Lactobacillus sakei

Lactobacillus sakei
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli
Order: Lactobacillales
Family: Lactobacillaceae
Genus: Lactobacillus
Species: L. sakei
Binomial name
Lactobacillus sakei
corrig. Katagiri et al. 1934 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Klein et al. 1996

Lactobacillus sakei L45
Lactobacillus sakei subsp. carnosus
Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei


Lactobacillus sake
Lactobacillus bavaricus Stetter and Stetter 1980

Lactobacillus sakei is a bacterium species in the genus Lactobacillus. It is a facultatively heterofermentative Lactobacillus species (placed in Group II, with species able to produce either alcohol or lactic acid from sugars).


Antilisterial strains of L. sakei are used in Europe for the production of saucisson and can be used for the conservation of fresh meat.[1]

Lactobacillus sakei strains isolated from traditional dry sausage have a potential use as starter cultures.[2]

Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in chicken cold cuts can be obtained by addition of sakacin P and sakacin P-producing Lactobacillus sakei.[3]

Strain 2a of the subspecies Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei can also be isolated from meat products.[4]

New research suggests that L. sakei may play a role in maintaining healthy sinus cavities and preventing sinusitis.[5]


Bacteriocins production

Sakacins are bacteriocins of class II produced by L. sakei.

In strain CCUG 42687, their production is dependent on nutrients, temperature and pH.[6] Using the same strain, sakacin P can be produced in a completely defined medium.[7]

In strain CTC 494, the presence of salt and a curing agent (sodium chloride and sodium nitrite) reduces the production of the antilisterial bacteriocin sakacin K.[8] Growth of CTC 494 is also dependent on nutrients availability.[9]

Lactocin S is a bacteriocin produced by strain L45 of Lactobacillus sakei.[10]

Exopolysaccharide biosynthesis

Strain 0–1 of Lactobacillus sakei produces exopolysaccharides.[11]


Eugenol is a chemical compound that can be used to reduce the presence of L. sakei[12] as it disrupts its cellular membranes.[13]


Genetic diversity within Lactobacillus sakei can be assessed through the use of specifically designed PCR primers for detection using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA.[14]

Bacteriocin genes

Bacteriocin genes are located either on chromosoms or on plasmids. Strain 5 produces a plasmid-encoded bacteriocin that is identical to sakacin P, as well as two chromosomally encoded bacteriocins, which were designated sakacin T and sakacin X.[15]

LasX is a transcriptional regulator of the lactocin S biosynthetic genes in strain L45 of Lactobacillus sakei.[16]

Other genes

In strain LTH677, a starter organism used in meat fermentation, there is an oxygen-dependent regulation of the expression of the catalase gene katA.[17]

In strain LTH681, the stress operon dnaK has been characterized in 1999 as a heat shock protein gene.[18]

There is only one gene (IdhL) responsible for the lactic fermentation.[19]


A Theta-type plasmid has been characterized in Lactobacillus sakei in 2003. It is a potential basis for Low-Copy-Number vectors in Lactobacilli.[20]

Vectors for inducible gene expression in Lactobacillus sakei can be constructed. The key elements of these vectors are a regulatable promoter involved in the production of the bacteriocins sakacin A and sakacin P and the genes encoding the cognate histidine protein kinase and response regulator that are necessary to activate this promoter upon induction by a peptide pheromone.[21][22]


The genome of the meat-borne lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus sakei 23K has been published in 2005.[23]

It is composed of 1884661 nucleotides forming 1879 protein genes and 84 RNA genes.[24]


  1. Bredholt, S.; Nesbakken, T.; Holck, A. (2001). "Industrial application of an antilisterial strain of Lactobacillus sakei as a protective culture and its effect on the sensory acceptability of cooked, sliced, vacuum-packaged meats". International Journal of Food Microbiology. 66 (3): 191–196. doi:10.1016/S0168-1605(00)00519-5. PMID 11428578.
  2. Ammor, S.; Dufour, E.; Zagorec, M.; Chaillou, S. P.; Chevallier, I. (2005). "Characterization and selection of Lactobacillus sakei strains isolated from traditional dry sausage for their potential use as starter cultures". Food Microbiology. 22 (6): 529–538. doi:10.1016/
  3. Katla, T.; Moretro, T.; Sveen, I.; Aasen, I. M.; Axelsson, L.; Rorvik, L. M.; Naterstad, K. (2002). "Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in chicken cold cuts by addition of sakacin P and sakacin P-producing Lactobacillus sakei". Journal of Applied Microbiology. 93 (2): 191–196. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2672.2002.01675.x. PMID 12147066.
  4. Carvalho, K. T. G.; Bambirra, F. H. S.; Kruger, M. F.; Barbosa, M. S.; Oliveira, J. S.; Santos, A. M. C.; Nicoli, J. R.; Bemquerer, M. P.; Miranda, A.; Salvucci, E. J.; Sesma, F. J. M.; Franco, B. D. G. M. (2009). "Antimicrobial compounds produced by Lactobacillus sakei subsp. Sakei 2a, a bacteriocinogenic strain isolated from a Brazilian meat product". Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology. 37 (4): 381–390. doi:10.1007/s10295-009-0684-y.
  6. Aasen, I. M.; Møretrø, T.; Katla, T.; Axelsson, L.; Storrø, I. (2000). "Influence of complex nutrients, temperature and pH on bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus sakei CCUG 42687". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 53 (2): 159–166. doi:10.1007/s002530050003. PMID 10709977.
  7. Moretro, T.; Aasen, I. M.; Storro, I.; Axelsson, L. (2000). "Production of sakacin P by Lactobacillus sakei in a completely defined medium". Journal of Applied Microbiology. 88 (3): 536–545. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2672.2000.00994.x. PMID 10747235.
  8. The Presence of Salt and a Curing Agent Reduces Bacteriocin Production by Lactobacillus sakei CTC 494, a Potential Starter Culture for Sausage Fermentation. Frédéric Leroy and Luc de Vuyst, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., December 1999, vol. 65, no. 12, pages 5350-5356 (abstract)
  9. Leroy, F.; De Vuyst, L. (2001). "Growth of the Bacteriocin-Producing Lactobacillus sakei Strain CTC 494 in MRS Broth is Strongly Reduced Due to Nutrient Exhaustion: A Nutrient Depletion Model for the Growth of Lactic Acid Bacteria". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 67 (10): 4407–4413. doi:10.1128/AEM.67.10.4407-4413.2001. PMC 93183Freely accessible. PMID 11571136.
  10. Mørtvedt, C. I.; Nissen-Meyer, J.; Sletten, K.; Nes, I. F. (1991). "Purification and amino acid sequence of lactocin S, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sake L45". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 57 (6): 1829–1834. PMC 183476Freely accessible. PMID 1872611.
  11. Degeest, B.; Janssens, B.; De Vuyst, L. (2001). "Exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis by Lactobacillus sakei 0-1: Production kinetics, enzyme activities and EPS yields". Journal of Applied Microbiology. 91 (3): 470–477. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2672.2001.01404.x. PMID 11556912.
  12. Gill, A. O.; Holley, R. A. (2004). "Mechanisms of Bactericidal Action of Cinnamaldehyde against Listeria monocytogenes and of Eugenol against L. Monocytogenes and Lactobacillus sakei". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 70 (10): 5750–5755. doi:10.1128/AEM.70.10.5750-5755.2004. PMC 522076Freely accessible. PMID 15466510.
  13. Gill, A. O.; Holley, R. A. (2006). "Disruption of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Lactobacillus sakei cellular membranes by plant oil aromatics". International Journal of Food Microbiology. 108 (1): 1–9. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2005.10.009. PMID 16417936.
  14. Berthier, F.; Ehrlich, S. D. (1999). "Genetic diversity within Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus curvatus and design of PCR primers for its detection using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 49 (3): 997–1007. doi:10.1099/00207713-49-3-997.
  15. Vaughan, A.; Eijsink, V. G. H.; Van Sinderen, D. (2003). "Functional Characterization of a Composite Bacteriocin Locus from Malt Isolate Lactobacillus sakei 5". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 69 (12): 7194–7203. doi:10.1128/AEM.69.12.7194-7203.2003. PMC 309959Freely accessible. PMID 14660366.
  16. Rawlinson, E. L. A.; Nes, I. F.; Skaugen, M. (2002). "LasX, a transcriptional regulator of the lactocin S biosynthetic genes in Lactobacillus sakei L45, acts both as an activator and a repressor". Biochimie. 84 (5–6): 559–567. doi:10.1016/S0300-9084(02)01420-7. PMID 12423800.
  17. Oxygen-Dependent Regulation of the Expression of the Catalase Gene katA of Lactobacillus sakei LTH677. Christian Hertel, Gudrun Schmidt, Marc Fischer, Katja Oellers and Walter P. Hammes, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., April 1998, vol. 64, no. 4, pages 1359-1365 (abstract)
  18. Schmidt, G.; Hertel, C.; Hammes, W. P. (1999). "Molecular Characterisation of the dnaK Operon of Lactobacillus sakei LTH681". Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 22 (3): 321–328. doi:10.1016/S0723-2020(99)80039-3. PMID 10553284.
  19. Maleret, C.; Lauret, R.; Ehrlich, S. D.; Morel-Deville, F.; Zagorec, M. (1998). "Disruption of the sole IdhL gene in Lactobacillus sakei prevents the production of both L- and D-Iactate". Microbiology. 144 (12): 3327–3333. doi:10.1099/00221287-144-12-3327.
  20. Alpert, C. -A.; Crutz-Le Coq, A. -M.; Malleret, C.; Zagorec, M. (2003). "Characterization of a Theta-Type Plasmid from Lactobacillus sakei: A Potential Basis for Low-Copy-Number Vectors in Lactobacilli". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 69 (9): 5574–5584. doi:10.1128/AEM.69.9.5574-5584.2003. PMC 194969Freely accessible. PMID 12957947.
  21. Sørvig, E.; Grönqvist, S.; Naterstad, K.; Mathiesen, G.; Eijsink, V. G. H.; Axelsson, L. (2003). "Construction of vectors for inducible gene expression inLactobacillus sakeiandL. Plantarum". FEMS Microbiology Letters. 229 (1): 119–126. doi:10.1016/S0378-1097(03)00798-5. PMID 14659551.
  22. Sørvig, E.; Mathiesen, G.; Naterstad, K.; Eijsink, V. G. H.; Axelsson, L. (2005). "High-level, inducible gene expression in Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus plantarum using versatile expression vectors". Microbiology. 151 (7): 2439–2449. doi:10.1099/mic.0.28084-0.
  23. Chaillou, S. P.; Champomier-Vergès, M. C.; Cornet, M.; Crutz-Le Coq, A. M.; Dudez, A. M.; Martin, V. R.; Beaufils, S.; Darbon-Rongère, E.; Bossy, R.; Loux, V.; Zagorec, M. (2005). "The complete genome sequence of the meat-borne lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus sakei 23K". Nature Biotechnology. 23 (12): 1527–1533. doi:10.1038/nbt1160. PMID 16273110.
  24. Lactobacillus sakei genome on KEGG at
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