Drift to War; Laura Nader, Interviewed by John M. Whiteley
- Q and A: A Conversation with Laura Nader
- Laura Nader: Speaking out. When silence is part of the problem (Al-Ahram Weekly)
- Laura Nader: What's Good About Conflict? (Anthropology News)
- Laura Nader keynote address at American University Fifth Annual Public Anthropology Conference