Laibach (band)


Laibach in 2011
Background information
Origin Trbovlje, Slovenia
Genres Martial industrial, industrial, neoclassical dark wave, avant-garde, experimental, electronic, electro-industrial
Years active 1980–present
Labels Staalplaat, ŠKUC, V2_Archief, Walter Ulbricht Schallfolien, Side Effects, Cherry Red, Mute, The Grey Area, Dallas Records, Abbey Road Live Here Now
Associated acts 300.000 V.K., Borghesia, Kazimirov Kazneni Korpus, Lačni Franz, Profili Profili, Melodrom
Members see the members section

Laibach (Slovene pronunciation: [ˈlájbax]) is a Slovenian avant-garde music group associated with the industrial, martial, and neo-classical genres. Formed in Trbovlje (at the time SFR Yugoslavia) in 1980, Laibach represents the musical wing of the Neue Slowenische Kunst (NSK) collective, a group which Laibach helped found in 1984. The name "Laibach" is the German name for the Slovenian capital city, Ljubljana.


Laibach with Tomaž Hostnik (1980–1982)

Laibach was formed on June 1, 1980, in Trbovlje, a mining-industry town. Laibach is the German language name of the city of Ljubljana, a name used during the period when Slovenia was a part of the Habsburg Monarchy and the World War II occupation of Yugoslavia.[1] At the time, the group collaborated with art groups Irwin (painting) and Rdeči Pilot (theatre).[1] Since its formation, Laibach had been preparing a multimedia project "Rdeči revirji" ("Red District"), a piece intended to challenge and provoke the current political structures in Trbovlje.[1] The group's use of Malevich's black crosses on their posters was determined to be "improper and irresponsible," leading to the cancellation of the performance of Red District, an action which was met with considerable negative reaction in the media and by the general public.[1] At this early stage of their career, Laibach's visuals employed mining iconography. Eventually, the group would add such symbols as Triglav, deer horns and the Malevich's black cross rounded with a gear.[1]

The first live appearance and an exhibition entitled "Žrtve letalske nesreče" ("Victims of an Air Accident") took place in January 1982 at the Ljubljana club FV, followed by performances in Belgrade and Zagreb.[1] At the time, the group's musical style was characterized by critics as "industrial rock", and for their live performances they used gramophones, radio devices and electronic instruments constructed by themselves.[1] Instead of the dry ice stage effect, the group used original military smoke bombs which was as unpleasant for themselves as for the audience.[1] At the Novi Rock festival in Ljubljana during the same year, the frontman Tomaž Hostnik appeared in a military uniform and despite being hit by a bottle in the face, causing him serious injuries, he managed to bring the performance to an end.[1] However, Hostnik committed ritual suicide in December 1982[1] by hanging himself from one of the most powerful Slovenian national symbols – the kozolec near his hometown, Medvode. Laibach disapproved of his act of suicide and posthumously expelled Hostnik from the group,[2] returning him to his private identity. Despite this, the group often referred to him and dedicated various projects to him, including an installation entitled APOLOGIA LAIBACH, created around Hostnik’s self-portrait.[3]

Dissident status in Yugoslavia (1983–1985)

LAIBACH Press Photo 1983

In April 1983 the group resumed its activities with a live appearance in Ljubljana, featuring guest performances by the English bands The Last Few Days and 23 Skidoo, for which recordings of dogs barking and snarling were used as the concert intro.[1] The day after the performance, the group received considerable media coverage for a concert at the Zagreb Biennale entitled "Mi kujemo bodočnost" ("We Forge the Future"), during which the group used simultaneous projections of a pornographic movie and the film Revolucija še traja (The Revolution is Still Going On).[1] The performance was eventually interrupted by the police, forcing the group to leave the stage after the appearance of a penis and Josip Broz Tito at the same time on the screens.[1] The subsequent debut television appearance on June 23, 1983, in the informative-political program TV Tednik, caused major negative reactions after which they were banned from using the name Laibach as well as performing in public.[1]

The group then started an international The Occupied Europe Tour '83, with the group The Last Few Days, which included sixteen dates in eight Eastern and Western European countries.[1] The performances provoked a lot of interest in the European media, especially with the totalitarian musical and visual style.[1] The socialist realism background, effective live appearances and a dissident status in their home country provided the group with a swift increase of interest of the Western countries.[1] Their provocative usage of symbols from Nazi Germany firstly provoked the Slovene WW2 Veteran Organization in Yugoslavia.[1] By combining the imagery of socialist realism, Nazism and Italian futurism, the group created a unique aesthetic style which could not pass unnoticed by the public.[1] The song lyrics were initially written in German language, but having included cover versions of English language songs, the group focused more on the latter language.[1]

In 1984, the group moved to London and started working as labourers, acted as soldiers in Stanley Kubrick's Full Metal Jacket and worked at a pier in Belfast.[1] Due to the fact that they were banned from using the name Laibach, the group held a secret concert at the Ljubljana Malči Belič hall dedicated to the deceased Tomaž Hostnik.[1] During that period, the group, with their early collaborators Irwin and Rdeči Pilot founded the informal art organization Neue Slowenische Kunst (German for New Slovene Art).

The following year, the group released their debut studio album, Laibach, through the Ljubljana ŠKUC Ropot label, which did not feature the group name on the album cover, due to its ban, and a sample from a speech by Tito on one of the album tracks was also censored.[1] During the same year, the German label WUS released a compilation album Rekapitulacija 1980–1984 (Recapitulation 1980-1984).[1] With the Gledališče Sester Scipion Nasice, the group performed in their own play Krst pod Triglavom (A Baptism Under Triglav) at the Ljubljana Cankarjev dom.[1] During 1985, the group also released its second album Nova Akropola (The New Acropolis) via British independent record label Cherry Red.[1] After the album release, the group performed its first legal concert in Hum (Slovenia), entitled "Krvava gruda, plodna zemlja" ("Bloody Land, Fertile Soil"). They had asked the 12th congress of the SSO of Slovenia to be allowed to use the name Laibach and have public performances, a request which had been accepted. The group subsequently got the "Zlata ptica" ("The Golden Bird") award at the Yugoslav Youth Day.[1]

International breakthrough (1986–1991)

In London, the famous disc jockey John Peel recorded three songs with the group for his show, and the group performed in the Michael Clark play No Fire Escape from Hell.[1] Having signed for Mute Records, the group started recording their third studio album, Opus Dei, with Slavko Avsenik Jr.[1] The inner sleeve of the cover featured a swastika consisting of four bloodied axes designed by John Heartfield, an anti-Nazi artist. The record was sold secretly in some European countries,[1] as the meaning of the cover was not recognised. The usage of Nazi symbols and the name "Opus Dei" caused the Catholic institution of the same name to sue the group but the case was eventually decided in favour of Laibach.[1] Following the album release, the group embarked on a European tour, during which they stated at a press conference in France that their influences are Tito, Toto and Tati.[1]

LAIBACH Press Photo 1989

In Hamburg, the group performed and wrote the music for an adaptation of William Shakespeare's Macbeth at the Deutsches Schauspielhaus, which was eventually released in 1989 as Macbeth.[1] In 1988, the group released the album Let It Be, featuring cover versions of all the songs from the Beatles album of the same name, with the exception of the title track, which they did not record owing to lack of studio time, and "Maggie Mae", which was replaced by the German anthems "Auf der Lüneburger Heide" and "Was Gleicht Wohl Auf Erden".[1] A part of the recorded material from the album was broadcast by Paul McCartney before his concerts.

In 1989, their performance in Zagreb started with the Serbian instrument the gusle and in Belgrade, the NSK philosopher Peter Mlakar held a speech as a cynical parody of Slobodan Milošević's speeches in SAP Kosovo.[1] The following year, the group released the EP Sympathy for the Devil, an album of different cover versions of the Rolling Stones song of the same name.[1] The group also achieved a commercial success with the cover versions of "Live is Life" by Opus and "One Vision" by Queen.[1] During the same year, on December 21, the group celebrated their tenth anniversary with a first ever live performance in their hometown Trbovlje. The concert also marked the official foundation of the state of the Neue Slowenische Kunst movement, complete with its own currency, flag and passport. After this concert, the group undertook a tour of Bosnia and Herzegovina.[1]

Commercial success and after (1992–present)

During 1991, Slovenia became an independent state. In 1992, the group released Kapital an album featuring their own vision of materialism.[1] The following year, Mute Records released the Ljubljana–Zagreb–Beograd live album, recorded at performances in the three cities in 1982, presenting a document of politically active rock from the group's early career, especially in the songs "Tito-Tito", "Država" ("The State"), and "Rdeči molk" ("Red Silence").[1] In 1994, they released the album NATO, which commented on the current political events in Eastern Europe, former Yugoslavia and the actions of the NATO pact, filtered through their vision of techno and pop. The album featured cover versions of Europe's "The Final Countdown", Bolland & Bolland's "In the Army Now", Don Fardon's "Indian Reservation" (renamed to "National Reservation"), and the Stanislav Binički composition "Marš na Drinu" ("March on the Drina").[1]

Following the album release, the group went on the Occupied Europe NATO Tour 1994-95, resulting in the live and video album of the same name, which featured a selection of recordings from the two-year tour, including the performance in Sarajevo on the date of the signing of the Dayton Agreement.[1] In 1995, the group for a while considered splitting into several simultaneous lineups so that they could perform in different places at the same time, but the idea was abandoned.[1] The following year, the group released Jesus Christ Superstars, a reference to the Andrew Lloyd Webber's rock opera Jesus Christ Superstar.[4] The group promoted the album in the USA with an eighteen-date tour, as well as a German tour.[4]

LAIBACH Press Photo 2003

On May 15, 1997, the group performed with the Slovenian symphony orchestra, conducted by Marko Letonja, and the "Tone Tomšić" choir, for the opening ceremony of the Ljubljana European Month of Culture, presenting orchestral versions of their earliest material, which they rarely performed live, arranged by Uroš Rojko and Aldo Kumar with the members of the group.[4] During the same year, the live album M.B. December 21, 1984 was released, featuring recordings of the forbidden concert in the Ljubljana Malci Belić Hall, a February 1985 concert at the Berlin Atonal festival, and the April 1985 performance at the Zagreb club Kulušić.[4] The performances had featured a guest appearance by Jože Pegam on clarinet and trumpet, and recordings of Tito's speeches.[4] On November 14, 1997 at a concert in Belgrade, another Peter Mlakar speech received a decidedly mixed audience reaction (in sharp contrast to the 1989 speech), in which he asked the audience to "eat the pig and digest it once and for all", referring to the then president Slobodan Milošević.[4]

In 2003, the group released the album WAT (an acronym for We Are Time), which, as well as new material, featured the song "Tanz mit Laibach" (German for "Dance with Laibach"), inspired by the German band D.A.F.[4] The song lyrics were co-written with Peter Mlakar, and the music was co-written with the producer Iztok Turk (former member of Videosex) and the DJs Umek, Bizzy and Dojaja.[4] The following year, the group released a double compilation album Anthems, featuring a career spanning selection of material as well as the previously unreleased song "Mama Leone", a Drafi Deutscher cover, and remixes by Random Logic, Umek, Octex, Iztok Turk and others.[4] The compilation also features a thorough group biography written by Alexei Monroe.[4] The group also released two DVD's: the first, Laibach, featured music videos, including a new music video for the song "Das Spiel ist aus", and A film about WAT directed by Sašo Podgoršek.[4] The second DVD was 2 with a recording from the Occupied Europe NATO Tour concert in Ljubljana on October 26, 1995 and A Film from Slovenia, directed by Daniel Landin and Peter Vezjak.[4]

In 2004, the group recorded The Divided States of America - Laibach 2004 Tour, released on DVD in 2006 and directed by Sašo Podgoršek during the group's fourth USA tour.[4] During 2006, the group released the album Volk (German for People), featuring cover versions of national anthems, including the NSK state anthem "Das Lied der Deutschen", originally written in 1797 and used during the Weimar Republic.[4] Each cover featured a guest vocalist singing the anthem in their own language.[4] During the same year, on June 1, the group performed J. S. Bach's "The Art of Fugue" in his hometown Leipzig,[4] and their interpretation of the work was released on the album LAIBACHKUNSTDERFUGE in 2008.[5]

On 15 October 2013 Laibach announced new album "Spectre" to be released February 2014 and released new EP record S featuring three songs from the album and one from a 2012 live album. The songs from the new album are also downloadable for limited time for subscribers of their new mailing list.[6] The first single Resistance is Futile was published on 8 January 2014.[7]

In July 2014 Laibach released an EP to coincide with the 70th anniversary of the outbreak of the Warsaw Uprising. The project was commissioned by Poland's National Cultural Centre and includes a reworking of one of the classic songs of the insurgency; "Warszawskie Dzieci" ("Children of Warsaw").[8]

In April 2015 Laibach launched an Indiegogo fundraising campaign to augment costs of a tour in the United States. Their tour begins May 2015.[9]

On 11 June 2015 Laibach announced that they would be performing a show in Pyongyang, North Korea sometime in August 2015.[2] The band later confirmed through their website and the website of their record label, Mute Records, that they will be performing two concerts on 19 and 20 August 2015 at Kim Won Gyun Musical Conservatory in Nampo-dong, Pyongyang, to coincide with the 70th anniversary of the end of Japanese colonial rule in Korea.[10][11] The concerts will also be the subject of a documentary film scheduled for premiere in 2016.[12]

Musical style

Laibach Live in Budapest, Hungary, April 2014

Some early Laibach albums were pure industrial, with hard industrial percussion, heavy rhythms, and roaring vocals. Later in the mid-80s, the Laibach sound became more richly layered with samples from classical music including from Gustav Holst’s The Planets. The band began their tradition of cover songs in 1987 with the album Opus Dei, where their sound changed again.

Laibach's cover versions are often used to subvert the original message or intention of the song a notable example being their version of the song "Live is Life" by Opus, an Austrian arena rock band. Laibach recorded two new interpretations of the song, which they titled Leben Heißt Leben, and Opus Dei. The first of these, the opening song on the Laibach album Opus Dei (1987), was sung in German. The second was promoted as a single, and its promotional video (which used the title "Live is Life") was played extensively on American cable channel MTV.[13] Opus Dei retained some of the original song's English lyrics, but was delivered in a musical style that left the meaning of the lyrics open to further interpretation. Whereas the original is a feel-good pop anthem, Laibach's subversive interpretation twists the melody into a triumphant military march. With the exception of the promotional video, the refrain is at one point translated into German, giving an example of the sensitivity of lyrics to their context. The Opus Dei album also features a cover of Queen's "One Vision" with lyrics translated into German under the title '"Geburt einer Nation" ("Birth of a Nation"), revealing the ambiguity of lines like "One race one hope/One real decision". In NATO (1994), Laibach also memorably re-worked Europe's glam metal anthem "The Final Countdown" as a bombastic disco epic.

Other notable covers include the Beatles album Let It Be (1988), and their maxi-single Sympathy for the Devil (1988) which deconstructs the Rolling Stones song of the same name with seven different interpretations.

In 2004, Laibach covered the song Ohne Dich by Rammstein in a significantly altered version. Unlike the solo male vocals in the Rammstein original, this cover features both male and female vocals (supplied by Laibach's Milan Fras and Mina Špiler from the band Melodrom), and the orchestral sound of the original has been supplemented and in some sections even replaced by a more electronic element. The lyrics of the song were also subtly altered, most noticeably in the chorus: the original version was "Ohne dich kann ich nicht sein" (roughly: "without you I cannot exist"), whereas Laibach's reworked chorus declares "Ohne mich kannst du nicht sein" (roughly: "Without me you cannot exist").

Laibach not only reference modern artists through reinterpretation, but also sample or reinvent older musical pieces. For example, their song "Anglia" is based on the national anthem of the United Kingdom, God Save the Queen. This song, and other based on national anthems are released on Volk album, which is a collection of Laibach's versions of national anthems of countries such as the United States and Russia. On this album they also included an anthem for their NSK State in Time, which is based on their song The Great Seal from the Opus Dei album.[14]

They have also toured with an audio-visual performance centered on Johann Sebastian Bach's Die Kunst der Fuge. Since this work has no specifications of acquired instruments and is furthermore based on mathematical principles, Laibach has argued that the music can be seen as proto-techno. Therefore, the band found Die Kunst der Fuge to be ideal for an interpretation using computers and software.

In 2009 Laibach also reworked Richard Wagner's Overture to Tannhäuser, Siegfried-Idyll and The Ride Of The Valkyries in collaboration with the symphonic orchestra RTV Slovenia, conducted by Izidor Leitinger. Laibach's version is titled "VolksWagner".[15]

In addition to cover songs, Laibach has remixed songs by other bands. These include two songs by the Florida death metal band Morbid Angel that appear on the Morbid Angel EP Laibach Re-mixes.[16]

In 2009 Laibach made new versions of their own songs from the early 1980s such as Brat moj, Boji and Smrt za smrt.[17] They have been performed live and will be released on the album Laibach Revisited.

Aesthetics, image, and controversy

Laibach live in Riga, Latvia at Club "Melnā piektdiena" on March 19, 2015.

Although primarily a musical group, Laibach have sometimes worked in other media. In their early years, especially before the founding of Neue Slowenische Kunst (NSK), Laibach produced several works of visual art. A notable example was MB 84 Memorandum (1984) an image of a black cross that served as a way to advertise Laibach's appearances during a period in the 1980s when the government of Yugoslavia banned the name "Laibach".[18] Cross imagery, and variations on the cross are apparent in many Laibach recordings and publications.

The visual imagery of Laibach's art (or 'Laibach Kunst', as it calls itself) has been described as "radically ambiguous".[19] An early example of this ambiguity would be the woodcut entitled The Thrower, also known as Metalec (The Metal Worker). This work features a monochrome silhouette of a figure with a clenched fist holding a hammer aloft. The work could be seen as promoting industrial protest or as a symbol of industrial pride. Another aspect of this woodcut is the large typefaced word 'LAIBACH', evoking memories of the Nazi occupation of Slovenia (when the capital city was briefly known by its original German language name of Laibach). This piece was featured prominently during a TV interview of Laibach in 1983, during which the interviewer Jure Pengov called Laibach "enemies of the people."[20]

Laibach has frequently been accused of both far left and far right political stances due to their use of uniforms and totalitarian-style aesthetics. They were also accused of being members of the neo-nationalism movement, which reincarnates modern ideas of nationalism. When confronted with such accusations, Laibach are quoted as replying with the ambiguous response "We are fascists as much as Hitler was a painter".[21]

The members of Laibach are notorious for rarely stepping out of character. Some releases feature artwork by the Communist and early Dada artist/satirist John Heartfield. Laibach concerts have sometimes aesthetically appeared as political rallies. When interviewed, they answer in wry manifestos, showing a paradoxical lust for, and condemnation of, authority.[21]

Richard Wolfson wrote of the group:

Laibach's method is extremely simple, effective and horribly open to misinterpretation. First of all, they absorb the mannerisms of the enemy, adopting all the seductive trappings and symbols of state power, and then they exaggerate everything to the edge of parody... Next they turn their focus to highly charged issues the West's fear of immigrants from Eastern Europe, the power games of the EU, the analogies between Western democracy and totalitarianism.[22]

Legacy, influence and innovation

Martial music

Some early material by Laibach and later neoclassical releases by the band, such as 1990's Macbeth release, were influential on certain artists within the martial industrial music genre.


The popular German musical group Rammstein has acknowledged influence by both the aesthetic approach and material of Laibach. When members of Laibach were asked by an interviewer about Rammstein "stealing" from them, they responded that "Laibach does not believe in originality... Therefore, Rammstein could not 'steal' much from us. They simply let themselves get inspired by our work, which is absolutely a legitimate process. We are glad that they made it. In a way, they have proven once again that a good 'copy' can make more money on the market than the 'original'. Anyhow, today we share the territory: Rammstein seem to be a kind of Laibach for adolescents and Laibach are Rammstein for grown-ups"[23] Laibach would later provide a remix for the Rammstein single Ohne Dich.


Laibach has been the subject of several documentaries:


In 1978, Dejan Knez formed his first band Salte Morale,[28] which was essentially the first incarnation of Laibach. During the summer of 1980, following the suggestion of Knez' father, the well-known Slovenian painter and artist Janez Knez, the band renamed itself Laibach. This incarnation included Dejan Knez, Srečko Bajda, Andrej Lupinc, Tomaž Hostnik and Bine Zerko. Soon after that, Knez's cousin Ivan (Jani) Novak and Milan Fras joined the band. First a quintet, Laibach quickly became a quartet (declaring that the group had only four members – ‘Vier Personen’).

From the mid ‘80s to mid ‘90s, while the core quartet included Dejan Knez, Milan Fras, Ervin Markošek and Ivan (Jani) Novak, the members frequently used the pseudonyms Dachauer, Keller, Saliger and Eber.[29] The pseudonym Ivo Saliger was originally used by original singer Tomaž Hostnik (since deceased) and more recently by Ivan Novak.[30][31] Former member Andrej Lupinc has continued to use the pseudonym Keller after leaving the band.[32] The pseudonym Elk Eber has been used by Dejan Knez.[33][34] Occasionally, other musicians supplemented the core group, some of whom include Oto Rimele (from Lačni Franz band), Nikola Sekulović, bass player from the Demolition Group, Matej Mršnik and Roman Dečman. Slovene singer and radio announcer Anja Rupel has also performed with the group.

Official members (pseudonyms)

Current touring band (2015)

Former members and collaborators

  • Tomaž Hostnik - singer (deceased)
  • Dejan Knez - (founder and forming member) keyboards, electronics, drums (left the band after album WAT)
  • Ervin Markošek - drums, keyboards, electronics (left the band in 1989, returned for the next album Kapital, and appears on press photos until WAT)
  • Srečko Bajda (founder and forming member)
  • Andrej Lupinc (founder and forming member)
  • Bine Zerko (founder and forming member)
  • Roman Dečman - drums
  • Nikola Sekulović - bass
  • Matej Mršnik - guitars
  • Dragoslav Draža Radojković - drums
  • Dare Hocevar - bass
  • Borut Kržišnik - guitar

  • Oto Rimele - guitar
  • Marko Košnik - electronics
  • Eva Breznikar - (member of Slovenian group Make Up 2) vocals, percussion
  • Nataša Regovec - (former member of Slovenian pop group Make Up 2) vocals, percussion
  • Sašo Vollmaier - synthesizer
  • Boris Benko (member of the group Silence)
  • Primož Hladnik (member of the group Silence)
  • Damjan Bizilj - synthesizer
  • Iztok Turk - electronics
  • Anja Rupel - vocals
  • Jože Pegam - various instruments
  • Matjaž Pegam
  • Peter Mlakar
  • Iztok Turk - composer
  • Sašo Podgoršek - videos
  • Svetozar Mišić - documentation


Studio albums

Cover albums



Live albums

7-inch singles

12-inch singles

CD singles


Side projects


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 Janjatović 2006, p. 127
  2. 1 2 "North Korea allows 'first foreign band to perform'". BBC News. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  3. "Tomaž Hostnik 08. 11. 1961 – 21. 12. 1982". Retrieved 12 August 2015.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Janjatović 2006, p. 128
  6. "Spectre". Retrieved 12 August 2015.
  7. . 9 January 2014 Missing or empty |title= (help)
  8. "Laibach to release Warsaw Rising tribute". 15 July 2014.
  9. "Lets bring Laibach back to America! - Indiegogo". Indiegogo. Retrieved 12 August 2015.
  10. [Laibach announce the "Liberation Day Tour"]
  11. [Koryo Tours - Laibach Tour 2015]
  12. "Laibach plays concert dates in North Korea – it's not a joke". 11 June 2015.
  13. Monroe, Alexei. Interrogation Machine: Laibach and NSK. MIT Press, 2005. p 231
  14. "Volk". Laibach. 2006-10-09. Retrieved 2009-11-06.
  15. "Laibach Volkswagner". 2009-04-18. Retrieved 2009-11-06.
  16. "Discography". Retrieved 2009-11-06.
  17. Laibach "Recent News". Laibach. Retrieved 2009-11-06.
  18. "ARTMargins - Winifred M. Griffin: Review of Laibach and Irwin". Retrieved 2007-04-22.
  19. Monroe, Alexei. Interrogation Machine. MIT Press, 2005. p76.
  20. Monroe, Alexei. Interrogation Machine. MIT Press, 2005. p161.
  21. 1 2 " Laibach Biography". Retrieved 2007-04-22.
  22. Richard Wolfson, "Warriors of weirdness", The Daily Telegraph, 4 September 2003
  23. "Interview: Laibach". Retrieved 2007-04-22.
  24. Consoriana (, copyright Sašo Podgoršek 2009, all rights reserved. "Sašo Podgoršek - Director". Retrieved 2009-11-06.
  25. Der_Jaeger (2 October 1996). "Prerokbe Ognja (1996)". IMDb. Retrieved 12 August 2015.
  26. "Laibach: A Film from Slovenia-Occupied Europe NATO Tour (Video 2004)". IMDb. 29 November 2004. Retrieved 12 August 2015.
  27. Der_Jaeger (20 July 2001). "Laibach: Pobeda pod suncem (1988)". IMDb. Retrieved 12 August 2015.
  28. "Ferfolja". the Slovenian. Retrieved 2009-11-06.
  29. "Laibach ] [ Konzert Fuer Das Kreuzschach Und Vier Schauspieler ]". Retrieved 2009-11-06.
  30. "Tomaž Hostnik 08. 11. 1961 – 21. 12. 1982". Retrieved 12 August 2015.
  31. "Events - Ivo Saliger (Laibach) "LAIBACH: XY-UNSOLVED" :: KM– Künstlerhaus, Halle für Kunst & Medien". Retrieved 12 August 2015.
  35. Janjatović 2006, p. 187
  36. YouTube. Retrieved 12 August 2015.
  37. "Laibach among superheroes". Archived from the original on 2008-01-01. Retrieved 2008-01-14.
  38. "Various - Schlecht Und Ironisch - Laibach Tribut (CD, Comp) at Discogs". Retrieved 2009-11-06.
  39. "Various - Command & Conquer - Alarmstufe Rot (2xCD) at Discogs". Retrieved 2009-11-06.
  40. "Various - The Blair Witch Project: Josh's Blair Witch Mix (CD, Comp, Enh) at Discogs". Retrieved 2009-11-06.
  41. "Montrealska Akropola - A Tribute to Laibach (2004)". Retrieved 2009-12-22.
  42. "Iron Sky Soundtrack by Laibach release date confirmed". Retrieved 2012-05-02.


  • Janjatović, Petar. EX YU ROCK enciklopedija 1960-2006. ISBN 978-86-905317-1-4. 
  • Arns, Inke (2002). Neue Slowenische Kunst (NSK) - eine Analyse ihrer kuenstlerischen Strategien im Kontext der 1980er Jahre in Jugoslawien [Neue Slowenische Kunst (NSK) - an Analysis of their Strategies in the Context of the 1980s]. Regensburg: Museum Ostdeutsche Galerie. ISBN 961-90851-1-6. 
  • Arns, Inke, ed. (2003). Irwin: Retroprincip 1983-2003. Frankfurt/Main: Revolver - Archiv für aktuelle Kunst. ISBN 3-936919-56-9. 
  • Humbertclaude, Eric (2008). Empreintes : regards sur la création musicale contemporaine (in French). Paris: L’Harmattan. ISBN 978-2-296-06979-4. 
  • Janjatović, Petar (2007). EX YU ROCK enciklopedija 1960-2006 (in Serbian). Belgrade: self-published. ISBN 978-86-905317-1-4. 
  • Monroe, Alexei (2005). Interrogation Machine - Laibach and NSK. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-63315-4. . Foreword by Slavoj Žižek.
  • Wolfson, Richard (4 September 2003). "Warriors of weirdness". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2012-08-31. 
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Laibach (band).
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Laibach (band)
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 11/25/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.