Lam Sơn uprising
|Lam Sơn uprising|
|Ming Dynasty||Lam Sơn rebels|
|Commanders and leaders|
The Ming were backed by a lot of Red River plain dwelling ethnic Kinh Vietnamese while it was the frontier dwelling ethnic minority Trai people who were the origin of the anti-Ming rebels and Le Loi himself. There was no mandatory required reparation of the voluntarily remaining Ming Chinese in Vietnam. The return of the Ming Chinese to China was commanded by the Ming and not Le Loi. The Trai made up the supporters of Le Loi in his campaign. He lived among the Trai at the border regions as their leader and seized the Ming ruled lowland Kinh areas after originally forming his base in the southern highland regions. The southern dwelling Trai and Red River dwelling Vietnamese were in effect locked in a "civil war" during the anti Ming rebellion by Le Loi. The Trai are also known as the Muong who are highlanders.
Either a Laotian or a Muong origin has been ascribed by historians to Le Loi since he was not ethnic Vietnamese. Clumsy Han Nom transcriptions of names like "Shoes", "Liar", "Tongue", "animal", "shabby", "Skin" and Dog" among Le Loi's supporters indicate a non Vietnamese background. They invaded the Red River area from their original home base of Nghe An and Thanh Hoa. It was said that Le Loi was a barbarian amongst barbarians in texts from China in the 1500s.
A Muong character dominated over the Vietnamese in Lam son around the river Chu and Tai, Muong, and Vietnamese according to Emile Gaspardone all lived in Tay-kinh in Lam son which was the origin of the Le rebels. Both Trai and Kinh resided near Tay Do in Mount Lam which was the origin of Le Loi. Muont Lam was the origin of the uprising.
Anti Ming sentiment came from the southern highland areas of Nghe An and Thanh Hoa while the same province's lowland areas were pro-Ming as were the Red River inhabitants. Anti Ming rebellion happened among the southern Trai people. The Muong were called Trai while the ethnic Vietnamese were called King during the Tran dynasty.
There was a mix of Trai and Kinh in the area of Mount Lam where Le Loi originated. Trần Quý Khoáng counted Le Loi among one of his partisans. The Ming received an oath of loyalty from Le Loi in 1413. The Ming launched an assault against Le Loi after the Ming were told he was an insurrectionary by one of his rivals.
The Muong people were given the name of outpost (Trai) while the ethnic Kinh Vietnamese living in the lowlands in the Ca and Ma region who were named afer the Hanoi capital area were influenced significantly by Chinese language when the Red River areas was heavily inhabited by Sinophones during the original period of Chinese rule. The Tran dynasty had used the label of Trai for the inhabitants of Ha Tinh, Nghe An, and Thanh Hoa n the south while they gave the label of Kinh to the inhabitants of the red River area in 1256.
The decisive battle was the Battle of Tốt Động – Chúc Động in 1426, after which the Ming Dynasty eventually had to concede defeat by 1428. Rather than putting to death the captured Ming soldiers and administrators, he magnanimously provided ships and supplies to send them back to China. Le Loi then ascended the Vietnamese throne, taking the reign name Le Thai To and establishing the Le dynasty (1428-1788).
The Muong were the majority of the rebels against the Ming who served Le Loi. Muong was the ethnicity of Le Loi. Up to 1427 the Ming were served by loyalist Vietnamese collaborators who could read Chinese and who were subjected to propaganda from Nguyen Trai who worked with Le Loi.
It was recorded that the union of Vietnamese women and Chinese (Ngô) men produced offspring which were left behind in Vietnam, and the Chams, Cẩu Hiểm, Laotians, these people, and Vietnamese natives who collaborated with the Ming were made into slaves of the Le government in the Complete Annals of Đại Việt.
- Asia: Local Studies / Global Themes - Volume 3 Hue-Tam Ho Tai - 2001 - Page 91 "... an anti-Ming resistance — the Lam Son uprising, begun in 1418 — and the two men became the movement's key exponents. As emperor (1428-33), Le Loi would retain Nguyen Trai as his chief official; thereafter, their relationship was made ..."
- Lonely Planet Vietnam 10 -Nick Ray, Yu-Mei Balasingamchow, Iain Stewart - 2009 Page 30 "In 1418 wealthy philanthropist Le Loi sparked the Lam Son Uprising by refusing to serve as an official for the Chinese Ming dynasty. By 1428, local rebellions had erupted in several regions and Le Loi travelled the countryside to rally ..."
- H. K. Chang - From Movable Type Printing to the World Wide Web 2007 Page 128 "However, in 1418, another leader, Lê Lợi, staged an uprising, which led in 1428 to the establishment of the Lê dynasty, from which time Vietnam broke free of China and became independent".
- Ngọc Đĩnh Vũ Hào kiệt Lam Sơn: trường thiên tiểu thuyết lịch sử Volume 1 - 2003 "The Lam Sơn uprising, 1418-1428, is one of the greatest historical events in Vietnamese history, when a small country tried to gain independence from the firm grab of a bigger neighbor".
- Laurel Kendall Vietnam: Journeys of Body, Mind, and Spirit 2003- Page 27 "Le Loi led a successful ten,year (1418,1428) uprising against the Chinese. According to legend, Le Loi returned the sword that gave him victory to Hoan Kiem Lake (now the center of Hanoi), wtiere it was retrieved by a giant turtle".
- K. W. Taylor (9 May 2013). A History of the Vietnamese. Cambridge University Press. pp. 186–. ISBN 978-0-521-87586-8.
- K. W. Taylor (9 May 2013). A History of the Vietnamese. Cambridge University Press. pp. 191–. ISBN 978-0-521-87586-8.
- K. W. Taylor (9 May 2013). A History of the Vietnamese. Cambridge University Press. pp. 210–. ISBN 978-0-521-87586-8.
- Li, Tana (2010). "3 The Ming Factor and the Emergency of the Viet in the 15th Century". In Wade, Geoff; Sun, Laichen. Southeast Asia in the Fifteenth Century: The China Factor. Hong Kong University Press. p. 95. ISBN 978-988-8028-48-1.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/248395427_The_Ming_factor_and_the_Emergence_of_the_Viet_in_the_15th_century pp. 95 http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Tana_Li/publication/248395427_The_Ming_factor_and_the_Emergence_of_the_Viet_in_the_15th_century/file/60b7d51df84438389a.pdf
- Kenneth R. Hall (2008). Secondary Cities and Urban Networking in the Indian Ocean Realm, C. 1400-1800. Lexington Books. pp. 164–. ISBN 978-0-7391-2835-0.
- K. W. Taylor (9 May 2013). A History of the Vietnamese. Cambridge University Press. pp. 182–. ISBN 978-0-521-87586-8.
- Jayne Werner; John K. Whitmore; George Dutton (21 August 2012). Sources of Vietnamese Tradition. Columbia University Press. pp. 156–. ISBN 978-0-231-51110-0.
- K. W. Taylor (9 May 2013). A History of the Vietnamese. Cambridge University Press. pp. 177–. ISBN 978-0-521-87586-8.
- K. W. Taylor (9 May 2013). A History of the Vietnamese. Cambridge University Press. pp. 5–. ISBN 978-0-521-87586-8.
- K. W. Taylor (9 May 2013). A History of the Vietnamese. Cambridge University Press. pp. 113–. ISBN 978-0-521-87586-8.
- Shih-shan Henry Tsai (1996). The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty. SUNY Press. pp. 15–. ISBN 978-0-7914-2687-6.
- Victor Lieberman (26 May 2003). Strange Parallels: Volume 1, Integration on the Mainland: Southeast Asia in Global Context, c.800–1830. Cambridge University Press. pp. 377–. ISBN 978-1-139-43762-2.
- Li, Tana (2010). "3 The Ming Factor and the Emergency of the Viet in the 15th Century". In Wade, Geoff; Sun, Laichen. Southeast Asia in the Fifteenth Century: The China Factor. Hong Kong University Press. pp. 95–96. ISBN 978-988-8028-48-1.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/248395427_The_Ming_factor_and_the_Emergence_of_the_Viet_in_the_15th_century pp. 95-96 http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Tana_Li/publication/248395427_The_Ming_factor_and_the_Emergence_of_the_Viet_in_the_15th_century/file/60b7d51df84438389a.pdf
- Tsai, Shih-shan Henry. (1996). The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty (illustrated ed.). SUNY Press. ISBN 1438422369. Retrieved 7 August 2013.