Silesian Museum • Archcathedral • Silesian Theatre • Spodek
|Coordinates: 50°15′N 19°0′E / 50.250°N 19.000°E|
|Established||16th century - 1598 first official information|
|• Mayor||Marcin Krupa|
|• City||164.67 km2 (63.58 sq mi)|
|• Metro||5,400 km2 (2,100 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||352 m (1,155 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||266 m (873 ft)|
|Population (31 December 2015)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Postal code||40-001 to 40-999|
|Area code(s)||+48 32|
Katowice // (Polish: [katɔˈvʲit͡sɛ]; German: Kattowitz, Silesian: Katowicy, officially Miasto Katowice) is a city in southwestern Poland and the center of the Silesian Metropolis, with a population of 299,910 as of 2015.
Katowice is a center of science, culture, industry, business, trade, and transportation in Upper Silesia and southern Poland, and the main city in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region. Katowice lies within an urban zone, with a population of 2,746,460 according to Eurostat, and also part of the wider Silesian metropolitan area, with a population of 5,294,000 according to the European Spatial Planning Observation Network. Today, Katowice is an emerging metropolis. The whole metropolitan area is the 16th most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union with an output amounting to $114.5 billion.
Katowice has been the capital of the Silesian Voivodeship since its formation in 1999. Previously it was the capital of the Katowice Voivodeship, the autonomous Silesian Voivodeship in Poland, and the Province of Upper Silesia in Germany.
The area around Katowice, in Upper Silesia, has been inhabited by ethnic Silesians from its earliest documented history. It was first ruled by the Polish Silesian Piast dynasty until its extinction. From 1335, it was a part of the Crown of Bohemia. In 1526 the territory passed to the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy after the death of King Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia. In 1742, most of Silesia was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia during the First Silesian War.
Kattowitz gained city status in 1865 in the Prussian Province of Silesia. The city flourished due to large mineral (especially coal) deposits in the nearby mountains. Extensive city growth and prosperity depended on the coal mining and steel industries, which took off during the Industrial Revolution. The city was inhabited mainly by Germans, Silesians, Jews and Poles. In 1884, 36 Jewish Zionist delegates met here, forming the Hovevei Zion movement. Previously part of the Beuthen district, in 1873 it became the capital of the new Kattowitz district. On 1 April 1899, the city was separated from the district, becoming an independent city.
Under the Treaty of Versailles after World War I, the Upper Silesia plebiscite was organised by the League of Nations. Though Kattowitz proper voted 22,774 to remain in Germany and 3,900 for Poland, it was attached to Poland as the larger district voted 66,119 for Poland and 52,992 for Germany. Following the Silesian Uprisings of 1918–21 Katowice became part of the Second Polish Republic with some autonomy for the Silesian Parliament as a constituency and the Silesian Voivodeship Council as the executive body).
The city was occupied by Nazi Germany from 1939 to 1945.
In 1953, after death of the General Secretary of the CPSU Joseph Stalin the City of Katowice was renamed Stalinogród ("Stalin City", like a lot of cities in that time e.g. Staliniri, but originally named after Stalin's death) by the Polish United Workers' Party Polish communist party's government in honor of Soviet dictator, but the new name never gained acceptance and in 1956 the former name was restored.
Severe ecological damage to the environment occurred during the post–Second World War communist governance in the People's Republic of Poland, but recent changes in regulations, procedures and policies of Polish government since the fall of Communism have reversed much of the harm. Economic reforms since 1989 have shifted the economy away from heavy industry towards small businesses.
Katowice is a city in Upper Silesia in southern Poland, on the Kłodnica and Rawa rivers (tributaries of the Oder and the Vistula respectively). It is in the Silesian Highlands, about 50 km (31 mi) north of the Silesian Beskids (part of the Carpathian Mountains) and about 100 km (62 mi) southeast of the Sudetes Mountains. Katowice is in the Katowice Highlands, part of the Silesian Highlands, in the eastern part of Upper Silesia, in the central portion of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Katowice is an urban community in the Silesian Voivodeship in south-west Poland. It is central district of the Silesian Metropolis—a metropolis with a population of two million. It borders the cities of Chorzów, Siemianowice Śląskie, Sosnowiec, Mysłowice, Lędziny, Tychy, Mikołów, Ruda Śląska and Czeladź. It lies between the Vistula and Oder rivers. Several rivers flow through the city, the major two being the Kłodnica and Rawa. Within 600 km (370 mi) of Katowice are the capital cities of six countries: Berlin, Vienna, Prague, Bratislava, Budapest and Warsaw.
The climate is temperate-continental. The average temperature is 8.2 °Celsius (−1.5 °C (29 °F) in January and up to 18 °C (64 °F) in July). Yearly rainfall averages at 608.5 mm (23.96 in). Characteristic weak winds blow at about 2 m/s from the west, the Moravian Gate.
|Climate data for Katowice|
|Average high °C (°F)|| 1
|Daily mean °C (°F)|| −1.5
|Average low °C (°F)|| −4
|Average precipitation mm (inches)|| 30.4
|Source: MSN Weather|
Katowice lies in the centre of the largest conurbation in Poland, one of the largest in the European Union, numbering about 2.7 million. Urban expansion boomed in the 19th century thanks to the rapid development of the mining and metallurgical industries. The Katowice urban area consists of about 40 adjacent cities and towns, the whole Silesian metropolitan area (mostly within the Upper Silesian Coal Basin) over 50 cities/town. The metropolitan area has a population of 5,294,000.
In 2006, Katowice and 14 adjacent cities united as the Upper Silesian Metropolis. Its population is 2 million and its area is 1,104 km2. In 2006-2007 the union planned to unite these cities in one city under the name "Silesia", but this proved unsuccessful.
Notable attractions include:
- Silesian Philharmonic
- Polish National Radio Symphony Orchestra
- Henryk Górecki
- Wojciech Kilar
- Off Festival
- Rawa Blues Festival
- Kaliber 44
- TV stations:
- radio stations:
- Dziennik Zachodni
- Gazeta Wyborcza - Katowice section
- Fakt - Katowice section
- Echo Miasta
- Metro International - Katowice
- Nowy Przegląd Katowicki
Festivals and events
- Rawa Blues Festiwal - Spodek
- Metalmania - Spodek
- Metal Hammer Festival - Spodek
- Off Festival
- Mayday - Spodek
- International Competition of Conductors by Fitelberg
- International Festival of Military Orchestras
- International Exhibition of Graphic arts "Intergrafia"
- The ESL One Katowice Tournament, for the popular FPS Counter-Strike: Global Offensive, League of Legends, and Starcraft II was held March 12–15, 2015.
- Tauron New Music Festival
- Intel Extreme Masters World Championship, one of the biggest eSports events in the world
Parks and squares
- Main parks:
- Silesian Park (Wojewódzki Park Kultury i Wypoczynku)
- Kościuszko Park (Park im. Tadeusza Kościuszki)
- Forest Park of Katowice (Katowicki Park Leśny)
- Valley of Three Ponds (Dolina Trzech Stawów)
- Zadole Park
- Bolina Park
- Janina-Barbara Park
- Olympic Participants' Park (Park Olimpijczyków)
- Murckowska Valley
- Katowice market square (Rynek w Katowicach)
- Freedom Square (Plac Wolności)
- Andrzej Square (Plac Andrzeja)
- Miarka Square (Plac Miarki)
- Council of Europe Square (Plac Rady Europy)
- Alfred Square (Plac Alfreda)
- A. Budniok Square (Plac A. Brudnioka)
- J. Londzin Square (Plac J. Londzina)
- A. Hlond Square (Plac A. Hlonda)
Nature reserves and ecological areas
- Nature reserve Las Murckowski
- Nature reserve Ochojec
- Źródła Kłodnicy
- Staw Grunfeld
- Stawy Na Tysiącleciu
- Płone Bagno
Katowice did not originate as a medieval town. The city centre was formed in the mid-19th century when it was part of the Kingdom of Prussia and had an ethnic German majority. The buildings of the time are decorated in an eclectic style (mostly Renaissance with elements of Baroque) and elements of Art Nouveau style (secesja). By the end of the nineteenth century the centre was being referred to as a "little Paris", which may surprise visitors today,
Examples of Modernism (International Style and Bauhaus inspired architecture) are in the city centre, and a significant number of Art Nouveau (Secesja) buildings along with Communist Era giants such as Spodek and Superjednostka.
Rynek is the old centre and marketplace. Unfortunately many old buildings were demolished in the 1950s to make space for monumental communist modern buildings. Rynek and several streets around are closed to traffic as a shopping promenades.
- Market square and adjacent streets: Warszawska, Teatralna, Dyrekcyjna, Staromiejska, Dworcowa, św. Jana, Pocztowa, Wawelska, 3 Maja, Stawowa, Mielęckiego, Starowiejska and Mickiewicza, the so-called "Great Market Square of Katowice" or "Old town of Katowice"—many historic (monument) buildings. This is a group of functional-architectural. On the market square and most of the above-mentioned streets are prohibitions or restrictions on cars. Streets: Staromiejska, Dyrekcyjna, Wawelska, Stawowa and Warszawska is lined decorative cobblestone creating a pedestrian zone. The authority plans to Katowice—Quarter streets: św. Jana, Dworcowa, Mariacka, Mielęckiego, Stanisława and Starowiejska is to become so "small market square".
- Nikiszowiec - historical settlement of Katowice, candidate to UNESCO
- Cathedral of Christ the King
- St Mary's Church
- Church of the Resurrection, Evangelical-Augsburg, built in 1856-1858
- Church of St Michael Archangel, the oldest church in the city, built in 1510
- Drapacz Chmur, one of the first skyscrapers in Europe
- Silesian Parliament, built in 1925-1929. For a very long time it was the biggest structure in Poland
- Modernist old town
- Spodek (a large sports centre/concert hall, whose name translates as the 'saucer', from its distinctive shape resembling a UFO flying saucer)
- Silesian Insurgents Monument (Polish: Pomnik Powstańców Śląskich), the largest and heaviest monument in Poland. It is a harmonious combination of architecture and sculpture with appropriate symbolism: the wings symbolize the three Silesian Uprisings 1919 - 1920 - 1921 while the names of places that were battlefields are etched on the vertical slopes. The monument, which was funded by the people of Warsaw for Upper Silesia, is considered Katowice's landmark.
- Silesian Theater, built in 1907
- Rialto Cinetheater, built in 1912
- Silesian Museum, built in 1899
- Old train station in Katowice, built in 1906
- The Goldstein Palace
- The Załęże Palace
- Parachute Tower - a 50 m (160 ft) tall lattice tower built in 1937 for training parachutists. It was used in the first days of World War II and is the only parachute tower in Poland.
- Franciscan Monastery in Panewniki
- Church of St Joseph (Załęże)
- St Stephen's Church
- Church of Christ Resurrection
- The Monument to Marshal Piłsudski by Croatian sculptor Antun Augustinčić, 1937-39. It was commissioned in 1936 but brought to Poland in 1991
- Monopol Hotel
- Katowice Rondo, the large square/roundabout, reconstructed recently, with the semi-circular Galeria Rondo Sztuki in the centre.
- The Altus Skyscraper, the tallest skyscraper
Katowice is a large coal and steel center. It has several coal mines (Wujek Coal Mine, Mysłowice-Wesoła Coal Mine, Wieczorek Coal Mine, Murcki Coal Mine, Staszic Coal Mine) organized into unions—Katowice Coal Holding company (pl: Katowicki Holding Węglowy), two steelworks (Huta Baildon, Huta Ferrum), and one foundry of non-ferrous metals (Huta Metali Nieżelaznych Szopienice).
Katowice is a large business and trade fair center. Every year in Katowice International Fair and Spodek, tens of international trade fairs are organized. Katowice has the second largest business centre in Poland (after Warsaw Business Centre). Skyscrapers stand along Chorzowska, Korfantego and Roździeńskiego street in the centre. The newest office buildings (A-class) are the Chorzowska 50, Altus Skyscraper and Silesia Towers (under construction).
Katowice is the seat of Katowice Special Economic Zone (Katowicka Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna).
The unemployment rate is one of the lowest in Poland, at 2% (2008). The city is still characterized by its working class strength and attracts many people from neighbouring cities (other districts USMU seeking jobs.
Katowice is a large scientific centre. It has over 20 schools of higher education, at which over 100,000 people study.
There are also:
- around 80 high schools
- around 35 gimnasia
- around 55 primary schools
- around 50 libraries, including the Silesian Library
The public transportation system of the Katowice and Upper Silesian Metropolis consists of four branches—buses and trams united in the KZK GOP and the regional rail. Additional services are operated by private companies and the state-owned railways.
Silesian Interurbans - one of the largest tram systems in the world, in existence since 1894. It spreads for more than 50 kilometres (31 miles) (east-west) and covers 14 districts of the Upper Silesian Metropolis.
- European route E40 (France - Belgium - Germany - Poland - Ukraine - Russia - Uzbekistan - Kazakhstan)
- European route E75 (Vardø, Norway - Finland - Poland - Slovakia - Hungary - Serbia - Macedonia - Greece)
- European route E462 (Czech Republic - Poland)
- Motorway A4 (German/Polish border – Wrocław – Katowice – Kraków – Rzeszów – Polish/Ukrainian border)
- National road 79
- National road 81
- National road 86
Several important roads in neighbourhoods of Katowice (USMU):
- Motorway A1 (Gdańsk – Toruń – Łódź – Gliwice – Polish/Czech border)
- Expressway S1
- National road 11
- National road 44
- National road 78
- National road 88
- National road 94
The city and the area are served by the Katowice International Airport, about 30 km (19 mi) from the city center. With over 20 international and domestic flights daily, it is by far the biggest airport in Silesia (~2,5 million passengers served in 2008; 2 terminals, A and B).
Because of the long distance to the airport, there is a proposal to convert the much closer sport aviation Katowice-Muchowiec Airport into a city airport for smaller, business-oriented traffic.
Katowice has a long sporting tradition and hosted the final of EuroBasket 2009 and 1975 European Athletics Indoor Championships, 1975 European Amateur Boxing Championships, 1976 World Ice Hockey Championships, 1957, 1985 European Weightlifting Championships, 1974, 1982 World Wrestling Championships, 1991 World Amateur Bodybuilding Championships, 2011 Women's European Union Amateur Boxing Championships, 2014 FIVB Men's World Championship and others.
The Silesian Stadium is between Chorzów and Katowice. It was a national stadium of Poland, with more than 50 international matches of the Poland national football team played here and around 30 matches in UEFA competitions. There were also a Speedway World Championship, Speedway Grand Prix of Europe and many concerts featuring international stars.
Tourists can relax playing tennis or squash, doing water sports also sailing (for example—in Dolina Trzech Stawów), horse-riding (in Wesoła Fala and Silesian culture and refreshment park), cycling or going to one of numerous excellently equipped fitness clubs. Near the city center are sporting facilities like swimming pools (for example "Bugla", "Rolna") and in neighbourhood—golf courses (in Siemianowice Śląskie).
- GKS Katowice - men's football, (Polish Cup winner: 1986, 1991, 1993; Polish SuperCup winner: 1991, 1995; 1st league in 2003/2004 and 2004/2005 seasons). ice hockey team Champion :1958,1960,1962 Gòrnik Katowice / GKS 1965,1968,1970.
- 1. FC Kattowitz - football club, vice-champion of Poland: 1927; champion of Upper Silesia: 1907, 1908, 1909, 1913, 1922, 1932, 1945
- AZS AWF Katowice - various sports, women's handball team playing in Polish Women's Handball Superleague, men's basketball team playing in Second league, fencing section - a lot of medals in the Polish Championship
- Naprzód Janów Katowice - hockey club playing in Polish Hockey Superleague, vice-champion of Poland (5x): 1971, 1973, 1977, 1989, 1992; bronze medal (7x): 1972, 1974, 1976, 1978, 1982, 1986, 1987; Polish Cup (1x): 1970.
- AZS US Katowice - various sports, a lot of medals in the Polish Championship in various sports
- HKS Szopienice - various sports, a lot of medals in the Polish and Europe and World Championship in weightlifting
- Silesia Miners - American football club playing in Polish American Football League, Polish champion in 2009, vice-champion in 2007
- Jango Katowice - futsal club playing in Polish Futsal Superleague; Polish Cup (1x): 2007; bronze medal Polish Championship (2x): 2001, 2007
- Rozwój Katowice - football club playing in Polish Third League
- MK Katowice - football club playing in Polish Fourth League
- Hetman Szopienice - chess club, a lot of medals in the Polish Championship
- Sparta Katowice - various sports, a lot of medals in the Polish Championship in various sports
- Policyjny Klub Sportowy Katowice - various sports, a lot of medals in the Polish Championship in various sports
- AWF Mickiewicz Katowice - basketball club
- Silesian Flying Club (Aeroklub Śląski)
Defunct sports clubs:
- Diana Kattowitz - football club
- Germania Kattowitz - football club
- KS Baildon Katowice - various sports, a lot of medals in the Polish Championship in various sports
- Pogoń Katowice - various sports, a lot of medals in the Polish Championship in various sports
- 1975 European Athletics Indoor Championships
- 1976 World Ice Hockey Championships
- FIVB World League 2001
- FIVB World League 2007
- Eurobasket 2009
- Tour de Pologne 2010
- BNP Paribas Katowice Open
- EMS One Katowice CS:GO Championship 2014
- Intel Extreme Masters Season IX - World Championship Katowice League of Legends and StarCraft 2 Championship 2014
- ESL One Katowice CS:GO Championship 2015
- IEM Katowice CS:GO Championship 2016
- Hans Sachs (1877–1945), serologist
- Kurt Goldstein (1878–1965), neurologist
- Franz Leopold Neumann (1900–1954), politician
- Willy Fritsch (1901-1973), actor
- Hans Bellmer (1902–1975), surrealist photographer
- Maria Goeppert-Mayer (1906–1972), physicist
- Georg Thomalla (1915-1999), actor
- Chaskel Besser (1923–2010), Orthodox rabbi
- Kazimierz Kutz (born 1929), film director and politician
- Waldemar Świerzy (1931-2013), artist, illustrator and cartoonist
- Wojciech Kilar (1932-2013), classical and film music composer
- Henryk Górecki (1933–2010), classical composer
- Henryk Broder (born 1946), journalist
- Jerzy Kukuczka (1948–1989), alpine and high altitude climber
Twin towns—Sister cities
Katowice is twinned with:
- "Ludność. Stan i struktura ludności oraz ruch naturalny w przekroju terytorialnym w 2014 r. Stanu w dniu 31 XII 2015 r." (in Polish). Warszawa: Główny Urząd Statystyczny. 2015.
- "Study on Urban Functions (Project 1.4.3)" - European Spatial Planning Observation Network, 2007
- "CityProfiles: Katowice". The Urban Audit. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
- Interim Territorial Cohesion Report - Preliminary results of ESPON and EU Commission studies
- "Global city GDP 2011". Brookings Institution. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
- Von Krakau bis Danzig (in German). Thomas Urban. 2004. Retrieved 2009-03-21.
- Documents on British foreign policy, 1919-1939 Great Britain. Foreign Office, Ernest Llewellyn Woodward page 44
- Auer, Matthew R. 2004. “Lessons from Leaders and Laggards: Appraising Environmental Reforms in Central and Eastern Europe and Russia,” in Matthew R. Auer, ed., Restoring Cursed Earth: Appraising Environmental Policy Reforms in Eastern Europe and Russia. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield: page 6.
- "Local weather forecast: Katowice".
- (Polish) dziennik.pl - "17 śląskich miast chce się połączyć w Silesię", 11 December 2006)
- Fortune Magazine (March 3, 2016) Poland Is Home to the Biggest eSports Event in the World http://fortune.com/2016/03/03/poland-is-home-to-the-biggest-esports-event-in-the-world/
- "Wydawnictwo Muzeum Śląskiego: Lech Szaraniec "Katowice w dawnej i współczesnej fotografii".
- Dziennik Zachodni Katowice - "Będą dwie Mariackie", 3 sierpnia 2007
- "Bezrobotni oraz stopa bezrobocia wg województw, podregionów i powiatów (stan w końcu lipca 2008 r.)".
- "Voivodship Cities basic statistical data" - Central Statistical Office in Poland, ISSN 1642-574X, 31 June 2008
- "Partnerstädte". Retrieved 2009-06-22.
- "Groningen - Partner Cities". © 2008 Gemeente Groningen, Kreupelstraat 1,9712 HW Groningen. Retrieved 2008-12-08.
- "Twin cities of the City of Kosice". Magistrát mesta Košice, Tr. Retrieved 2013-07-27.
- "Mobile's Sister Cities". City of Mobile. Retrieved 2009-11-26.