|Traded as||Euronext: OR|
|Headquarters||41, rue Martre, 92110 Clichy, France|
(Chairman and CEO)
|Products||Cosmetics and beauty products|
|Revenue||€ 25.257 billion (2015)|
|€ 4.388 billion (2015)|
|Profit||€ 3.297 billion (2015)|
|Total assets||€ 28.219 billion (2014)|
|Total equity||€ 20.005 billion (2014)|
Number of employees
L'Oréal S.A. is a French cosmetics company headquartered in Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine with a registered office in Paris. It is the world's largest cosmetics company and has developed activities in the field of cosmetics, concentrating on hair colour, skin care, sun protection, make-up, perfume and hair care; the company is active in dermatology, toxicology, tissue engineering, and biopharmaceutical research fields and is the top nanotechnology patent-holder in the United States. The company is a component of Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index.
In 1909, Eugène Paul Louis Schueller, a young French chemist of German descent, developed a hair dye formula called Auréale. Schueller formulated and manufactured his own products, which he then sold to Parisian hairdressers. On 31 July 1919, Schueller registered his company, the Société Française de Teintures Inoffensives pour Cheveux (Safe Hair Dye Company of France). The guiding principles of the company, which eventually became L'Oréal, were research and innovation in the field of beauty. In 1920, the company employed three chemists. By 1950, the team was 100 strong; that number reached 1,000 by 1984 and is nearly 20,000 today.
Schueller provided financial support and held meetings for La Cagoule at L'Oréal headquarters. La Cagoule was a violent French fascist-leaning and anti-communist group whose leader formed a political party Mouvement Social Révolutionnaire (MSR, Social Revolutionary Movement) which in Occupied France supported the Vichy collaboration with the Nazis. L'Oréal hired several members of the group as executives after World War II, such as Jacques Corrèze, who served as CEO of the United States operation. This involvement was extensively researched by Michael Bar-Zohar in his book, Bitter Scent.
L'Oréal got its start in the hair-colour business, but the company soon branched out into other cleansing and beauty products. L'Oréal currently markets over 500 brands and thousands of individual products in all sectors of the beauty business: hair colour, permanents, hair styling, body and skin care, cleansers, makeup and fragrance. The company's products are found in a wide variety of distribution channels, from hair salons and perfumeries to hyper - and supermarkets, health/beauty outlets, pharmacies and direct mail.
L'Oréal has six worldwide research and development centres: two in France: Aulnay and Chevilly; one in the U.S.: Clark, New Jersey; one in Japan: Kawasaki, Kanagawa Prefecture; in 2005 one was established in Shanghai, China, and one in India. A future facility in the US will be in Berkeley Heights, New Jersey.
L'Oréal purchased Synthélabo in 1973 to pursue its ambitions in the pharmaceutical field. Synthélabo merged with Sanofi in 1999 to become Sanofi-Synthélabo. Sanofi-Synthélabo merged with Aventis in 2004 to become Sanofi-Aventis.
L'Oréal's advertising slogan is "Because I'm worth it". In the mid 2000s, this was replaced by "Because you're worth it". In late 2009, the slogan was changed again to "Because we're worth it" following motivation analysis and work into consumer psychology of Dr. Maxim Titorenko. The shift to "we" was made to create stronger consumer involvement in L'Oréal philosophy and lifestyle and provide more consumer satisfaction with L'Oréal products. L'Oréal also owns a Hair and Body products line for kids called L'Oréal Kids, the slogan for which is "Because we're worth it too".
In 1987, during the growth years of the mail order business, L'Oréal and 3 Suisses founded Le Club des Créateurs de Beauté for mail-order sales of cosmetic products, with brands including Agnès b., Cosmence and Professeur Christine Poelman among others. In March 2008, L'Oréal acquired 3 Suisse's stake, taking sole control of the company. In November 2013, L'Oréal announced that Le Club des Créateurs de Beauté would cease activity in the first half of 2014.
In November 2012, L'Oréal inaugurated the largest factory in the Jababeka Industrial Park, Cikarang, Indonesia, with a total investment of US$100 million. The production will be absorbed 25 percent by domestic market and the rest will be exported. In 2010, significant growth occurred at Indonesia with 61 percent increase of unit sales or 28 percent of net sales.
On 11 February 2014 it was announced that L'Oreal had sealed a deal worth €3.4bn to buy back 8% of its shares from Swiss consumer goods giant Nestle. As a result of the deal, Nestle's stake in L'Oreal will be reduced from 29.4pc to 23.29pc while the Bettencourt Meyers family's stake will increase from 30.6pc to 33.2pc. Nestle has owned a stake in L'Oreal since 1974 when it bought into the company at the request of Liliane Bettencourt, the daughter of the founder of L'Oreal and world's richest woman, who was trying to prevent the French state's intervention in the company.
On 18 June 2014, L'Oréal agreed to acquire NYX Cosmetics for an undisclosed price, bolstering its makeup offer in North America where its consumer-products unit has faltered.
In September 2014, L'Oréal announced it had agreed to purchase Brazilian hair care company Niely Cosmeticos Group for an undisclosed amount.
In October 2014, L'Oréal acquired multi-cultural brand Carol's Daughter.
In 2015, Kristina Bazan became L'Oreal's first international e-spokesperson.
In July 2016, L'Oréal announced it had agreed to purchase IT Cosmetics for $1.2 billion.
L'Oréal Group has its head office in the Centre Eugène Schueller in Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine, near Paris. The building, constructed in the 1970s from brick and steel, replaced the former Monsavon factory, and employees moved into the facility in 1978. 1,400 employees work in the building. In 2005, Nils Klawitter of Der Spiegel said "the building, with its brown glazed façade of windows, is every bit as ugly as its neighbourhood." Klawitter added that the facility "gives the impression of a high-security zone" due to the CCTV cameras and security equipment. The world's largest hair salon is located inside the head office building. As of 2005, 90 hairdressers served 300 women, including retirees, students, and unemployed people, per day; the customers are used as test subjects for new hair colours.
Board of directors
- Jean-Paul Agon, Chairman and CEO
- Jean-Pierre Meyers, Vice-Chairman of the Board of Directors
- Peter Brabeck-Letmathe, Vice-Chairman of the Board of Directors
- Françoise Bettencourt Meyers, Director
- Paul Bulcke, Director
- Charles-Henri Filippi, Director
- Xavier Fontanet, Director
- Bernard Kasriel, Director
- Christiane Kuehne, Director
- Marc Ladreit de Lacharrière, Director
- Jean-Victor Meyers, Director
- Virginie Morgon, Director
- Annette Roux, Director
- Louis Schweitzer, Director
- Jean-Paul Agon, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
- Laurent Attal, EVP Research and Innovation
- Barbara Lavernos, EVP Operations
- Nicolas Hieronimus, President Selective Divisions
- Brigitte Liberman, President Cosmetic Active division
- Marc Menesguen, President Consumer Products Division
- Christian Mulliez, EVP Administration and Finances
- Alexis Perakis-Valat, EVP Asia Pacific Zone
- Alexandre Popoff, EVP Eastern Europe Zone
- Sara Ravella, EVP Communication, Sustainability and Public Affairs
- Frederic Rozé, EVP of the Americas Zone
- Geoff Skingsley, EVP Africa - Middle East Zone
- An Verhulst-Santos, President Professional Products Division
- Jérôme Tixier, EVP Human Resources and Advisor to the Chairman
- Johen Zaumsel, EVP Western Europe Zone
- Breakdown of share ownership: 33.31% by the Bettencourt family, 23.29% by Nestlé, 21.8% by international institutional investors, 9.3% by French institutional investors, 5,7% by individual shareholders, 1.9% treasury stock and 0.7% by employees.
In 2003, L'Oréal announced its 19th consecutive year of double-digit growth. Its consolidated sales were €14.029 bn and net profit was €1.653 bn. 96.7% of sales derived from cosmetic activities and 2.5% from dermatological activities. L'Oréal has operations in over 130 countries, employing 50,500 people, 24% of which work in France. 3.3% of consolidated sales is invested in research and development, which accounts for 2,900 of its employees. In 2003, it applied for 515 patents. It operates 42 manufacturing plants throughout the world, which employ 14,000 people.
- Cosmetics sales by division breakdown: 54.8% from consumer products at €7.506 bn, 25.1% from luxury products at €3.441 bn, 13.9% from professional products at €1.9 bn, and 5.5% from active cosmetics at €0.749 bn.
- Cosmetic sales by geographic zone breakdown: 52.7% from Western Europe at €7.221 bn, 27.6% from North America at €3.784 bn, 19.7% from rest of the world at €2.699 bn.
In 2007, L'Oréal was ranked 353 in the Fortune Global 500. The company had earned $2,585 million on sales of $19,811 million. There were 60,850 employees.
By March 19, 2016 the company had a share value of 89,542 million euros, distributed in 562,983,348 shares.
Joint ventures and minority interests
L'Oréal holds 10.41% of the shares of Sanofi-Aventis, the world's number three and Europe's number one pharmaceutical company. The Laboratoires Innéov is a joint venture in nutritional cosmetics between L'Oréal and Nestlé; they draw on L'Oréal's knowledge in the fields of nutrition and food safety.
Corporate social responsibility
Group-wide sustainability plan
L'Oreal announced a new sustainability plan in 2013, which they hope will help reach the goal of 1 billion new consumers by 2020 by producing more products with less environmental impact and helping customers make sustainable lifestyle choices. The main commitments to achieve by 2020 include: aiming for 100 percent of its products to have an environmental or social benefit; reducing the company's environmental footprint by 60 percent; and empowering consumers to make sustainable consumption choices.
In 2009, L'Oréal declared their intention to cut greenhouse gas emissions, water consumption and waste by 50% over the period 2005-2015 – a deduction in carbon dioxide emissions that is to be in part achieved by the use of solar panels, biogas and electricity and hot water produced from the combustion of methane gas recovered from agricultural waste. In 2012, the company declared a 37.1% deduction in C02 Emissions, a 24% deduction in water consumption and a 22% deduction in transportable waste, and was named a sector leader by Climate Counts for its practices and achievements in the management of carbon emissions. In 2014, L'Oréal made the commitment to ensure that none of its products were linked to deforestation, and to source 100% renewable raw materials by 2020. The group was included in the Corporate Knights "Global 100" list of the 100 most sustainable companies.
Position on animal testing
Since the 80's, L'Oréal has invested €900 million in researching alternatives to animal testing for product safety, using methods such as reconstructed skin models, like the Episkin model at their research centers in Gerland, France, and Pudong, China.
Nevertheless, this is complicated by markets such as China, where animal testing of all cosmetics for human use is mandatory. Cosmetics by brands such as The Body Shop, which refuses to do animal testing, are thus not available for sale in the Chinese market.
Community involvement and awards
In 2014, L'Oreal was listed 61st among 1200 of India's most trusted brands according to the Brand Trust Report 2014, a study conducted by Trust Research Advisory, a brand analytics company.
In 2008, L'Oréal was named Europe's top business employer by The European Student Barometer, a survey conducted by Trendence that covers 20 European countries and incorporates the responses of over 91,000 students.
The L'Oréal-UNESCO Awards for Women in Science was established to improve the position of women in science by recognizing outstanding women researchers who have contributed to scientific progress.
The awards are a result of a partnership between the French cosmetics company L'Oréal and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and carry a grant of $100,000 USD for each laureate. 
The same partnership awards the UNESCO-L'Oréal International Fellowships, providing up to $40,000 USD in funding over two years to fifteen young women scientists engaged in exemplary and promising research projects.
L'Oréal organises every year the L'Oréal Brandstorm, an acknowledged business game for students in 43 countries. The game is related to marketing and has a first prize of $10,000, a second prize of $5,000 and a third prize of $2500.
L'Oréal is also involved in the "Look Good...Feel Better"- project which is a Beauty Industry Charity which was formed over 16 years ago to help women combat the visible side effects of cancer treatment for which L'Oréal is a founding member.
In 2015, Standard Ethics Aei has given a rating to L'Oreal in order to include it in its Standard Ethics French Index.
Research and innovation
Episkin is a reconstructed skin model developed by engineers at L'Oréal France to provide an Alternatives to animal testing. Human skin cells left over from breast surgery are developed under in vitro laboratory conditions to form sheets of reconstructed skin. This has advantages over animal testing other than the sparing of animals: it can be adapted to create reconstructions of a range of skin colours, as well as younger and older skin, meaning that safety tests give more relevant results for humans. In 2006, the Episkin division acquired SkinEthic, a leading tissue engineering company.
The aim for L'Oréal is to produce products that cater to their diverse customers specifically, in the emerging markets that currently account for 53% of the entire global beauty market. Through these research methods L'Oréal aims to tap into one billion new consumers in these markets for the upcoming years.
In 2003, the L'Oréal Institute for Ethnic Hair & Skin Research was inaugurated in Chicago to continue their research on African American hair and skin among other ethnicities. The L'Oréal Group opened the Predictive Evaluation Center in Lyon, France in 2011. This centre is devoted to evaluating the quality of the products without testing on animals. Additionally, L'Oréal built an international "Consumer Insights" division as well as, regional Research and Innovation centres in six countries: Japan, China, India, the United States, Brazil, and France. The aim of these centres is to collect information on their diverse consumers in order to develop products according to their various needs. In 2011, L'Oréal announced its intention to build a Research and Innovation Center in Bom Jesus Island Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Estimated at 30 million euros (70,000,000 reals), this project is expected to create about 150 jobs by 2015.
The L'Oreal Global Hair Research Centre, a facility in Paris Saint-Ouen opened in March 2012. It serves as the headquarters for the international departments of hair color, hair care and hair styling. One of the largest investments in company R&I history, the 25,000m² Centre hosts 500 employees. These include chemists, physico-chemists, opticians, materials scientists, metrologists, rheologists, computer scientists and statisticians. The facility offers automation, modelling and sensory evaluation.
L'Oréal Paris and L'Core Paris are both cosmetic brands that are now making use of nanotechnology in their products. The application of nanotechnology and nanomaterials is now being applied with cosmetics products like moisturizers, hair care products and sunscreen.
L'Oréal ranks as the sixth nanotechnology patent holder in the United States, they have used nanocapsules to deliver active ingredients like Vitamin A and retinol in deeper layers of the skin.
Human skin 3D printing
L'Oreal announced in May that it's partnering with bioprinting startup Organovo to figure out how to 3D print living, breathing derma that can be used to test products for toxicity and efficacy. "We're the first beauty company that Organovo has worked with," says Guive Balooch, global vice president of L'Oreal's tech incubator.
In May 2007, L'Oréal was one of several cosmetic manufacturers (Clinique, Estee Lauder, Payot, Lancôme) ordered by the Therapeutic Goods Administration in Australia to withdraw advertising regarding the wrinkle removal capabilities of their products.
In the UK, L'Oréal has faced criticism from OFCOM regarding the truth of their advertising and marketing campaigns concerning the product performance of one of their mascara brands. In July 2007, the British Advertising Standards Authority attacked L'Oréal for a television advert on its "Telescopic" mascara, featuring Penélope Cruz, stating "it will make your eyelashes 60% longer." In fact, it only made the lashes look 60% bigger, by separating and thickening at the roots and by thickening the tips of the lashes. They also failed to state that the model was wearing false eyelashes.
In July 2011, the British Advertising Standards Authority took action against L'Oréal, banning two airbrushed Lancôme advertisements in the UK featuring actress Julia Roberts and supermodel Christy Turlington. The agency issued the ban after British politician Jo Swinson argued that the two ads misrepresented reality and added to the self-image problem amongst females in the UK. L'Oréal acknowledged that the photos had been airbrushed but argued that the two cosmetic products could actually produce the results depicted in the ads and that the results of the products had been scientifically proven.
In June 2014 the company reached agreement with the U.S. Federal Trade Commission not to make claims about its anti-aging products unless it had credible scientific evidence supporting the claims. The settlement followed an investigation by the commission into claims being made in relation to two products, which the commission described as "false and unsubstantiated."
L'Oréal has a team of 400 members of staff who post content to Facebook every day, according to Marc Menesguen, the company's chief marketing officer.
On 11 August 2005, the Supreme Court of California ruled that former L'Oréal sales manager Elyse Yanowitz had adequately pleaded a cause of action for retaliatory termination under the California Fair Employment and Housing Act, and remanded the case for trial. The case arose out of a 1997 incident in which Jack Wiswall, then the general manager for designer fragrances, allegedly told Yanowitz to fire a dark-skinned sales associate despite the associate's good performance. When Yanowitz refused, Wiswall pointed to a "sexy" blonde-haired woman and said "God damn it, get me one that looks like that." Wiswall retired as president of the luxury products division of L'Oréal USA at the end of 2006.
The company has recently faced discrimination lawsuits in France related to the hiring of spokesmodels and institutional racism. In July 2007, the Garnier division and an external employment agency were fined €30,000 for recruitment practices that intentionally excluded non-white women from promoting its hair wash, "Fructis Style". L'Oréal is reported as saying the decision was "incomprehensible", and would challenge the measure in court.
In 1993, L'Oréal was faced with problems due to animal rights activists who protested against the use of animal testing by the company.
Though protest group Naturewatch states that L'Oréal continues to test new ingredients on animals, the company has clarified that no animal testing for finished products has taken place since 1989, that L'Oreal has invested significantly in alternative methods for chemical safety testing, and that tests on new ingredients make up less than 1% of all safety tests. Since March 2013, the Group has taken another decisive step: L’Oréal no longer tests on animals anywhere in the world, nor does it delegate the task to others. An exception could only be made if regulatory authorities demanded it for safety or regulatory purposes.
Eugène Schueller, the company's founder, was an alleged Nazi sympathizer. L'Oréal concedes that Schueller was an anti-Semitic fascist. He was also a member of La Cagoule, which supported the Vichy regime, and was a violent, pro-fascist and anti-communist organization. Eugène bankrolled La Cagoule and some meetings of La Cagoule were held at L'Oréal headquarters. Some of the criminal activities perpetrated by La Cagoule include firearms transportation, assassinating a former minister, and firebombing six Synagogues.
Other controversy arose when Jean Frydman, a shareholder and board member of Paravision, a film subsidiary of L'Oréal, was fired. He claims that he was let go because L'Oréal wanted to avoid an Arab boycott of businesses associated with Hebrews. In turn, Frydman decided to expose the past of L'Oréal executives. André Bettencourt who married Schueller's daughter, Liliane Bettencourt, and became deputy chairman for L'Oréal, wrote 60 articles for La Terre Française. La Terre Française was an anti-Semitic Nazi propaganda sheet. André has admitted ownership of the propaganda but claimed he was poisoned by the Vichy regime and said, "I have repeatedly expressed my regrets concerning them in public and will always beg the Hebrew community to forgive me for them." André Bettencourt also sheltered Schueller and several collaborators from the French Resistance after Liberation. It was also revealed that Eugène Schueller hired Jacques Correze, who as of 2001, was the honorary head of L'Oréal's U.S. affiliate, Cosmair, and was involved with La Cagoule.
Further controversy arose when it was revealed that L'Oréal had its German headquarters for over 30 years, before being sold in 1991, on land confiscated from Hebrews during World War II. The Hebrew family has been battling for restitution from the company for three generations, the latest of which is Edith Rosenfelder, a Holocaust survivor. Fritz Rosenfelder, was forced to sell the house to a Nazi official, of which the family never received the proceeds of the sale. Instead, the family was deported. The Allies passed Hebrew restitution legislation which states that transactions with Nazis, even if appearing to be with the owner's consent, can be considered invalid. As the land was sold to an offshoot of L'Oréal, which was later bought out in 1961 by L'Oréal, the company claims that it is not responsible for anything that happened before then. The basis for Rosenfelder's argument is that since the original sale was illegal, all subsequent sales are equally unlawful. There was restitution paid in 1951 to the Jewish Restitution Successor Organization, though this was done without the family's consent and none of the money ever reached the family. A book by Monica Waitzfelder, daughter of Edith Rosenfelder, published in French as L'Oréal a pris ma maison and in English as L'Oréal stole my house!, details how L'Oréal, took over the Waitzfelder home in the German city of Karlsruhe (after the Nazis had engineered the removal of the family) to make it its German headquarters. Monica Waitzfelder is quoted as saying, "All the other businesses which took Jewish property have since returned it, without any great debate. I don't understand why L'Oréal should be any different from the others." A case was brought before the Supreme Court in France, but the public prosecutor ruled that there could be no trial. As of 2007, she is bringing the case to the European Court of Human Rights.
Following L'Oréal's 2006 purchase of The Body Shop, which does not support animal testing, The Body Shop's founder Anita Roddick was forced to defend herself against allegations of abandoning her principles over L'Oréal's track record on animal testing. Calls were made for shoppers to boycott The Body Shop.
On 31 July 2014 during Operation Protective Edge launched by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) in the Gaza Strip, the Israel advocacy organisation StandWithUs posted several Facebook photos of care packages, which they said were donated by Garnier Israel to female IDF soldiers. This sparked several calls to boycott Garnier and L'Oreal worldwide. As of 6 December 2016 no official statement was made by Garnier or L'Oreal regarding the donation.
L'Oréal was fined by Autorité de la concurrence in France in 2016 for price-fixing on personal hygiene products.
Brands are generally categorized by their targeted markets, such as the mass, professional, luxury, and active cosmetics markets. The Body Shop and Galderma are directly attached to the head office. L'Oréal also owns interests in various activities such as fine chemicals, health, finance, design, advertising, insurance.
- L'Oréal Technique
- L'Oréal Professionnel, including ARTec and Innate
- Kérastase (created by L'Oreal in 1964)
- Kéraskin Esthetics, created by L'Oreal in 2007 and specializing in skin care professionals.
- Matrix Essentials, founded by Arnie Miller in 1980 and acquired by L'Oreal in 2000.
- Mizani, founded in 1991 and bought by L'Oreal in 2001.
- PureOlogy Research, founded in 2001 and acquired by L'Oreal in 2007.
- Redken 5th Avenue NYC, founded by Paula Kent and Jheri Redding in 1960 and acquired by L'Oreal in 1993.
- Shu Uemura Art of Hair
- Carol's Daughter
- Giorgio Armani
- Viktor & Rolf
- Ralph Lauren
- The Body Shop
- Shu Uemura
- Guy Laroche
- Paloma Picasso
- Urban Decay
- Maison Margiela
- Yue Sai
- Helena Rubinstein
- Drakkar Noir
- L'Oréal Paris
- NYX Cosmetics
- Carol's Daughter
- Créateurs de Beauté
- Niely Cosméticos
- "Annual Results 2015" (PDF). L'Oréal.
- "Annual Report 2014" (PDF). L'Oréal.
- Jones, David (26 January 2010). "Nestlé waits for market pressures to soften Hershey". Reuters. Retrieved 31 January 2010.
- "Statuts." L'Oréal. 16 April 2009. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- L'Oreal builds on skin testing capabilities. Cosmeticsdesign-europe.com.
- Frankfurt Stock Exchange
- The Fashion Foot.
- Corporate financial reporting by Amberr Aslamm on Prezi. Prezi.com. Retrieved on 2015-04-12.
- Gladwell, Malcolm (28 March 2011). "The Color of Money". The New Yorker.
- "L'Oreal buys stake in beauty brand", Cosmetics Design Asia. Retrieved on 13 June 2013.
- "L'Oréal to end the activity of Beauté Créateurs its mail-order subsidiary". Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- "L'Oreal opens largest factory in Cikarang", The Economic Times, India, 8 November 2012. Retrieved on 13 June 2013.
- L'Oreal to build its largest factory worth $50m in Indonesia
- L'Oréal Acquires Major Chinese Beauty Brand
- Kaiser, Amanda (19 February 2014). "Shiseido Sells Carita, Decléor to L'Oréal". WWD. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
- "L'Oreal Agrees to Buy U.S. Makeup-Artist Brand NYX Cosmetics". Retrieved 18 June 2014.
- "L'Oreal to buy Brazilian hair care group Niely Cosmeticos" (Press release). Reuters. 8 September 2014.
- Nguyen, Michael D.. (2015-03-27) Soo Joo Park Is L'Oreal's First Asian-American Spokesmodel. NBC News. Retrieved on 2015-04-12.
- "World Presence." L'Oréal. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- "2.000 salariés de L'Oréal à Clichy." Le Journal du Net. Retrieved 7 July 2010. "Construit à la fin des années 1970 en briques et acier, le Centre Eugène Schueller se dresse à l'emplacement de l'ancienne usine Monsavon, à Clichy-la-Garenne dans les Hauts-de-Seine. Les salariés du siège de l'Oréal y ont emménagé à partir de 1978. Aujourd'hui, ils sont 1.400 à y travailler."
- Klawitter, Nils. "L'Oréal's Great Bluff". Der Spiegel. 7 March 2005. Retrieved 27 November 2009.
- Contact Us, L'Oréal USA
- "The board of directors". Loreal.com. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
- Management Committee: introducing the members - L'Oréal Group
- "Annual Report 2013" (PDF). L'Oréal. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- "FORTUNE Global 500 2007: L'Oréal". CNN. 23 July 2007. Retrieved 31 July 2010.
- "L'Oréal Outlines 2020 Sustainability Goals". Retrieved 14 November 2013.
- "L'Oreal to Reduce GHG Emissions, Water Consumption and Waste by 50%". Environmental Leader. 23 April 2009. Retrieved 11 September 2013.
- "L'Oréal wants to cut its CO2 emissions in half by 2015". Fashionmag.com. 21 April 2009. Retrieved 11 September 2013.
- "L'Oréal Recognized by Climate Counts as Sector Leader for Managing, Reporting and Reducing its Carbon Emissions". CSR Wire. 5 December 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2013.
- "L'Oréal reiterates sustainability importance with 'zero deforestation' commitment". Cosmetics design-europe.com. 15 January 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- "L'Oreal builds on skin testing capabilities". Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "Our Position". L'Oréal Answers. Retrieved 12 September 2013.
- "China Animal Testing Complicates L'Oreal's Expansion". 21 August 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2013.
- "L'Occitane and Yves Rocher: The big-name beauty brands among those ditching cruelty-free animal testing policies to sell their products to China". Daily Mail. London.
- Bibi van der Zee (18 July 2013). "Animal testing – it's time to talk about it again". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 September 2013.
- "India's Most Trusted Brands 2014".
- "The European Student Barometer 2008" (PDF).
- UNESCO/L'ORÉAL Co-Sponsored Fellowships for Young Women in Life Sciences. Portal.unesco.org.
- "Human Skin to Replace Animal Tests". Animal Liberation Front. 12 June 2013.
- "L'Oréal Builds on Skin Testing Capabilities". Cosmetic Design Europe. 12 June 2013.
- "L´OREAL : EPISKIN, SUBSIDIARY OF L´OREAL, ACQUIRES SKINETHIC, LEADER IN TISSUE ENGINEERING". Euro Investor. 12 June 2013.
- "L'Oréal Unveils New Research and Innovation Strategy". GCI. 10 December 2010.
- "4th L'Oreal workshop on African hair and skin currently underway". LIFESTYLE Mahazine. 9 November 2012.
- "L'Oreal 2011 Sustainability Report > Towards Responsible Beauty?". Wizness. 3 May 2011.
- "How L'Oréal fights commoditization with reverse innovation". Les Echos. 8 June 2012.
- "L'Oréal: a new research and innovation centre in Rio". Premium Beauty News. 20 December 2011.
- "L'Oréal Establishes its Global Hair Research Centre in Paris Saint-Ouen". Cosmetics Science Applied. 22 October 2013.
- "L'Oreal's Plan to Start 3D Printing Human Skin". Bloomberg. 18 May 2015.
- Costello, John (9 May 2007). "Beauty and the publicity beast". The Evening Herald. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
- "Wrinkle creams are a rip-off". The Daily Telegraph (Australia). 7 May 2007. Retrieved 20 July 2007.
- "L'Oréal (UK) Ltd". Asa.org.uk. 25 July 2007. Retrieved 31 July 2010.
- "Britain bans airbrushed Julia Roberts make-up ad". CNN. 29 July 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
- A Facebook of the Future: Mark Zuckerberg and Sheryl Sandberg Show Us Their New Content, New Algorithms, and New Alliances | Vanity Fair
- Yanowitz v. L'Oréal USA, Inc., 36 Cal. 4th 1028 (2005).
- "L'Oreal found guilty of racism". Sox First. Retrieved 31 July 2010.
- "L'Oreal Tells Women of Color to Take a Hike - AfricaResource: The Place for Africa on the Net". AfricaResource. 30 August 2007. Retrieved 31 July 2010.
- 'Naturewatch Compassionate Shopping - L'Oreal fact file. Retrieved 9 August 2008. Archived 2 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- "L'Oréal's fully supports the aim to eliminate animal testing" (PDF). Loreal.com. 8 December 2009. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
- 'In Close Up: Alternative Methods - L'Oreal Sustainability Report 2009. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
- Hoppough, Suzanne (18 March 2005). "Father's Past Haunts French Billionaire". Forbes.
- "Business Notes Scandal L'Oreal's". Time. 24 June 2001.
- "André Bettencourt". The Daily Telegraph. London. 22 November 2007.
- Pascal, Julia (16 January 2007). "L'Oreal Took My Home, by Monica Waitzfelder, translated by Peter Bush". The Independent. London.
- Gentleman, Amelia (13 October 2004). "L'Oréal profited from victims of Nazis, court told". The Guardian. London.
- "Anita's £652m sell-out", The Independent. 18 March 2006. Retrieved 8 May 2008.
- StandWithUs - We are honored to be delivering these.... Facebook. Retrieved on 2015-04-12.
- Garnier care packages boost Israeli soldiers' beauty regimens. Stream.aljazeera.com. Retrieved on 2015-04-12.
- Les cosmétiques Garnier créent la polémique après une photo de femmes soldats de l'armée israélienne. Huffingtonpost.fr. Retrieved on 2015-04-12.
- Boycott Garnier over its support for Israeli army - Palestine Solidarity Campaign. Palestinecampaign.org (2014-08-06). Retrieved on 2015-04-12.
- "Huge price-fixing fine is upheld". The Connexion. 28 October 2016.
- All the brands of the L'Oréal Group: Garnier, L'Oréal Paris, Redken, Maybeline, Kerastase. L'Oréal. (8 December 2009).
- L'Oréal's Professional Products brands: L'Oréal Professionnel, Kérastase … - L'Oréal Group. Loreal.com. Retrieved on 2015-04-12.
Media related to L'Oréal at Wikimedia Commons