|K. pneumoniae on a MacConkey agar plate.|
|Classification and external resources|
It is typically due to aspiration by alcoholics, though it is more commonly implicated in hospital-acquired urinary tract and wound infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals and diabetics.
Signs and symptoms
Klebsiella pneumonia tends to affect people with underlying diseases, such as alcoholism, diabetes and chronic lung disease.
However, Klebsiella possesses a chromosomal class A beta-lactamase giving it resistance to ampicillin. Many strains have acquired an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase with additional resistance to carbenicillin, amoxicillin, and increasingly to ceftazidime. The bacteria remain largely susceptible to aminoglycosides and cephalosporins. Varying degrees of inhibition of the beta-lactamase with clavulanic acid have been reported. Infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens in the ICU have invoked the re-emergence of colistin, an antibiotic that had rarely been used for decades. However, colistin-resistant strains of K. pneumoniae have been reported in Greek ICUs. In 2009, strains of K. pneumoniae with gene called New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (shortened NDM-1) that even gives resistance against intravenous antibiotic carbapenem, were discovered in India and Pakistan.
Spread of resistant strains
Klebsiella resistant strains have been recorded in USA with a roughly threefold increase in Chicago cases, Brazil with 15 deaths per 163 cases, quarantined individuals in Israel, United Kingdom and parts of Europe. Possible ground zero, or location of emergence, is the India-Pakistan border.
Community-acquired pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae may be called Friedländer's Pneumonia, after Carl Friedländer.
- Buzzle --> Klebsiella Pneumoniae By Ningthoujam Sandhyarani. Published: 16 December 2008
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- Moisse K (March 25, 2011). "Deadly Antibiotic-Resistant Superbug Spreads in Southern California". ABC News.