List of constructed languages

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The following list of notable constructed languages is divided into auxiliary, ritual, engineered, and artistic (including fictional) languages, and their respective subgenres.

Auxiliary languages

International auxiliary languages are languages constructed to provide communication among all human beings, or a significant portion, without necessarily replacing native languages.

Language name ISO Year of first
Creator Comments
Solresol 1827 François Sudre Based on pitch levels sounded with their solfege syllables (a "musical language") although no knowledge of music is required to learn it.
Communicationssprache 1839 Joseph Schipfer Based on French
Universalglot 1868 Jean Pirro An early a posteriori language, predating even Volapük
Volapük vo, vol 1879–1880 Johann Martin Schleyer First to generate international interest in IALs
Esperanto eo, epo 1887 L. L. Zamenhof The most popular auxiliary language ever invented, including, possibly, up to two million speakers, the highest ever for a constructed language and the only one to date to have its own native speakers (Approximately 1,000).[1]
Spokil 1887 or 1890 Adolph Nicolas An a priori language by a former Volapük advocate
Mundolinco 1888 J. Braakman The first esperantido
Bolak, "Blue Language" 1899 Léon Bollack Prospered fairly well in its initial years, now almost forgotten
Idiom Neutral 1902 Waldemar Rosenberger A naturalistic IAL by a former advocate of Volapük
Latino sine Flexione 1903 Giuseppe Peano "Latin without inflections," it replaced Idiom Neutral in 1908
Ro 1904 Rev. Edward Powell Foster An a priori language using categories of knowledge
Ido io, ido 1907 A group of reformist Esperanto speakers The most successful offspring of Esperanto
Adjuvilo 1910 Claudius Colas An esperantido some believe was created to cause dissent among Idoists
Occidental ile 1922 Edgar de Wahl A sophisticated naturalistic IAL, also known as Interlingue
Novialnov 1928 Otto Jespersen Another sophisticated naturalistic IAL by a famous Danish linguist
Sona 1935 Kenneth Searight Best known attempt at universality of vocabulary
Esperanto II 1937 René de Saussure Last of linguist Saussure's many esperantidos
Mondial 1940s Dr. Helge Heimer Naturalistic European language
Glosaigs 1943 Lancelot Hogben, et al. Originally called Interglossa, has a strong Greco-Latin vocabulary
Blissymbolszbl 1949 Charles Bliss An ideographic writing system, with its own grammar and syntax.
Interlinguaia, ina 1951 International Auxiliary Language Association A major effort to develop a common Romance vocabulary
Intal 1956 Erich Weferling An effort to unite the most common systems of constructed languages
Romanid 1956 Zoltán Magyar A zonal constructed language based on the Romance languages
Lingua sistemfrater 1957 Pham Xuan Thai Greco-Latin vocabulary with southeast Asian grammar
Neo neu 1961 Arturo Alfandari A very terse European language
Babm 1962 Rikichi Okamoto Notable for using Latin letters as a syllabary
Arcaicam Esperantom 1969 Manuel Halvelik 'Archaic Esperanto', developed for use in Esperanto literature
Afrihiliafh 1970 K. A. Kumi Attobrah A pan-African language
Kotavaavk1978 Staren Fetcey A sophisticated a priori IAL
Uropi 1986 Joël Landais Based on the common Indo-European roots and the common grammatical points of the IE languages
Poliespo 1990s? Nvwtohiyada Idehesdi Sequoyah Esperanto grammar with significant Cherokee vocabulary
Romániço 1991 Anonymous Vocabulary is derived from common Romance roots.
Europanto 1996 Diego Marani A "linguistic jest" by a European diplomat
Unish 1996 Language Research Institute, Sejong University Vocabulary from fifteen representative languages
Lingua Franca Novalfn 1998 C. George Boeree and others Romance vocabulary with creole-like grammar
Slovio 1999 Mark Hučko A constructed language based on the Slavic languages and Esperanto grammar
Interslavic 2006 Ondrej Rečnik, Gabriel Svoboda, Jan van Steenbergen, Igor Polyakov A naturalistic language based on the Slavic languages
Sambahsa-Mundialect 2007 Olivier Simon Mixture of simplified Proto-Indo-European and other languages
Lingwa de planeta 2010 Dmitri Ivanov Worldlang based on Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, Hindi, Persian, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish

Controlled languages

Controlled languages are natural languages that have been altered to make them simpler, easier to use, or more acceptable in certain circumstances, such as for use by people who do not speak the original language well. The following projects are examples of controlled English:

Visual languages

Visual languages use symbols or movements in place of the spoken word. Sign languages fall in this category.

Ritual languages

These are languages (and scripts) in actual use by their communities or congregations.

Engineered languages


Knowledge representation

Artistic/fictional languages

Languages used in fiction

J. R. R. Tolkien

Additionally, sketches of various other languages, such as Adûnaic, the Black Speech, Khuzdul, Telerin and Westron appear in his Middle-earth works alongside earlier draughts or imagined archaic forms of Elven languages such as Common Eldarin or Primitive Quendian, Goldogrin, and Ilkorin. Others such as Entish, Rohirric, and six languages of the Avari are mentioned but have only one or two words or phrases noted.

Star Wars

Further information: Languages in Star Wars

Other literature

Comic books

Film and television





Alternative languages

Some experimental languages were developed to observe hypotheses of alternative linguistic interactions which could have led to very different modern languages. Two examples include:

Micronational languages

Personal languages

See also


  1. Robert Phillipson. English-Only Europe? 2003. p. 172: "several thousand children worldwide are growing up (in over 2000 families) with Esperanto as one of their mother tongues"

Further reading

External links

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