Keio University

Keio University
Motto Calamus gladio fortior
(Latin: The pen is mightier than the sword)
Type Private
Established 1858
Endowment N/A
Chancellor Prof. Atsushi Seike
Academic staff
full time 2,604[1]
Administrative staff
Students 33,825[2]
Undergraduates 28,931[2]
Postgraduates 4,894[2]
Location Minato, Tokyo, Japan
Campus Urban
Athletics 39 varsity teams
Colors Blue and Red          
Nickname Unicorns, etc.
Affiliations ASAIHL, Council on Business & Society
Website Keio University
Keio University as seen from Tokyo Tower

Keio University (慶應義塾大学 Keiō Gijuku Daigaku), abbreviated as Keio (慶應) or Keidai (慶大), is a Japanese university located in Minato, Tokyo. It is known as the oldest institute of higher education in Japan. Founder Fukuzawa Yukichi originally established it as a school for Western studies in 1858 in Edo (now Tokyo). It has eleven campuses in Tokyo and Kanagawa. It has ten faculties: Letters, Economics, Law, Business and Commerce, Medicine, Science and Technology, Policy Management, Environment and Information Studies, Nursing and Medical Care, and Pharmacy.

The university is one of the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology's thirteen "Global 30" Project universities.[4] In the United States, Keio has a high school called "Keio Academy of New York".


The founder of Keio Fukuzawa Yukichi's statue on Hiyoshi campus.
East Research Building in Mita

Keio traces its history to 1858 when Fukuzawa Yukichi, who had studied the Western educational system at Brown University in the United States, started to teach Dutch while he was a guest of the Okudaira family. In 1868 he changed the name of the school to Keio Gijuku and devoted all his time to education. While Keiō's initial identity was that of a private school of Western studies, it expanded and established its first university faculty in 1890, and became known as a leading institute in Japanese higher education. It was the first Japanese university to reach its 150th anniversary, celebrating this anniversary in 2008.

Keio has leading research centers. It has approximately 30 Research Centers located on its five main campuses and at other facilities for advanced research in Japan[5] Keio University has joined the MIT and the French INRIA in hosting the international W3C.[6]


Fukuzawa stated the mission of Keio shown below, which is based on his speech at the alumni party on November 1, 1896.[7]

Keio Gijuku shouldn't be satisfied with being just one educational institution.
Its mission is expected to be a model of the nobility of intelligence and virtue,
to make clear how it can be applied to its family, society, and nation,
and to take an actual action of this statement.
It expects all students being leaders in society by the practice of this mission.

Those sentences were given to students as his will, and considered as the simple expression of Keio's actual mission.[7]

Academic culture

Contributor to Japanese modern education systems

Keio is known for being the first institution to introduce many modern education systems in Japan. The followings are the examples.

Dokuritsu Jison

Keio put "Independence and self-respect (独立自尊 Dokuritsu Jison)" as a foundation of its education. This is meant to be physically and mentally independent, and respect yourself for keeping your virtue.[11] Independence and self-respect are also regarded as Fukuzawa's nature and essence of his education.[12]

Hangaku Hankyo

Learning half and teaching half (半学半教 Hangaku Hankyo) is the other unique culture in Keio.[13] During the late Edo period and the early Meiji period, several private prep schools often used students as assistant teachers and it was called "Learning half and teaching half". Keio also had initially used this system. In the early period of such schools of Western studies, there had been many things to learn not only for students but also professors themselves. Hence there had been sometimes the occasions that students who had learned in advance had taught other students and even professors. After the proper legal systems for education had been set up, those situations have disappeared. However, Fukuzawa thought the essence of academia was and is a continuous learning, and knowing more things provides more learning opportunities. Keio respects his thought and put the rule in "Rules in Keio Gijuku (慶應義塾社中之約束 Keio Gijuku Shachu no Yakusoku)" that there shouldn't be any hierarchy between teachers and learners, and all of the people in Keio Gijuku are in the same company. For this reason, there is still a culture in this university that all professors and lecturers are officially called with the honorific of "Kun" but never "Teacher" or "Professor".[14][15]

Shachu no Kyoryoku

Collaboration in a company (社中の協力 Shachu no Kyoryoku) is also a uniqueness of Keio.[16] Fukuzawa stated in 1879 that the Keio's success today is because of the collaboration in its company, and "Collaboration in a company" originally came from this article. People in Keio often think that all of the people related to Keio (e.g. professors, students, alumni and their family members) are the part of their company, thus they should try to help each other like brothers and sisters. This culture has been often seen especially in the alumni organization called Mita-Kai.[17]


Keio Gijuku in Tsukiji in 1862
Keio University in May 1912

Keio University (慶應義塾大学 Keiō Gijuku Daigaku) was established in 1858 as a School of Western studies located in one of the mansion houses in Tsukiji by the founder Fukuzawa Yukichi.[18] Its root is considered as the Han school for Kokugaku studies named Shinshu Kan established in 1796.[19] Keio changed its name as "Keio Gijuku" in 1868, which came from the era name "Keio"[20] and "Gijuku" as the translation of Public school.[21] It moved to the current location in 1871, established the Medical school in 1873, and the official university department with Economics, Law and Literacy study in 1890.[22]

Keio has been forming its structure in the following chronological order.[23]

Year University development
1858 Keio Gijuku was established
1879 It rejected an offer to become a national university.[24]
Instead of that, it became a vocational school funded by Daimyos including Shimazu clan.
1890 University department with Faculty of Economics, Faculty of Law, and Faculty of Letters was set up
1906 Graduate school was set up
1917 School of Medicine was set up
1920 It was authorized as a university in the prewar system
1944 Faculty of Technology was set up
1949 It was authorized as a university in the post-war system
1957 Faculty of Business and Commerce was set up
1962 Graduate School of Business Administration was set up
1981 Faculty of Science and Technology (reformed from Faculty of Technology) was set up
1990 Faculty of Environment and Information Studies and Faculty of Policy Management were set up
2001 Faculty of Nursing and Medical Care was set up
2004 Law School was set up
2008 Faculty of Pharmacy was set up
2008 Graduate School of Media Design was set up

There have been several notable things in Keio's over 150-year history as shown below.


Since the president system was established in 1881, there have been 18 presidents in Keio's history.[28]

President Tenure President Tenure President Tenure
1. Sadashiro Hamano 1881–1887 7. Shinzo Koizumi 1933–1947 13. Saku Sato 1969–1973
2. Nobukichi Koizumi 1887–1890 8. Seiichiro Takahashi 1946–1947 14. Hiroshi Kuno 1973–1977
3. Tokujiro Obata 1890–1897 9. Kouji Ushioda 1947–1956 15. Tadao Ishikawa 1977–1993
4. Eikichi Kamata 1898–1922 10. Fukutaro Okui 1956–1960 16. Yasuhiko Torii 1993–2001
5. Ichitaro Fukuzawa 1922–1923 11. Shohei Takamura 1960–1965 17. Yuichiro Anzai 2001–2009
6. Kiroku Hayashi 1923–1933 12. Kunio Nagasawa 1965–1969 18. Atsushi Seike 2009–

Student body

Demographics of student body in 2011[2][29]
Undergraduate Graduate(Master) Graduate(Doctor) Professional Total
Total 28,931 3,115 1,234 545 33,825
Male 19,557 2,281 864 344 23,046
Female 9,374 834 370 201 10,779
International 438 480 918

In 2011, there are 33,825 students in Keio University, with 28,931 undergraduate students and 4,894 graduate students. Although two third of student body are male students, this ratio highly depends on the major (63% of students are female in the Faculty of letters, for instance).[2]

There are 1072 international students in May 2011, with 438 undergraduate students (1.5% of total undergraduate students), 480 graduate students (9.8% of total graduate students) and 90 students in the exchange program.[29] Korea is the country which provides the most number of international students with 381 students, followed by China (300), Taiwan (57), France (42), Indonesia (27), USA (27) and Germany (22).[29]

Student life

Mita Sai


In Japanese universities, there are student societies called "circles". Although the exact number is not clear, there are over 410 circles in Keio.[30]


Keio holds school festivals every year in each campus. The main festival is called "Mita Sai" on Mita campus, which is usually held in late November.[31] Mita Sai includes various activities for not only entertainment but also academic purposes. It is also a research workshop for students on Mita campus.[32] Approximately 200,000 people visit Mita Sai every year.[33]


Edward Bramwell Clarke and Tanaka Ginnosuke first introduced Rugby union to Japanese students at Keio University. (The game had been played in the treaty ports of Yokohama and Kobe before that, but not between Japanese teams.)

The interest of Keio's students in baseball stretches back to the early years of the 20th century; and the history of exhibition games was reported internationally. In 1913, an American professional team made of players from the New York Giants and the Chicago White Sox played the Keio team in an exhibition game.[34] In a 1932 exhibition game, the Keio team beat the University of Michigan team which was then touring Japan.[35] Keio's baseball team plays in the Tokyo Big6 Baseball League (six prominent universities in the Tokyo area).

Kei-So rivalry

Kei-So Sen

Traditionally, there has been a strong rivalry between Keio and Waseda University. There are annually many matches between 2 universities in several sports, such as baseball, regatta and rugby. These games are called "Kei-So Sen(慶早戦)", or more generally "So-Kei Sen(早慶戦)".

The Kei-So baseball game is especially famous because of its over 100-year history and importance in Japanese baseball history. The most famous Kei-So baseball match was held on 1943/10/16, and it was made into a movie titled "The Last Game – the Final So-Kei Sen -" in 2008.

There are 2 Kei-So baseball game seasons every year and they are usually broadcast by NHK. There is no lecture on all campuses in Keio on the game day because of the students who want to watch this match. Japanese emperors visited Kei-So baseball games 3 times in 1929,1950 and 1994.

Keio and Waseda have been often compared to each other in other general topics, such as their popularity and alumni's successes. In fact, there are many books and magazine articles which compared with these universities.[36][37][38][39]

Keio University is one of the most prestigious universities in Japan. In World rankings, Times Higher Education estimates that Keio is 351–400th place in general academic rankings.

American football

Academic Rankings

University rankings (overall)
Toyo Keizai National[40]General 2
Kawaijuku National[41]General 6
T. Reuters National[42]Research 13
WE National[43]Employment 3
NBP Greater Tokyo[44][45]Reputation 3
Shimano National[46]Selectivity SA
QS Asia
(Asian Ranking version)[47]
General 37
QS World[48]General 219
ARWU World[49]Research 301-400
ENSMP World[50]Alumni 3
University rankings (by subject)
Social Sciences & Humanities


Asahi National[51]Research 2
BE Success National[52]Qualification 3
BE Pass rate National[53]Qualification 1


RePec National[54]Research 6


Eduni MBA National[55]General 1
Eduni MBA World[56]General 75
CPA Success National[57]Qualification 1
Natural Sciences & Technology


QS World[58]General 179

Keio ranks 9th in the world in the Times Higher Education's Alma Mater Index.[59] It ranks 34th globally in the Center for World University Rankings (CWUR) and 3rd in Asia.[60] Keio is ranked at 58th of the Reuters Top 100 innovative universities worldwide.[61] British Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) company estimates that Keio is ranked the 219th in QS World University Rankings 2015/16.[62] In the Asian University Ranking (2015), Quacquarelli Symonds also ranked Keio as 37th in Asia.[62] The Academic Ranking of World Universities (2015), which is compiled by Shanghai Jiao Tong University, ranks Keio 301–400 in the world and 37 in Asia.[63] Keio, with Waseda University, is one of the prominent private universities within Japan.

Research performance

According to Thomson Reuters, Keio is the 10th best research university in Japan, and it's the only private university within Top 15.[42] In addition, Weekly Diamond reported that Keio has the 8th highest research standard in Japan in terms of research fundings per researchers in COE Program, and it's also the only private university within Top 10.[64] Asahi Shimbun summarized the amount of academic papers in Japanese major legal journals by university, and Keio was ranked 2nd during 2005–2009.[51] Accordingly, Keio is a prominent research university within Japan.

In Economics, According to Asahi Shimbun, Keio's been ranked 7th in Japan in the economic research ranking during 2005–2009.[65] More recently, Repec in January 2011 ranked Keio's Economic department as Japan's 6th best economic research university.[66] Keio has provided 3 presidents of Japanese Economic Association in its 42-year history, and this number is 5th largest.[67]

In addition, Nikkei Shimbun on 2004/2/16 surveyed about the research standards in Engineering studies based on Thomson Reuters, Grants in Aid for Scientific Research and questionnaires to heads of 93 leading Japanese Research Centers, and Keio was placed 8th (research planning ability 4th/informative ability of research outcome 3rd) in this ranking.[68]


Keio ranks second in Japan, for the number of alumni holding CEO positions in Fortune Global 500 companies, according to Mines ParisTech : Professional Ranking World Universities.[50] Keio is also ranked 1st in Japan for the number of alumni generally holding executive positions (when positions like COO, CFO, CIO etc... are included along with the CEO position) in listed companies of Japan, and this number per student (probability of becoming an executive) is also top.[69][70]

Keio Business School is Japan's first business school and one of only two Japanese schools holding The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) accreditation.[71] Keio was ranked No. 1 in Japan by Nikkei Shimbun.[72] Eduniversal also ranked Keio as top in Japan (75th in the world).[73] In Eduniversal Keio is one of only 3 Japanese schools categorized in "Universal Business schools with major international influence". In 2012, the Keio Business School became founding member of the university alliance Council on Business & Society that consists of Tuck School of Business from USA, University of Mannheim Business School from Germany, ESSEC Business School from France, Fudan University from China, Fundação Getúlio Vargas from Brazil and Keio Business School.

According to the Weekly Economist's 2010 rankings and the PRESIDENT's article on 2006/10/16, graduates from Keio University have the 3rd best employment rate in 400 major companies, and the alumni's average salary is the 3rd best in Japan.[74][75]


As an extension of Keio's strong business focus, for over 30 years, Keio graduates have been ranked first in Japan in the number of successful national CPA exam applicants.[5]


Keio has been influential in Japanese medical societies as well. In fact, there have been 4 presidents of Japan Medical Association related to this university (2 Alumni and 2 professors).[76] This number is the 2nd largest among Japanese medical schools.[77] Keio is one of 2 Japanese universities which provided a president of World Medical Association.[78]


Keio's law faculty is typically ranked among the best in all of Japan along with the University of Tokyo, University of Kyoto, Chuo University, and Hitotsubashi University. In 2010, Keio ranked highest among all Japanese universities for Bar Exam passage rate.[79] Furthermore, the number of Members of Parliament who graduated Keio has been 3rd in Japan.[65][80]

Popularity and selectivity

Keio is a popular university in Japan, often considered one of Japan's top two private university alongside Waseda University, their eternal equal and rival. The number of applicants per place was 11.7 (48260/4098) in the 2011 undergraduate admissions.[81] Its entrance difficulty is usually considered as top with Waseda among 730 private universities.[82][83][84]

Nikkei BP has been publishing a ranking system called "Brand rankings of Japanese universities" every year, composed by the various indications related to the power of brand, in which Keio was top in 2014, and ranked second in 2015 and 2016 in Greater Tokyo Area.[85] The 4ICU ranking, which evaluates universities by web popularity instead of quality of education, classifies Keio as 1st in Japan, 2nd in Asia and 14th in the world.[86][87][88] Webometrics (2008) also ranks Keio University as 3rd in Japan, 11th in Asia, and 208th in the world for quantity and quality of web presence and link visibility.[89]

In a unique ranking, TBS ranked Japanese universities by the questionnaire of "Which university student do you want to have as your boyfriend?" to 300 girls in Shibuya, and Keio was ranked 1st in this ranking .[90]


Operating revenues/expenses in 2010[91]
Revenues (yen in millions) ratio Expenses (yen in millions) ratio
Tuition and fees 49,204 24.97% Compensation and benefits 65,270 33.12%
Investment return 4,170 2.12% Education & Research 52,148 26.46%
Capital gain 20,817 10.56% Investment 32,923 16.71%
National appropriation/Grants(Direct) 17,082 8.67% Repayment of debt 13,236 6.72%
Medical care 48,274 24.50%
Debt loan 11,680 5.93%
Endowments 5,475 2.78%
Total 197,061 100.00% Total 197,061 100.00%

According to Keio's financial report, there was operating revenue of 197 billion yen in 2010.[91] The top 3 largest incomes were from "Tuition and fees", "Medical care" and "Capital gain", with 49 billion yen, 48 billion yen and 21 billion yen respectively. The amount of endowments in 2010 was about 5 billion yen. Keio is known as having one of the largest financial endowments of any Japanese university.[92]

On the other hand, the top 3 largest expenses in 2010 were "Compensation and benefits", "Education & Research" and "Investment", with 65 billion yen, 52 billion yen and 33 billion yen respectively. The total asset value in 2010 was about 364 billion yen with increase of 5 billion yen. In addition, the total amount of assets under management was approximately 109 billion yen in 2010, composed by mainly cash, deposit with banks and marketable securities.[91]

Tuition fees

Tuition fees[93][94]
Undergraduate 4 years in Total (yen) Per year (yen)
Social Science & Humanities 4,440,000 1,110,000
Natural Science & Engineering 6,280,000 1,570,000
SFC 5,320,000 1,330,000
School of Medicine 14,440,000 3,610,000
Graduate 2 years in Total (yen) Per year (yen)
Social Science & Humanities 1,380,000 690,000
Natural Science & Engineering 1,965,000 983,000
SFC 2,071,000 1,035,000
School of Medicine 2,625,000 1,313,000

The university tuition fee system in Japan is different from other countries and very complicated. In the most Japanese universities, there are more payment requirements in the first year such as "entrance fees", and less in the rest of the years. There are several types of fees (some require to pay only once and some require to pay once or twice every year) and so-called "course fee" is officially only one of those fees.

In Keio University, Tuition fees vary and depend on the course. Social Science & Humanity studies require the least fees with approximately 1,110,000 yen per year, and School of Medicine requires the most expensive fees with about 3,610,000 yen per year.[93] The tuition fees in graduate school are much less than those for undergraduate studies, as 690,000 yen per year for Social Science & Humanities and 1,313,000 yen per year for School of Medicine.[94]

Although it is acceptable to pay twice with half in spring and half in autumn, the "entrance fee" is necessary to be paid before enrollment. The entrance fee for undergraduate study is 200,000 yen and the one for graduate study is 310,000 yen.[93][94]


2008 number of students ratio average amount (yen)
Total using scholarship/loan 9,764 30.25%
Total of using scholarship funded by Keio 3,000 9.30% 300,000
International students (undergraduate) 397 appx. 100% 259,942
International students (graduate) 359 appx. 75% 517,473

There are many students who receive additional financial supports. In 2008, there were 9,764 students who used either scholarship or loan, and this number is about 30% of whole students.[95] There are over 3,000 students who received scholarships with 300,000 yen on average, funded by Keio.[95]


New South building on Mita Campus
Jukukankyoku on Mita Campus
Mita speech house on Mita Campus
Hiyoshi Campus
Yagami Campus
Kitasato Memorial Medical Library on Shinanomachi campus
3rd Building on Shiba Kyoritsu campus


Keio has ten undergraduate faculties, which cover a wide range of academic fields, with each operating independently and offering broad educational and research activities. The faculties are:

Graduate schools

Media centers

Keio's Media Centers, with combined holdings of over 4.58 million books and publications, are one of the largest academic information storehouses in the country.[96]

Information technology centers

Affiliated schools

Elementary education

Secondary education

Language education


Hospital and rehabilitation center

Keio University Hospital is one of the largest and most well-known general hospitals in Japan, the number of surgeries for carcinoma uteri in 2007 was top and the one for lung cancer was third among all university hospitals.[97] and is also a famous teaching hospital. The number of trainee doctors who selected Keio as their first choice training hospital was 30 (33rd) among all Japanese teaching hospitals in 2010.[98] Established in 1920, it has over 1,000 beds, a leading laboratory, and research and medical information divisions.[5]


It has eleven campuses.


Current professors

There are 2,604 full-time faculties in May 2011, including 789 professors, 406 associate professors, 362 lecturers and 1,047 other staffs (e.g. readers).[1] There are several notable professors such as shown below.

Name Faculty Area of research Notable achievement
Takayuki Tatsumi LettersAmerican literatureScience fiction scholar
Provided a new perspective to American literature by using the deconstruction theory
Kazuhito Ikeo EconomicsFinance, Japanese EconomicsFormer president of Nippon Finance Association
Contributed to design the Big Bang liberalization of the Japanese financial sector as a chairperson of Economic Council in 1996.
Masao Ogaki EconomicsMacro Economics, International Finance, Quantitative EconomicsRepec listed him as one of the top 5% Economists in the world (7th in Japan and 1326th in the world in January 2011).[99]
Mitsuhiro Fukao Business and CommerceInternational Finance, Corporate Governance Chairperson of Japan Center for Economic Research
Repec listed him as one of the top 25% Economists in Japan[66]
Yoshio Higuchi Business and CommerceLabor Economics, Quantitative Economics Vice president of Japan Economic Association[100]
Hideo Saito Science and Technology Information Engineering Project leader of the Technology to display 3D contents into Free Space
Junichi Ushiba Science and Technology Biomedical Engineering Developed an interface to connect between the avatar in Second Life and the human brain.[101][102]
Kohei Itoh Science and Technology Quantum Computing Successfully generated and detected quantum entanglement between electron spin and nuclear spin in phosphorus impurities added to silicon with Dr. John Morton at Oxford University. This is the world's first successful generation.[103]
Kazuo Nakazawa Science and Technology Robotics, Machine Learning Developed the laparoscopic surgery robot system with real-time tactile feedback.[104]
Takahira Yamaguchi Science and Technology Information Engineering, Artificial Intelligence Developed the autonomous collaboration system between more than 2 robots by using the Semantic Web. He has also developed the Intelligent humanoid robot with use of the information on Wikipedia.[105]
Tetsuya Suzuki Science and Technology Material Science, Nanotechnology Developed the diamond-like carbon films for PET bottles and medical applications.[106]
Yasuhiro Koike Science and Technology Material Science Developed the High-bandwidth graded-index plastic optical fiber.[107]
He is thought as one of the Nobel Prize candidates in Physics in terms of the achievement of plastic optical fiber.[108][109]
Heizō Takenaka Policy ManagementEconomic policy, Macro Economics Former Japanese Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications
Shirō Asano Policy ManagementPolitics Former governor of Miyagi Prefecture
Jun Murai Environment and Information StudiesInformatics Founder of JUNET and president of WIDE University
Known as the father of Japan's Internet.[110][111]
Hiroshi Shimizu Environment and Information StudiesElectric car Project leader of Eliica project (Electric Lithium-Ion Car)
Masaru Tomita Environment and Information Studies
School of Medicine
Bioinformatics, Metabolomics Established the metabolomics analysis by using the CE-MS.
Adrian David Cheok Graduate School of Media DesignMixed Reality Researcher in mixed reality, Young Global Leader in 2008

Former professors


Some of the prominent Keio alumni include: Japanese Prime Ministers Junichiro Koizumi (2001–2006), Ryutaro Hashimoto (1996–1998), and Tsuyoshi Inukai (1931–1932). Dozens of other alumni have been cabinet members and governors in the post-war period.[113] Its alumni include 230 CEOs of major companies and 97 CEOs of foreign affiliated companies (both highest in Japan).[5] Keio has over 320,000 alumni in 866 alumni associations.[5][114]


Former (1931–1932) Japanese prime minister Tsuyoshi Inukai
Former (1996–1998) Japanese prime minister Ryutaro Hashimoto
Former (2001–2006) Japanese prime minister Junichiro Koizumi



American sociologist Ted Nelson

Other business people





Imperial Japanese Army flight captain Ryōji Uehara
JAXA astronaut Chiaki Mukai

Gutenberg Bible

The only copy held outside Europe or North America is a first volume facsimile of the Gutenberg Bible (Hubay 45) at Keio University. Purchased by the university in 1996, from Maruzen booksellers who originally purchased the copy at auction in 1987 for US$5.4 million.[119][120]

The Humanities Media Interface Project (HUMI) at Keio University is known for its high-quality digital images of Gutenberg Bibles and other rare books.[119] Under the direction of Professor Toshiyuki Takamiya, the HUMI team has made digital reproductions of eleven sets of the bible in nine institutions, including in 2000, both full-text facsimiles held in the collection of the British Library.[121]

See also


  1. 1 2 3 "Number of faculty member" (in Japanese). Keio University. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Degree Student Head Count: May 2011" (PDF) (in Japanese). Keio University. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  3. excluding master course students as students in "Doctorate (prior)"
  4. Universities | Study in Japan(Japanese university) | Global30. Retrieved on 2014-06-17.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 (This link no longer exists. The paper-based pamphlet is only available. October 10, 2011)
  6. "Press Release: Keio University joins MIT and INRIA in hosting W3C". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  7. 1 2 "The purpose of Keio University" (in Japanese). Keio University. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  8. In the Edo Period, private schools normally collected money or properties with Noshi irregularly from students, but those fees highly depended on each student's economic circumstances. Fukuzawa thought such an unstable financial system prevented the modernization of educational institutions as well as professors' professionalism. Then he designed a rudimentary management system for the school's finances.
  9. Before the Meiji Period, Japanese people had thought the oral statement is not reliable enough for decision making, thus every time people had needed to state their opinions on paper when they had needed to decide something. Fukuzawa thought this culture would seriously prevent to introduce the modern parliamentary regime and the fair court system. Then he developed the art of speech by the arrangement of Western speech.
  10. "The origin of accepting international students" (in Japanese). Keio University. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  11. "Dokuritsujison" (in Japanese). Keio University. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  12. In fact, this phrase was also used for his Dharma name, which is a given name when people are dead, representing their nature.
  13. "Hangaku Hankyo" (in Japanese). Keio University. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  14. Japanese people usually use "Kun" only between friends. This expression is normally considered as an informal expression and shouldn't be used for professors.
  15. Keio only use the honorific of "Teacher" or "Professors" officially when they refer Fukuzawa's name.
  16. "Shachu no Kyoryoku" (in Japanese). Keio University. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  17. "Hiromi Shimada" (October 2007). "Keio Mitakai" (in Japanese). Sanshusha. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  18. "Dictionary of Keio No.4 The origin of Keio" (in Japanese). Keio University. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  19. Although Shinshu Kan didn't have a direct relation to Keio, Many people who studied or managed there were involved with Keio later. In fact, all students from Nakatsu Domain moved to Keio when it was closed.
  20. 1868 is 4th year of Keio
  21. "Dictionary of Keio No.7 The root of the school name" (in Japanese). Keio University. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  22. Although Keio had been already involved to the higher education, it had not had a university system before 1890. It was authorized by Japanese government as a university in 1920.
  23. See ja:慶應義塾大学 for detail
  24. In the beginning of Meiji period, there was a sense of ethics that Samurai shouldn't work for more than one master. Keio was established by the fund of Tokugawa Shogunate, so it was hard to work for the new government in this sense. Fukuzawa in fact criticized severely Kaishū Katsu and Takeaki Enomoto who worked for both Tokugawa and the new government (see Fukuzawa Yukichi). His such strict viewpoint had prevented Keio to set up a political department, and kept many Keio graduate away from politics for a long time. It is also one of the clear difference from Waseda which has been positively involved to politics for a long time.
  25. "Vol1. Famous Visitors to Keio University". Keio University. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  26. "A paper written by the 4th year student of the Faculty of Science and Technology was placed in "Science":Keio University Science and Technology". Keio University. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  27. "A paper written by the 4th year student of the Faculty of Science and Technology was placed in "Science":Keio University Science and Technology" (in Japanese). Keio University. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  28. "Presidents in Keio" (in Japanese). Keio University. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  29. 1 2 3 "International Student Head Count: May 2011" (in Japanese). Keio University. Retrieved September 9, 2011.
  30. "Keio Campus city" (in Japanese). Campus city. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  31. "Sai" means festival
  32. See Mita Sai
  33. "47th Mita sai" (in Japanese). Keio Journal. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  34. McGraw, John J. (December 8, 1913). "Americans Defeat Great Jap Pitcher; Sugase, Idolized at Keio University, Easy for Giants and White Sox". The New York Times. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  35. "Michigan Nine, Touring Japan, Loses to Keio University, 2-1". The New York Times. September 11, 1932. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  36. 橘木俊詔 "早稲田と慶応 名門私大の栄光と影" 講談社 2008
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