Josephine Baker

For the first female Director of Public Health, see Sara Josephine Baker.
Josephine Baker

Baker in Havana, Cuba, 1950
Born Freda Josephine McDonald
(1906-06-03)3 June 1906
St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.[1][2]
Died 12 April 1975(1975-04-12) (aged 68)
Paris, France
Cause of death Cerebral hemorrhage
Resting place Monaco Cemetery[3][4]
Residence Roquebrune, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur,[5] (French Riviera), France
Nationality American, French
Occupation Dancer, singer, actress, civil rights activist, spy
Years active 1921–75
  • William Wells (m. 1919–20)
  • William Baker (m. 1921–25)
  • Jean Lion (m. 1937–38)
  • Jo Bouillon (m. 1947–61)
Partner(s) Robert Brady (1973–75)
Children 12; including Jean-Claude Baker

Musical career

Genres Cabaret, music hall, French pop, French jazz
Instruments Vocals
Labels Columbia, Mercury, RCA Victor

Josephine Baker (born Freda Josephine McDonald; 3 June 1906 – 12 April 1975) was an African-American expatriate singer and entertainer, whose career was centered primarily in Europe and in particular in her adoptive country of France. In her early career she was also renowned as a dancer, and was among the most celebrated performers to headline in the lavish revues of the Folies Bergère in Paris. Her performance in the revue Un Vent de Folie in 1927 caused a sensation in Paris, with Baker in her costume consisting of only a girdle of bananas becoming not only her most iconic image but also a symbol of the jazz age and the 1920's. She was celebrated by all of the great artists and intellectuals of the era, with various circles dubbing her the "Black Pearl", the "Bronze Venus", as well as the "Creole Goddess". Born in St. Louis, Missouri, she renounced her U.S. citizenship to become a citizen of France in 1937 upon her marriage to Jean Lyon.[6]

Baker was the first person of African descent to become a world-famous entertainer and to star in a major motion picture in the silent film Les Sirene des Tropiques (1927). Baker refused to perform for segregated audiences in the United States and is noted for her contributions to the Civil Rights Movement. In 1968 she was offered unofficial leadership in the movement in the United States by Coretta Scott King, following Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination. After thinking it over, Baker declined the offer due to her children.[5][7]

She was also known for assisting the French Resistance during World War II,[8] and received the French military honor, the Croix de guerre and was made a Chevalier of the Légion d'honneur by General Charles de Gaulle.[9]

Early life

Josephine Baker was born Freda Josephine McDonald in St. Louis, Missouri,[5] Baker's racial and ethnic descent are unknown. Her mother, Carrie, was adopted in Little Rock, Arkansas in 1886 by Richard and Elvira McDonald, both of whom were former slaves of African and Native American descent.[5] Josephine Baker's estate identifies vaudeville drummer Eddie Carson as her natural father despite evidence to the contrary.[10] Baker's foster son Jean-Claude Baker wrote a biography on her that was published in 1993 titled Josephine: The Hungry Heart. Jean-Claude Baker did an exhaustive amount of research into the life of Josephine Baker, including the identity of her biological father. In the book, he discusses at length the circumstances surrounding Josephine Baker's birth:

The records of the city of St. Louis tell an almost unbelievable story. They show that (Josephine Baker's mother) Carrie McDonald...was admitted to the (exclusively white) Female Hospital on May 3, 1906, diagnosed as pregnant. She was discharged on June 17, her baby, Freda J. McDonald having been born two weeks earlier. Why six weeks in the hospital? Especially for a black woman (of that time) who would customarily have had her baby at home with the help of a mid-wife? Obviously there had been complications with the pregnancy, but Carrie's chart reveals no details. The father was identified (on the birth certificate) simply as "Edw" ... I think Josephine's father was white—so did Josephine, so did her family ... people in St. Louis say that (Baker's mother) had worked for a German family (around the time she became pregnant). He's the one who must have got her into that hospital and paid to keep her there all those weeks. Also, her baby's birth was registered by the head of the hospital at a time when most black births were not. I have unraveled many mysteries associated with Josephine Baker, but the most painful mystery of her life, the mystery of her father's identity, I could not solve. The secret died with Carrie, who refused to the end to talk about it. She let people think Eddie Carson was the father, and Carson played along,(but) Josephine knew better.[5]

When Baker was eight she was sent to work for a white woman who abused her, burning Baker's hands when she put too much soap in the laundry. She later went to work for another woman.[5]

Carrie McDonald and Eddie Carson had a song-and-dance act, playing wherever they could get work. When Josephine was about a year old they began to carry her onstage occasionally during their finale. She was further exposed to show business at an early age because her childhood neighborhood was home to many vaudeville theaters that doubled as movie houses. These venues included the Jazzland, Booker T. Washington, and Comet Theatres.

Josephine lived her early life at 212 Targee Street (known by some St. Louis residents as Johnson Street) in the Mill Creek Valley neighborhood of St. Louis, a racially mixed low income neighborhood near Union Station, consisting mainly of rooming houses, brothels and apartments with no indoor plumbing. Targee Street, where Josephine lived, had gained notoriety in October 1899, when a 22-year-old prostitute named Frankie Baker (no relation to Josephine) discovered her lover/pimp Al Britt (referred to in various sources as Allen or Albert) with another woman, and shot him in the abdomen, mortally wounding him. The incident was immortalized that year by songwriter Bill Dooley, in a song called "Frankie Killed Allen", which later was revamped as the American classic blues ballad "Frankie and Johnny".[5]

Josephine was always poorly dressed and hungry as a child, and developed street smarts playing in the railroad yards of Union Station.[11] She had little formal education, and attended Lincoln Elementary School only through the fifth grade.

Josephine's mother married a kind but perpetually unemployed man, Arthur Martin, with whom she had a son and two more daughters. She took in laundry to wash to make ends meet, and at eight years old, Josephine began working as a live-in domestic for white families in St. Louis.[12] One woman abused her, burning Josephine's hands when the young girl put too much soap in the laundry.[13]

At 13, Josephine also worked as a waitress at the Old Chauffeur's Club at 3133 Pine Street. She also lived as a street child in the slums of St. Louis, sleeping in cardboard shelters, scavenging for food in garbage cans,[14] making a living with street-corner dancing. It was at the Old Chauffeur's Club where Josephine met Willie Wells and married him the same year. However, the marriage lasted less than a year and she left Wells to join a black Vaudeville group.

In Baker's teen years she struggled to have a healthy relationship with her mother, Carrie McDonald, who did not want Josephine to become an entertainer, and scolded Baker for not tending to her [Josephine's own] second husband, Willie Baker, whom she had married in 1921 at age 15.[15] Although she left Willie Baker when her vaudeville troupe was booked into a New York City venue and divorced him in 1925, it was during this time she began to see significant career success, and she continued to use his last name professionally for the rest of her life.[5]

Although Baker returned after traveling with gifts and money for her mother and younger half-sister, the turmoil of the relationship with her mother pushed her to make a trip to France.[16]


Early years

Baker's street-corner dancing attracted attention, leading to her being recruited for the St. Louis Chorus vaudeville show at the age of 15. She headed to New York City during the Harlem Renaissance, performing at the Plantation Club and in the chorus of the groundbreaking and hugely successful Broadway revues Shuffle Along (1921) with Adelaide Hall[17] and The Chocolate Dandies (1924). She performed as the last dancer in a chorus line.

Traditionally the dancer in this position performed in a comic manner, as if she were unable to remember the dance, until the encore, at which point she would perform it not only correctly but with additional complexity. Baker was billed at the time as "the highest-paid chorus girl in vaudeville".[5]

Baker’s career began with her doing blackface comedy at local clubs; this was the "entertainment" that her mother did not approve of. Blackface performances landed Baker an opportunity to tour in Paris, which would become the place she called home until her final days.[18]

Paris and rise to fame

Arrival of Baker in The Hague in 1928

Baker sailed to Paris, for a new venture, and opened in La Revue Nègre on 2 October 1925, aged 19, at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées.[19][20] In Paris, she became an instant success for her erotic dancing, and for appearing practically nude onstage. After a successful tour of Europe, she broke her contract and returned to France to star at the Folies Bergère, setting the standard for her future acts.[5]

Baker performed the "Danse sauvage" wearing a costume consisting of a skirt made of a string of artificial bananas. Her success coincided (1925) with the Exposition des Arts Décoratifs, which gave birth to the term "Art Deco", and also with a renewal of interest in non-Western forms of art, including African. Baker represented one aspect of this fashion. In later shows in Paris, she was often accompanied on stage by her pet cheetah, "Chiquita", who was adorned with a diamond collar. The cheetah frequently escaped into the orchestra pit, where it terrorized the musicians, adding another element of excitement to the show.[5]

After a short while, Baker was the most successful American entertainer working in France. Ernest Hemingway called her "the most sensational woman anyone ever saw."[21][22]

In addition to being a musical star, Baker also starred in three films which found success only in Europe: the silent film Siren of the Tropics (1927), Zouzou (1934) and Princesse Tam Tam (1935). She starred in Fausse Alerte in 1940.[23]

Baker dancing the Charleston, 1926

At this time she scored her most successful song, "J'ai deux amours" (1931). At the start of her career in France, Baker met a Sicilian former stonemason who passed himself off as a count, who persuaded her to let him manage her.[16] Giuseppe Pepito Abatino was not only Baker’s management, but her lover as well. The two could not marry due to Baker still being married to her second husband, Willie Baker.[15]

Under the management of Abatino, Baker's stage and public persona, as well as her singing voice, were transformed. In 1934, she took the lead in a revival of Jacques Offenbach's opera La créole, which premiered in December of that year for a six-month run at the Théâtre Marigny on the Champs-Élysées of Paris. In preparation for her performances, she went through months of training with a vocal coach. In the words of Shirley Bassey, who has cited Baker as her primary influence, "... she went from a 'petite danseuse sauvage' with a decent voice to 'la grande diva magnifique'... I swear in all my life I have never seen, and probably never shall see again, such a spectacular singer and performer."[24]

Despite her popularity in France, Baker never attained the equivalent reputation in America. Her star turn in a 1936 revival of Ziegfeld Follies on Broadway generated less than impressive box office numbers, and later in the run, she was replaced by Gypsy Rose Lee.[25][26] Time magazine referred to her as a "Negro wench...whose dancing and singing might be topped anywhere outside of Paris", while other critics said her voice was "too thin" and "dwarf-like" to fill the Winter Garden Theatre.[25] She returned to Europe heartbroken.[19] This contributed to Baker's becoming a legal citizen of France and giving up her American citizenship.[5]

Baker returned to Paris in 1937, married a Jewish Frenchman, Jean Lion, and became a French citizen.[27] They were married in the French town of Crèvecœur-le-Grand, in a wedding presided over by the mayor, Jammy Schmidt.

Work during World War II

Josephine Baker in her famous banana costume

In September 1939, when France declared war on Germany in response to the invasion of Poland, Baker was recruited by Deuxième Bureau, French military intelligence, as an "honorable correspondent". Baker collected what information she could about German troop locations from officials she met at parties. She specialized in gatherings at embassies and ministries, charming people as she had always done, while gathering information. Her café-society fame enabled her to rub shoulders with those in the know, from high-ranking Japanese officials to Italian bureaucrats, and to report back what she heard. She attended parties at the Italian embassy without raising suspicions and gathered information.[28]:182–269

When the Germans invaded France, Baker left Paris and went to the Château des Milandes, her home in the south of France. She housed friends who were eager to help the Free French effort led by Charles de Gaulle and supplied them with visas.[29] As an entertainer, Baker had an excuse for moving around Europe, visiting neutral nations such as Portugal, as well as some in South America. She carried information for transmission to England, about airfields, harbors, and German troop concentrations in the West of France. Notes were written in invisible ink on Baker's sheet music.[28]:232–269

Later in 1941, she and her entourage went to the French colonies in North Africa. The stated reason was Baker's health (since she was recovering from another case of pneumonia) but the real reason was to continue helping the Resistance. From a base in Morocco, she made tours of Spain. She pinned notes with the information she gathered inside her underwear (counting on her celebrity to avoid a strip search). She befriended the Pasha of Marrakech, whose support helped her through a miscarriage (the last of several). After the miscarriage, she developed an infection so severe it required a hysterectomy. The infection spread and she developed peritonitis and then septicemia. After her recovery (which she continued to fall in and out of), she started touring to entertain British, French, and American soldiers in North Africa. The Free French had no organized entertainment network for their troops, so Baker and her friends managed for the most part on their own. They allowed no civilians and charged no admission.[28]

In Cairo, Egypt's King Farouk asked her to sing; she refused because Egypt had not recognized Free France and remained neutral. However, she offered to sing in Cairo at a celebration of honor for the ties between Free France and Egypt, and asked Farouk to preside, a subtle indication of which side his officially neutral country leaned toward.[30]

After the war, Baker received the Croix de guerre and the Rosette de la Résistance. She was made a Chevalier of the Légion d'honneur by General Charles de Gaulle.[31]

Baker's last marriage, to French composer and conductor Jo Bouillon, ended around the time Baker opted to adopt her 11th child.[15] After the separation, Baker's chateau in France was foreclosed and she had to be physically removed from the property.

Later career

Baker in Amsterdam, 1954

In 1949, a reinvented Baker returned in triumph to the Folies Bergere. Bolstered by recognition of her wartime heroics, Baker the performer assumed a new gravitas, unafraid to take on serious music or subject matter. The engagement was a rousing success, and reestablished Baker as one of Paris' preeminent entertainers. In 1951 Baker was invited back to the United States for a nightclub engagement in Miami. After winning a public battle over desegregating the club's audience, Baker followed up her sold-out run at the club with a national tour. Rave reviews and enthusiastic audiences accompanied her everywhere, climaxed by a parade in front of 100,000 people in Harlem in honor of her new title: NAACP's "Woman of the Year". Her future looked bright, with six months of bookings and promises of many more to come.

An incident at the Stork Club interrupted and overturned her plans. Baker criticized the club's unwritten policy of discouraging black patrons, then scolded columnist Walter Winchell, an old ally, for not rising to her defense. Winchell responded swiftly with a series of harsh public rebukes, including accusations of Communist sympathies (a serious charge at the time). The ensuing publicity resulted in the termination of Baker's work visa, forcing her to cancel all her engagements and return to France. It was almost a decade before U.S. officials allowed her back into the country.[32]

In January 1966, Fidel Castro invited Baker to perform at the Teatro Musical de La Habana in Havana, Cuba, at the 7th anniversary celebrations of his revolution. Her spectacular show in April broke attendance records. In 1968, Baker visited Yugoslavia and made appearances in Belgrade and in Skopje.

In her later career, Baker faced financial troubles. She commented, "Nobody wants me, they've forgotten me"; but family members encouraged her to continue performing. In 1973 she performed at Carnegie Hall to a standing ovation. The following year, she appeared in a Royal Variety Performance at the London Palladium, and then at the Monacan Red Cross Gala, celebrating her 50 years in French show business. Advancing years and exhaustion began to take their toll; she sometimes had trouble remembering lyrics, and her speeches between songs tended to ramble. She still continued to captivate audiences of all ages.[28]

Civil rights activism

Baker in Havana, Cuba, 1950

Although based in France, Baker supported the American Civil Rights Movement during the 1950s. When she arrived in New York with her husband Jo, they were refused reservations at 36 hotels because she was black. She was so upset by this treatment that she wrote articles about the segregation in the United States. She also began traveling into the South. She gave a talk at Fisk University, a historically black college in Nashville, Tennessee, on "France, North Africa And The Equality Of The Races In France".[28]

She refused to perform for segregated audiences in the United States, although she was offered $10,000 by a Miami club.[8] (The club eventually met her demands). Her insistence on mixed audiences helped to integrate live entertainment shows in Las Vegas, Nevada.[7] After this incident, she began receiving threatening phone calls from people claiming to be from the Ku Klux Klan but said publicly that she was not afraid of them.[28]

In 1951, Baker made charges of racism against Sherman Billingsley's Stork Club in Manhattan, where she alleged she had been refused service.[32][33]

Actress Grace Kelly, who was at the club at the time, rushed over to Baker, took her by the arm and stormed out with her entire party, vowing never to return (although she returned on 3 January 1956 with Prince Rainier of Monaco). The two women became close friends after the incident.[34]

When Baker was near bankruptcy, Kelly offered her a villa and financial assistance (Kelly by then was princess consort of Rainier III of Monaco). (However, during his work on the Stork Club book, author and New York Times reporter Ralph Blumenthal was contacted by Jean-Claude Baker, one of Baker's sons. Having read a Blumenthal-written story about Leonard Bernstein's FBI file, he indicated that he had read his mother's FBI file and, using comparison of the file to the tapes, said he thought the Stork Club incident was overblown.[35])

Baker worked with the NAACP.[8] Her reputation as a crusader grew to such an extent that the NAACP had Sunday, May 20, 1951 declared "Josephine Baker Day". She was presented with life membership with the NAACP by Nobel Peace Prize winner Dr. Ralph Bunche. The honor she was paid spurred her to further her crusading efforts with the "Save Willie McGee" rally after he was convicted of the 1948 beating death of a furniture shop owner in Trenton, New Jersey. As Baker became increasingly regarded as controversial, many blacks began to shun her, fearing that her reputation would hurt their cause.[28]

In 1963, she spoke at the March on Washington at the side of Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.[36] Baker was the only official female speaker. While wearing her Free French uniform emblazoned with her medal of the Légion d'honneur, she introduced the "Negro Women for Civil Rights."[37] Rosa Parks and Daisy Bates were among those she acknowledged, and both gave brief speeches.[38]

After King's assassination, his widow Coretta Scott King approached Baker in the Netherlands to ask if she would take her husband's place as leader of the American Civil Rights Movement. After many days of thinking it over, Baker declined, saying her children were "too young to lose their mother".[38]

Personal life


Baker with her adopted daughter

Baker was married four times. Her adopted son Jean-Claude Baker described his mother as bisexual, having had relationships with men and women, including the Mexican artist Frida Kahlo.[39] Her first marriage was to American Pullman porter Willie Wells when she was 13 years old. The marriage was reportedly very unhappy and the couple divorced a short time later. Another short-lived marriage followed to Willie Baker in 1921; she retained Baker's last name because her career began taking off during that time, and it was the name by which she became best known. In 1925 she began an extramarital relationship with the Belgian novelist Georges Simenon.[40]

In 1937, Baker married Frenchman Jean Lion. She became a French citizen and became a permanent expatriate. She and Lion separated in 1940. Lion died in 1957 of Spanish influenza.

She married French composer and conductor Jo Bouillon in 1947, but their union also ended in divorce. She was later involved for a time with the artist Robert Brady, but they never married.[41][42]


During Baker's work with the Civil Rights Movement, she began adopting children, forming a family she often referred to as "The Rainbow Tribe". Baker wanted to prove that "children of different ethnicities and religions could still be brothers." She often took the children with her cross-country, and when they were at Château des Milandes, she arranged tours so visitors could walk the grounds and see how natural and happy the children in "The Rainbow Tribe" were.[43] Baker raised two daughters, French-born Marianne and Moroccan-born Stellina, and 10 sons, Korean-born Jeannot (or Janot), Japanese-born Akio, Colombian-born Luis, Finnish-born Jari (now Jarry), French-born Jean-Claude and Noël, Israeli-born Moïse, Algerian-born Brahim, Ivorian-born Koffi, and Venezuelan-born Mara.[44][45] For some time, Baker lived with her children and an enormous staff in the château in Dordogne, France, with her fourth husband, Jo Bouillon.

Later years and death

In her later years, Baker converted to Roman Catholicism.[46] In 1968, Baker lost her castle due to unpaid debts; after, Princess Grace offered her an apartment in Roquebrune, near Monaco.[47]

Baker was back on stage at the Olympia in Paris in 1968, in Belgrade in 1973, at Carnegie Hall in 1973, at the Royal Variety Performance at the London Palladium in 1974, and at the Gala du Cirque in Paris in 1974. On 8 April 1975, Baker starred in a retrospective revue at the Bobino in Paris, Joséphine à Bobino 1975, celebrating her 50 years in show business. The revue, financed notably by Prince Rainier, Princess Grace, and Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, opened to rave reviews. Demand for seating was such that fold-out chairs had to be added to accommodate spectators. The opening night audience included Sophia Loren, Mick Jagger, Shirley Bassey, Diana Ross, and Liza Minnelli.[48]

Four days later, Baker was found lying peacefully in her bed surrounded by newspapers with glowing reviews of her performance. She was in a coma after suffering a cerebral hemorrhage. She was taken to Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, where she died, aged 68, on 12 April 1975.[48][49]

She received a full Roman Catholic funeral that was held at L'Église de la Madeleine.[46][50][51] The only American-born woman to receive full French military honors at her funeral, Baker's funeral was the occasion of a huge procession. After a family service at Saint-Charles Church in Monte Carlo,[52] Baker was interred at Monaco's Cimetière de Monaco.[48]


Place Joséphine Baker in the Montparnasse Quarter of Paris was named in her honor. She has also been inducted into the St. Louis Walk of Fame,[53] and on 29 March 1995, into the Hall of Famous Missourians.[54] In 2015 she was inducted into the Legacy Walk.[55] The Piscine Joséphine Baker is a swimming pool along the banks of the Seine in Paris named for her.

Writing in the on-line BBC magazine in late 2014, Darren Royston, historical dance teacher at RADA credited Baker with being the Beyoncé of her day, and bringing the Charleston to Britain.[56]

Two of Baker's sons, Jean-Claude and Jarry (Jari), grew up to go into business together, running the restaurant Chez Josephine on Theatre Row, 42nd Street, New York City. It celebrates Baker's life and works.[57]

Château de Milandes which she rented from 1940 before purchasing in 1947.

Château des Milandes, a castle near Sarlat in the Dordogne, was Baker's home where she raised her twelve children. It is open to the public and displays her stage outfits including her banana skirt (of which there are apparently several). It also displays many family photographs and documents as well as her Legion of Honour medal. Most rooms are open for the public to walk through including bedrooms with the cots where her children slept, a huge kitchen, and a dining room where she often entertained large groups. The bathrooms were designed in art deco style but most rooms retained the French chateau style.

Baker continued to influence celebrities more than a century after her birth. In a 2003 interview with USA Today, Angelina Jolie cited Baker as "a model for the multiracial, mulitnational family she was beginning to create through adoption".[58] Beyoncé performed Baker's banana dance at the Fashion Rocks concert at Radio City Music Hall in September 2006.[58]


Baker pictured in her most famous costume for the Danse banane

Film credits


  1. "Josephine Baker (Freda McDonald) Native of St. Louis, Missouri". Retrieved 6 March 2009.
  2. "About Art Deco – Josephine Baker". Victoria and Albert Museum. Retrieved 6 March 2009.
  3. Verany, Cedric (1 November 2008). "Monaco Cimetière: des bornes interactives pour retrouver les tombes". Monaco Matin. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
  4. "Visite funéraire de Monaco". Amis et Passionés du Père-Lachaise. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Baker, Jean-Claude (1993). Josephine: The Hungry Heart (First ed.). New York: Random House. ISBN 0679409157.
  6. Reference to Baker's having renounced her U.S. citizenship in 1937,; accessed 13 October 2016.
  7. 1 2 Bouillon, Joe (1977). Josephine (First ed.). New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-010212-8.
  8. 1 2 3 Bostock, William W. (2002). "Collective Mental State and Individual Agency: Qualitative Factors in Social Science Explanation". Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung. 3 (3). ISSN 1438-5627. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
  9. Roberts, Kimberly (8 April 2011). "Remembering Josephine Baker". Philadelphia Tribune.
  10. "About Josephine Baker: Biography". Official site of Josephine Baker. The Josephine Baker Estate. 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-12.
  11. Wood, Ian (2000). The Josephine Baker Story. United Kingdom: MPG Books. pp. 241–318. ISBN 1-86074-286-6.
  12. Whitaker, Matthew C. (2011). Icons of Black America: Breaking Barriers and Crossing Boundaries. p. 64.
  13. "The Rise and Fall of Josephine Baker". Dollars & Sense. 13. 1987.
  14. Appel, Jacob M. St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture, 2 May 2009, Baker biography,; accessed 13 October 2016.
  15. 1 2 3 Jules-Rosette, Bennetta (2007). Josephine Baker in Art and Life. Chicago: Urbana: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 9780252074127.
  16. 1 2 Ralling, Christopher (1987). Chasing a Rainbow: The Life of Josephine Baker.
  17. Williams, Iain Cameron. Underneath a Harlem Moon ... The Harlem to Paris Years of Adelaide Hall, Continuum Int. Publishing (2003); ISBN 0-8264-5893-9:
  18. Broughton, Sarah (2009). Josephine Baker: The First Black Superstar.
  19. 1 2 "About Josephine Baker: Biography". Official Josephine Baker website. The Josephine Baker Estate. 2008. Retrieved 12 January 2009.
  20. "Le Jazz-Hot: The Roaring Twenties", in William Alfred Shack's Harlem in Montmartre: A Paris Jazz Story Between the Great Wars, University of California Press, 2001, p. 35.
  21. ""Quotes": the official Josephine Baker website". Retrieved 5 December 2013.
  22. Lahs-Gonzales, Olivia.Josephine Baker: Image & Icon (excerpt in Jazz Book Review, 2006).
  23. 1 2 3 4 5 6 McCann, Bob (2009). Encyclopedia of African American Actresses in Film and Television. p. 31. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  24. "Josephine Baker: The First Black Super Star". 4 June 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
  25. 1 2 Schroeder, Alan and Heather Lehr Wagner (2006). Josephine Baker: Entertainer. Chelsea House Publications. pp. 51–52. ISBN 978-0-7910-9212-5.
  26. Cullen, Frank (2006). Vaudeville, Old and New: An Encyclopedia of Variety Performers in America, 2 volumes. Routledge. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-415-93853-2.
  27. Susan Robinson (3 June 1906). "Josephine Baker". Gibbs Magazine. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
  28. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Rose, Phyllis (1989). Jazz Cleopatra: Josephine Baker in her time. United States of America: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-24891-1.
  29. "Female Spies in World War I and World War II".
  30. Jules-Rosette, Bennetta (2007). Josephine Baker in Art And Life: The Icon And the Image. University of Illinois Press; 1 edition. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-252-07412-7.
  31. Ann Shaffer (4 October 2006). "Review of Josephine Baker: A Centenary Tribute". blackgrooves. Retrieved 8 January 2009.
  32. 1 2 Hinckley, David (9 November 2004). "Firestorm Incident At The Stork Club, 1951". New York Daily News. Retrieved 29 February 2016.
  33. "Stork Club Refused to Serve Her, Josephine Baker Claims". Milwaukee Journal. 19 October 1951. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
  34. Skibinsky, Anna (20 November 2005). "Another Look at Grace, Princess of Monaco". Epoch Times. Retrieved 11 October 2009.
  35. Kissel, Howard (3 May 2000). "Stork Club Special Delivery Exhibit at the New York Historical Society recalls a glamour gone with the wind". Daily News. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
  36. Bayard Rustin (28 February 2006). "Profiles in Courage for Black History Month". National Black Justice Coalition. Retrieved 8 January 2009.
  37. "Civil Rights March on Washington". 28 August 1963. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
  38. 1 2 Baker, Josephine; Bouillon, Joe (1977). Josephine (First ed.). New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-010212-8.
  39. Garber, Marjorie. Bisexuality and the Eroticism of Everyday Life p. 122.
  40. Assouline, P. Simenon, A Biography. Knopf (1997), pp. 74-75; ISBN 0679402853.
  41. "Josephine Baker". Retrieved 23 August 2012.
  42. "Josephine Baker". Retrieved 23 August 2012.
  43. "Biography". Josephine Baker Estate. Retrieved 16 October 2013.
  44. Stephen Papich, Remembering Josephine. pg. 149
  45. "Josephine Baker Biography". Women in History. 2008. Retrieved 12 January 2009.
  46. 1 2 "Josephine Baker", Notable Black American Women, Gale, 1992. Biography in Context.
  47. Josephine Baker and the Rainbow Tribe, Matthew Guterl, Belknap Press, 2014, p. 154.
  48. 1 2 3 "African American Celebrity Josephine Baker, Dancer and Singer". 2008. Archived from the original on 2 January 2009. Retrieved 12 January 2009.
  49. Staff writers (13 April 1975). "Josephine Baker Is Dead in Paris at 68". The New York Times. p. 60. Retrieved 12 January 2009.
  50. "Josephine Baker Biography - life, name, school, mother, old, information, born, husband, house, time, year". Retrieved 27 June 2014.
  51. "Josephine Baker: A Chanteuse and a Fighter". Retrieved 27 June 2014.
  52. Johnson Publishing Company (15 May 1975). Jet. Johnson Publishing Company. pp. 28–. ISSN 0021-5996.
  53. St. Louis Walk of Fame. "St. Louis Walk of Fame Inductees". Retrieved 25 April 2013.
  54. "Hall of Famous Missourians, Missouri House of Representatives". 29 March 1995. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
  55. "Legacy Walk unveils five new bronze memorial plaques - 2342 - Gay Lesbian Bi Trans News - Windy City Times".
  56. "What do twerking and the Charleston have in common?". BBC Magazine Monitor. 17 November 2014. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
  57. "Chez Josephine". Jean-Claude Baker. 2009. Retrieved 13 January 2009.
  58. 1 2 Kraut, Anthea (Summer 2008). "Review: Josephine Baker in Art and Life: The Icon and the Image by Bennetta Jules-Rosette". Dance Research Journal. 40 (1): 83–86. JSTOR 20527595.
  59. "Es Muss Nicht Immer Kaviar Sein". The New York Times Book Review. 70: 150. 1965.
  60. Josephine Baker at the Internet Movie Database
  61. "Joséphine Baker baila en ... Das boot". YouTube. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  62. "Biography - Helen Gelzer". Retrieved 5 June 2016.
  63. "Helen Gelzer as 'Josephine': the concept musical". Retrieved 13 October 2016.
  64. "The Josephine Baker Story". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  65. (French)
  66. "Anastasia-Paris Hold the Key (to Your Heart) Original". YouTube. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  67. "Anastasia (1997)". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  68. "FRIDA". Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  69. Ebert, Roger (1 November 2002). "Frida". roger ebert. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  70. "The Triplets of Belleville (Les Triplettes de Belleville)". Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  71. Campion, Angela (2004). Scandalous. Brown Skin Books. ISBN 978-0-9544866-2-4.
  72. Ronnie Scheib (13 March 2009). "Review: 'Carmen and Geoffrey'". Variety. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
  73. "Langston Hughes African American Film Festival 2009: Carmen and Geoffrey". Retrieved 5 June 2016.
  74. "Legend Josephine Baker passes away and Vince Gill is born". Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  75. "À la recherche de Joséphine»". 25 November 2006. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  76. "Joséphine Baker". Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  77. "Keri Hilson Pays Tribute To Janet, TLC, Supremes In 'Pretty Girl Rock' Video". yahoo music. 17 November 2010. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  78. "The characters referenced in Woody Allen's Midnight in Paris (Part 16, Josephine Baker)". Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  79. Hammond, Margo (29 July 2011). "A 'Midnight in Paris' tour takes you back to the Paris of the '20s". washingtonpost. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  80. "Josephine's Incredible Shoe and the Blackpearls (Volume 1)". Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  81. "Latest News". The Sensational Josephine Baker. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  82. "The Sensational Josephine Baker". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  83. "Bush Theatre". Retrieved 9 May 2013.
  84. "Josephine and I",; accessed 13 October 2016.
  85. "La Sirene Des Tropiques". yahoo movies. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  86. "The French Way". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 22 August 2012.


  • The Josephine Baker collection, 1926–2001 at Stanford University Libraries
  • Atwood, Kathryn J. & Sarah Olson. Women Heroes of World War II: 26 Stories of Espionage, Sabotage, Resistance, and Rescue. Chicago, Illinois: Chicago Review Press, 2011. ISBN 9781556529610
  • Baker, J.C. & Chris Chase (1993). Josephine: The Hungry Heart. New York: Random House. ISBN 0679409157
  • Baker, Jean-Claude & Chris Chase. (1995). Josephine: The Josephine Baker Story. Adams Media Corp. ISBN 1-55850-472-9
  • Baker, Josephine & Jo Bouillon. (1995). Josephine. Marlowe & Co. ISBN 1-56924-978-4
  • Bonini, Emmanuel (2000). La veritable Josephine Baker. Paris: Pigmalean Gerard Watelet. ISBN 2-85704-616-2
  • Guterl, Matthew, Josephine Baker and the Rainbow Tribe Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2014. ISBN 9780674047556
  • Hammond O'Connor, Patrick. (1988). Josephine Baker. Jonathan Cape. ISBN 0-224-02441-8
  • Haney, Lynn. (1996). Naked at the Feast: A Biography of Josephine Baker. Robson Book Ltd. ISBN 0-86051-965-1
  • Jules-Rosette, Bennetta (2007). Josephine Baker in Art and Life: The Icon and the Image. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-07412-2
  • Jules-Rosette, Bennetta. (2006). Josephine Baker: Image and Icon. Reedy Press. ISBN 1-933370-02-5
  • Kraut, Anthea, "Between Primitivism and Diaspora: The Dance Performances of Josephine Baker, Zora Neale Hurston, and Katherine Dunham", Theatre Journal 55 (2003): 433–50.
  • Mackrell, Judith. Flappers: Six Women of a Dangerous Generation. 2013. ISBN 978-0-330-52952-5
  • Mahon, Elizabeth Kerri. (2011). Scandalous Women: The Lives and Loves of History's Most Notorious Women. Perigee Trade. ISBN 0-399-53645-0
  • Rose, Phyllis. (1991). Jazz Cleopatra: Josephine Baker in Her Time. Vintage. ISBN 0-679-73133-4
  • Schroeder, Alan. (1989). Ragtime Tumpie. Little, Brown, an award-winning children's picture book about Baker's childhood in St. Louis and her dream of becoming a dancer.
  • Schroeder, Alan. (1990) Josephine Baker. Chelsea House. ISBN 0-7910-1116-X, a young-adult biography.
  • Theile, Merlind. "Adopting the World: Josephine Baker's Rainbow Tribe" Spiegel Online International, 2 October 2009.
  • Wood, Ean. (2002). The Josephine Baker Story. Sanctuary Publishing; ISBN 1-86074-394-3
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Josephine Baker
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Josephine Baker.
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 11/29/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.