|Region||Russia north of the Black Sea, Hungary|
Evolved into modern Kipchak languages.
The Kipchak language (also spelled Qypchaq) is an extinct Turkic language of the Kipchak group.
The descendants of the Kipchak language include the majority of Turkic languages spoken in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus today, as Kipchak-Cuman was used as a lingua franca in Golden Horde–ruled lands.
Kazakhs are remnants of Eastern Cuman-Kipchak tribes who lived in Northern Kazakhstan in the 10th century, but migrated to Europe later. So, their language originates from a more isolated form of earlier Kipchak. Bolgar-speaking Volga Bulgarians (later Kazan Tatars), Astrakhan Tatars, Balkars, Karachays, Kumyks, Cumans (later Crimean Tatars), Bashkirs and Mongolian aristocracy adopted the Kipchak language in the days of the Golden Horde.
- Cuman language
- Kipchak languages
- Kazakh language
- Crimean Tatar language
- Fergana Kipchak language