Korean era name

Korean era name
Hangul 연호
Hanja 年號
Revised Romanization Yeonho
McCune–Reischauer Yŏnho

Korean era names were used during the period of Silla, Goguryeo, Balhae, Taebong, Goryeo, Joseon, and the Korean Empire. Dangun-giwon, the era name originating from the foundation of Gojoseon is also widely used in Korea as an indication of long civilisation of Korea.[1]

List of Korean era names


  1. Yeongnak (永樂, 영락 "Eternal Happiness" : 391–413, during the reign of King Gwanggaeto the Great.)
  1. Yeonsu (延壽, 연수 "Enduring Life" : 413 - 491 during the reign of King Jangsu or 270 - 292, during the reign of King Seocheon or 331 - 371, during the reign of King Gogugwon.)
  2. Yeon-ga (延嘉, 연가 "Enduring Excellence": 292 - 300, during the reign of King Bongsang or 531 - 545, during the reign of King Anwon.)
  3. Geonheung (建興, 건흥 "Establishment of Prosperity" : 413 - 491, during the reign of King Jangsu.)
  4. Yeonggang (永康, 영강 "Eternal Peace": 545 - 559, during the reign of King Yangwon.)


  1. Geon-won (건원, 建元 "First Establishment" : 536 - 551), during the reign of King Beopheung and King Jinheung)
  2. Gaeguk (개국, 開國 "Opening of the Country" : 551 - 567), during the reign of King Jinheung)
  3. Daechang (대창, 大昌 "Great Light": 568 - 572), during the reign of King Jinheung)
  4. Hongje (홍제, 鴻濟 "Vast Relief" : 572 - 583), during the reign of King Jinheung, King Jinji and King Jinpyeong)
  5. Geonbok (건복, 建福 "Establishment of Blessings" : 584 - 634), during the reign of King Jinpyeong and Queen Seondeok)
  6. Inpyeong (인평, 仁平 "Even Benevolence" : 634 - 647, during the reign of Queen Seondeok)
  7. Taehwa (태화, 太和 "Great Harmony": 647 - 650, during the reign of Queen Jindeok)
  1. Gyeong-un (慶雲, 경운 "Clouds of Celebration": 822 during the reign of Kim Heonchang's Jang-an state.)


  1. Cheontong (天統, 천통 "Authority of Heaven": 699 - 718, during the reign of King Go.)
  2. Inan (仁安, 인안 "Benevolence and Good": 719 - 736, during the reign of King Mu.)
  3. Daeheung (大興, 대흥 "Great Prosperity": 737 - 793, during the reign of King Mun.)
  4. Boryeok (寶曆, 보력 "Precious Era": 774-?, at least until 781, during the reign of King Mun)
  5. Jungheung (中興, 중흥 "Middle Prosperity":794, during the reign of King Seong.)
  6. Jeongnyeok (正曆, 정력 "Justice Era": 795 - 808 during the reign of King Gang.)
  7. Yeongdeok (永德, 영덕 "Eternal Virtue": 809 - 812 during the reign of King Jeong.)
  8. Jujak (朱雀, 주작 "Sparrow Cinnabar": 813 - 817 during the reign of King Hui.)
  9. Taesi (太始, 태시 "Great Beginning": 817 - 818 during the reign of King Gan.)
  10. Geonheung (建興, 건흥 "Founding of Prosperity": 818 - 820 during the reign of King Seon.)
  11. Hamhwa (咸和, 함화 "United Peace": 830 - 858 during the reign of King Dae Ijin.)

Jeong-an Kingdom

  1. Wonheung (元興, 원흥 "First Prosperity":976 - 986 during the reign of Oh Hyeon-myeong.)

Heung-Yo Kingdom

  1. Cheongyeong (天慶, 천경 ("Heavenly Celebration"): 1029 - 1030 during the reign of Dae Yeon-Rim.)

Daewon Kingdom

  1. Yeunggi (隆基, 융기 ("Prosperous Foundation") : 1116 during the reign of Go Yeong-Chang.)

Later Baekje

  1. Jeonggae (正開, 정개 ("Proper Opening"): 900 - 936 during the reign of Gyeon Hwon)


All these era names were used during the reign of King Gung-ye, who ruled Taebong from 901 to 918.

  1. Mutae (武泰, 무태 "Exalted Military" : 904 - 905 during the reign of Gung Ye)
  2. Seongchaek (聖冊, 성책 "Sacred Book" : 905 - 910 during the reign of Gung Ye)
  3. Sudeok Manse (水德萬歲, 수덕만세 "Ten Thousand Years of Flowing Power": 911 - 914 during the reign of Gung Ye)
  4. Jeonggae (政開, 정개 "Opening Rule" : 914 - 918 during the reign of Gung Ye)

Goryeo Dynasty

  1. Cheonsu (天授, 천수 "Transmission of Heaven" : 918 - 933 during the reign of King Taejo.)
  2. Gwangdeok (光德, 광덕 "Brilliant Power" : 950 - 951 during the reign of King Gwangjong.)
  3. Junpung (峻豊, 준풍 "Towering Plenty" : 960 - 963 during the reign of King Gwangjong.)

Joseon Dynasty (1392 ~ 1910)

The Joseon Dynasty of Korea integrated itself into the Chinese tributary sphere, and consequently used the era names of the Ming and Qing Dynasties of China for most of its existence.

Chinese era names are no longer used in modern Korean historiography.

Ming era names

Era name in Korean Ming emperor Hangul Hanja Meaning Period Joseon king(s) Notes
Hongmu Hongwu Emperor 홍무 洪武 Vast martiality 1392 - 1398 Taejo, Jungjong First era name in use during the Joseon Dynasty
Geonmun Jianwen Emperor 건문 建文 Establishing civility 1399 - 1402 Jungjong, Taejong
Yeongrak Yongle Emperor 영락 永樂 Perpetual happiness 1402 - 1424 Taejo, Sejong
Honghui Hongxi Emperor 홍희 洪熙 Vast brightness 1425 Sejong
Seondeok Xuande Emperor 선덕 宣德 Proclamation of virtue 1426 - 1435 Sejong
Jeongtong Zhengtong Emperor 정통 正統 Rectification of governance 1436 - 1449 Sejong
Gyeongtae Jingtai Emperor 경태 景泰 Exalted view 1450 - 1457 Sejong, Munjong, Danjong, Sejo
Cheonsun Zhengtong Emperor 천순 天順 Obedience to Heaven 1457 - 1464 Sejo
Seonghwa Chenghua Emperor 성화 成化 Accomplished Change 1465 - 1487 Sejo, Yejong, Seongjong
Hongchi Hongzhi Emperor 홍치 弘治 Great government 1488 - 1505 Seongjong, Yeonsangun
Jeongdeok Zhengde Emperor 정덕 正德 Rectification of virtue 1506 - 1521 Yeonsangun, Jungjong
Gajeong Jiajing Emperor 가정 嘉靖 Admirable tranquility 1522 - 1567 Jungjong, Injong, Myeongjong, Seonjo
Yunggyeong Longqing Emperor 융경 隆慶 Great celebration 1568 - 1572 Seonjo
Mallyeok Wanli Emperor 만력 萬曆 Ten thousand calendars 1573 - 1620 Seonjo, Gwanghaegun
Cheongye Tianqi Emperor 천계 天啟 Heavenly opening 1621 - 1627 Gwanghaegun, Injo
Sungjeong Chongzhen Emperor 숭정 崇禎 Honorable and auspicious 1627 - 1637 Injo Korea was forced to officially use Qing era names after the second Manchu invasion of Korea in 1636 and 1637.[2] However, It should be noted that the era name Chongzhen, continued to be used informally after 1637 well into the nineteenth century, as the Manchu Qing Dynasty was often considered illegitimate by Korean scholars.[3]

Independent era names

  1. Gaeguk (開國, 개국 "Nation's Opening" : used for the reign of King Gojong 1894 - 1895)
  2. Geonyang (建陽, 건양 "Adopting Solar Calendar" : used for the reign of King Gojong 1896 - 1897)

Korean Empire

  1. Gwangmu (광무; 光武; "Bright Valour") - used for the reign of Emperor Gojong, 1897-1907
  2. Yunghui (융희;隆熙; "Prosperous Brilliance") - used for the reign of Emperor Sunjong, 1907-1910

Republic of Korea

  1. Daehan minguk (대한민국, 大韓民國 "Great Korean Republic" : 1948)
  2. Dangun-giwon (단군기원, 檀君紀元 "First Age of Lord Dangun" : 1948-1962)

Democratic People's Republic of Korea

  1. Juche (주체, 主體 : 1912-)

Usage of Non-Korean Era names

Chinese era names were widely used, especially in the Joseon dynasty. During the Japanese occupation, Imperial Japan enforced its own era system.

Juche Calendar

The North Korean government and associated organizations use a variation of the Gregorian calendar with a Juche year based on April 15, 1912 CE, the date of birth of Kim Il-sung, as year 1. There is no Juche year 0. The calendar was introduced in 1997. Months are unchanged from those in the standard Gregorian calendar. In many instances, the Juche year is given after the CE year, for example, 27 June 2007 Juche 96. But in North Korean publications, the Juche year is usually placed before the corresponding CE year, as in Juche 96 (2007).


  1. http://www.clickkorea.org/arts/search/vocabulary/html/eng_vocabulary_searchview.asp?FCode=2&pFCode=0&pageName=word&vnum=775&page=3&qt=k_title&qs=다
  2. "*Annals of the Joseon Dynasty,* third entry of February 28 1637". “自今以後, 大小文書, 皆用崇德年號, 以此意, 下諭于兩西及咸鏡監、兵使爲當。” 答曰: “知道。”
  3. Kim Haboush, JaHyun (2005), "Contesting Chinese Time, Nationalizing Temporal Space: Temporal Inscription in Late Chosǒn Korea", in Lynn A. Struve (ed.), Time, Temporality, and Imperial Transition, Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, pp. 115141, ISBN 0-8248-2827-5.


See also

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