Japanese verb conjugation

This is a list of Japanese verb conjugations. Almost all of these are regular, but there are a few Japanese irregular verbs, and the conjugations of the very few irregular verbs are also listed. Japanese verb conjugation is the same for all subjects, first person ("I", "we"), second person ("you") and third person ("he/she/it" and "they"), singular and plural. The plain form of all verbs ends in u. In modern Japanese, there are no verbs, at least in the plain form, ending in fu, pu, or yu, no verbs ending in zu other than certain する forms (such as 禁ず kin-zu), and 死ぬ (しぬ, shinu; to die) is the only one ending in nu.

This article describes a set of conjugation rules widely used in order to teach Japanese as a foreign language. However, Japanese linguists have been proposing various grammatical theories for over a hundred years and there is still no consensus about the conjugations. Japanese people learn the more traditional "school grammar" in their schools, which explains the same grammatical phenomena in a different way with different terminology (see the corresponding Japanese article).

A revision sheet visually summarizing the conjugations and uses described below

Summary of verb conjugations

Verb conjugates are often grouped into consonant-stems (五段動詞 godandōshi) (type I) and vowel-stems (一段動詞 ichidandōshi, いる, iru and える eru forms) (type II). The plain form of a type I verb has an u sound (u, tsu, ru, ku, gu, bu, mu, su), the ~ます -masu form has an i sound (i, chi, ri, ki, gi, bi, mi, shi), and the negative form has an a sound (wa, ta, ra, ka, ga, ba, ma, sa). The potential form has an e sound (e, te, re, ke, ge, be, me, se) and the volitional form has an おう ō sound (ō, tō, rō, kō, gō, bō, mō, sō).

dictionary form
polite form[lower-roman 1]
negative form[lower-roman 2]
"te" form
perfective form
~う -u[lower-roman 3] ~います -imasu ~わない -wanai ~って -tte ~った -tta
~つ -tsu ~ちます -chimasu ~たない -tanai
~る -ru ~ります -rimasu ~らない -ranai
~く -ku[lower-roman 4] ~きます -kimasu ~かない -kanai ~いて -ite ~いた -ita
~ぐ -gu ~ぎます -gimasu ~がない -ganai ~いで -ide ~いだ -ida
~ぶ -bu ~びます -bimasu ~ばない -banai ~んで -nde ~んだ -nda
~む -mu ~みます -mimasu ~まない -manai
~す -su ~します -shimasu ~さない -sanai ~して -shite ~した -shita
(~い)る -iru[lower-roman 5] ~ます -masu ~ない -nai ~て -te ~た -ta
(~え)る -eru[lower-roman 5]
~する -suru ~します -shimasu ~しない -shinai ~して -shite ~した -shita
~くる -kuru ~きます -kimasu ~こない -konai ~きて -kite ~きた -kita
  1. Since the polite ~ます -masu form ends with ~す -su, the polite past form mostly follows the ~す -su rules. So for example the polite form of 話す hanasu is 話します hanashimasu, and the polite past form is 話しました hanashimashita, but the polite negative form is 話しません hanashimasen. See other examples of the polite form here.
  2. Since the negative ~ない -nai form ends with ~い -i, any further inflection of the negative form will behave as an i-adjective. For example, 話さない hanasanai "not talking" becomes 話さなかった(です) hanasanakatta(desu) "didn't talk".
  3. Two exceptions are 問う tou "to question" which conjugates to 問うて toute and the even less common 請う kou "to request" which conjugates to 請うて koute.
  4. The only exception is 行く iku which conjugates to いって itte.
  5. 1 2 Not all verbs ending with いる iru or える eru are vowel stems, some are consonant stems instead like 走る hashiru "run" and 帰る kaeru "return". A full list of the many exceptions can be found here.
  1. All of the potential forms end in える eru or いる iru so they follow the vowel-stem (一段動詞 ichidandōshi) rules. 話せる hanaseru becomes 話せます hanasemasu.
  2. Conditional form is like saying "if ..." or "when ...".
  3. Also called the conjectural/tentative/presumptive form, it is the plain form of ~ましょう -mashō. ~ましょう -mashō is used as an inclusive command ("let's ..."), but becomes an inclusive query ("shall we ...?") when ka is added (食べましょうか tabe mashō ka "Shall we eat?"). -ō to omoimasu indicates the speaker's conjecture ("I think (I will)") and -ō to omotte imasu indicates the speaker's current intentions ("I'm thinking (I will)"). -ō to suru/-ō to shite iru/-ō to shite imasu indicates intention ("(be) about to").[1]
  4. The exception is 分かる wakaru "to understand" which already expresses ability innately without a conjugation.
dictionary word
polite form
negative form
present form
perfective form
あら arau "wash" あらいます araimasu あらわない arawanai あらって aratte あらった aratta
matsu "wait" ちます machimasu たない matanai って matte った matta
toru "take" ります torimasu らない toranai って totte った totta
kaku "write" きます kakimasu かない kakanai いて kaite いた kaita
いそ isogu "hurry" いそぎます isogimasu いそがない isoganai いそいで isoide いそいだ isoida
shinu[lower-roman 1] "die" にます shinimasu なない shinanai んで shinde んだ shinda
yobu "call out" びます yobimasu ばない yobanai んで yonde んだ yonda
nomu "drink" みます nomimasu まない nomanai んで nonde んだ nonda
はな hanasu "speak" はなします hanashimasu はなさない hanasanai はなして hanashite はなした hanashita
miru "see" ます mimasu ない minai mite mita
たべ taberu "eat" たべます tabemasu たべない tabenai たべ tabete たべ tabeta
する suru[lower-roman 1] "do" します shimasu しない shinai して shite した shita
勉強 benkyou "study" 勉強します benkyoushimasu 勉強しない benkyoushinai 勉強して benkyoushite 勉強した benkyoushita
くる kuru[lower-roman 1] "come" きます kimasu こない konai きて kite きた kita
  1. 1 2 3 The only example of this form. See Japanese irregular verbs for more.
  1. 1 2 All of these verbs end in える eru so conjugation from here follows the vowel-stem (一段動詞 ichidandōshi) rules. る ru can simply be replaced with ます masu to make it polite.
  2. With all verbs, the prohibitive form is simply obtained by adding -な to the dictionary form. It is used to command someone not to do something. An example is 入るな hairu na "Do not enter."
  3. The imperative form can be used as a command, e.g. 黙れ damare "shut up!", やめ yame "stop!" or 止まれ tomare "Stop (sign)". Non-volitional verbs (e.g. ある aru, わかる wakaru, できる dekiru) have no imperative form and くれる kureru "to give" is an exception that conjugates to くれ kure (the plain form of ~てください -te kudasai "Please (do)...").
    A politer way of telling someone to do something is to use (masu stem)~なさい -nasai instead (e.g. 飲みなさい nominasai "Drink up.", しなさい shinasai "Do (what was said)."), or more informally, (masu stem)~な -na. Imperative form: たくさん食べな takusan tabena "Eat a lot." Prohibitive form: たくさん食べるな takusan taberu na "Don't pig out!"

Table key

The conjugation tables below will include the edict word class abbreviations[2] to disambiguate classes with similar word endings. See Japanese consonant and vowel verbs for more information about verb groups and their conjugations.

Abbreviation Explanation
adj-i adjective (keiyoushi)
adj-na adjectival nouns or quasi-adjectives (keiyodoshi)
adj-t `taru' adjective
adv-to adverb taking the `to' particle
aux auxiliary
aux-v auxiliary verb
aux-adj auxiliary adjective
v1 Ichidan verb
v5 Godan verb (not completely classified)
v5aru Godan verb - -aru special class
v5b Godan verb with `bu' ending
v5g Godan verb with `gu' ending
v5k Godan verb with `ku' ending
v5k-s Godan verb - Iku/Yuku special class
v5m Godan verb with `mu' ending
v5n Godan verb with `nu' ending
v5r Godan verb with `ru' ending
v5r-i Godan verb with `ru' ending (irregular verb)
v5s Godan verb with `su' ending
v5t Godan verb with `tsu' ending
v5u Godan verb with `u' ending
v5u-s Godan verb with `u' ending (special class)
vk Kuru verb - special class
vs noun or participle which takes the aux. verb suru


In Japanese, the basic verb form is an imperfective aspect. It is broadly equivalent to the present and future tenses of English, and is sometimes called the "non-past tense". The imperfective form of a verb is the same as its dictionary form—it is used as the headword, or lemma—and no conjugation needs to be done. For example, using the verb する ("do"):

In most cases, the base form of the imperfective aspect cannot be used to make a progressive statement, such as in the English sentence "I am shopping". Rather, it can only be used to express habit or other actions that are expected to continue into the future, such as in "I shop". To convey the former, the te form with iru must be used.

Patterns for adjectives in an imperfective setting are:

Type of word Pattern Example as a sentence with noun
adj-i -い -i -い -i/-いです -i (desu), -い -i 安い yasui (cheap) 安い/安いです yasui (desu) (it is cheap) 安い品物 yasui shinamono (cheap goods)
adj-na - -だ -da/-です -desu, -な -na 簡単 kantan (simple) 簡単だ/です kantan da/desu (it is simple) 簡単な事 kantan na koto (simple thing)
adj-t - -たる -taru 暗澹 antan (dark) 暗澹たる時期 antan-taru jiki (dark period)
adv-to - -と -to 陶然 tōzen (entranced) 陶然としている人 tōzen to shite iru hito (entranced person)


The perfective aspect, on the other hand, has a specific suffix. The basic pattern is the -ta (or -da) ending, but various phonetic changes are made, depending on the verb's last syllable. These phonetic changes are known as 音便 onbin "euphony", and the resulting form as 音便形 onbinkei "euphonic form" – see Euphonic changes (音便 onbin). The perfective is broadly equivalent to English past tense, and is often called past tense in treatments of Japanese grammar, but it is not restricted to any single tense.

Type of word Perfective Examples Perfective
aux da (copula) だった datta (Deviates in conjunction with adj-i, see below)
aux です desu (copula, polite) でした deshita
-ます -masu (polite suffix) -ました -mashita 行きます ikimasu (go [polite]) 行きました ikimashita
vs する suru (do) した shita 運転する unten suru (drive) 運転した unten shita
vk 来る kuru (come) 来た kita 持って来る motte kuru (bring) 持って来た motte kita
v5u -う -u -った -tta 使う tsukau (use) 使った tsukatta
v5u-s -う -u (See Usage) -うた -uta, -ota 問う tou (ask) 問うた tōta
v5k -く -ku -いた -ita 焼く yaku (grill) 焼いた yaita
v5k-s -く -ku -った -tta 行く iku, yuku (go) 行った itta
v5g -ぐ -gu -いだ -ida 泳ぐ oyogu (swim) 泳いだ oyoida
v5s -す -su -した -shita 示す shimesu (show) 示した shimeshita
v5t -つ -tsu -った -tta 待つ matsu (wait) 待った matta
v5n -ぬ -nu -んだ -nda 死ぬ shinu (die) 死んだ shinda
v5b -ぶ -bu -んだ -nda 呼ぶ yobu (call) 呼んだ yonda
v5m -む -mu -んだ -nda 読む yomu (read) 読んだ yonda
v5r -る -ru -った -tta 走る hashiru (run) 走った hashitta
v5r-i -る -ru -った -tta ある aru (be, exist) あった atta
v5aru -る -ru -った -tta いらっしゃる irassharu (be, go [honorific]) いらっしゃった irasshatta
いらした irashita[3]
v1 -る -ru -た -ta 見る miru (see)

食べる taberu (eat)

見た mita

食べた tabeta

adj-i -い -i -かった -katta 安い yasui (cheap)

安いです (polite)

安かった yasukatta

安かったです (polite)

adj-na -な -na -だった -datta 簡単 kantan na/da (easy) 簡単だった kantan datta

N.B.: A verb not ending in -iru or -eru in its Latin transcription is not an ichidan verb, and it follows that it is then either godan or irregular.


Note that the perfective conjugation for verbs ending in -う more commonly follows the v5u-s pattern listed above for speakers of Western Japanese. The う in the perfective ending -うた may be pronounced either as an u or as an o depending on the preceding vowel, according to regular Japanese phonological rules. Consequently, in Kansai, one may hear forms such as つかう tsukau → つこうた tsukōta, or いう iu → いうた yuuta.[4]

Usage of the perfective aspect follows the same pattern as the imperfective aspect. For example, 日本に行く nihon ni iku (I go to Japan) becomes 日本に行った nihon ni itta (I went to Japan).


The basic pattern is: u becomes anai (informal).

Type Negative Examples Negative
aux da (copula) ではない de wa nai

じゃない ja nai (colloquial)

(Deviates with adj-i)
aux です desu (copula, polite) ではありません de wa arimasen

じゃありません ja arimasen (colloquial)

vs する suru (do) しない shinai

(さない sanai)

勉強する benkyō suru (study)

愛する aisuru (love)

勉強しない benkyō shinai

愛さない aisanai

vk 来る kuru (come) 来ない konai
-ます -masu (polite suffix) -ません -masen 行きます ikimasu (go) 行きません ikimasen
v5u(-s) -う -u -わない -wanai 使う tsukau (use) 使わない tsukawanai
v5k(-s) -く -ku -かない -kanai 焼く yaku (grill) 焼かない yakanai
v5g -ぐ -gu -がない -ganai 泳ぐ oyogu (swim) 泳がない oyoganai
v5s -す -su -さない -sanai 示す shimesu (show) 示さない shimesanai
v5t -つ -tsu -たない -tanai 待つ matsu (wait) 待たない matanai
v5n -ぬ -nu -なない -nanai 死ぬ shinu (die) 死なない shinanai
v5b -ぶ -bu -ばない -banai 呼ぶ yobu (call) 呼ばない yobanai
v5m -む -mu -まない -manai 読む yomu (read) 読まない yomanai
v5r -る -ru -らない -ranai 走る hashiru (run) 走らない hashiranai
v5r-i -る -ru * ある aru (be, exist) ない nai
v5aru -る -ru -らない -ranai 下さる kudasaru (give) 下さらない kudasaranai
v1 -る -ru -ない -nai 見る miru (see)

食べる taberu (eat)

見ない minai

食べない tabenai

adj-i -い -i -くない -ku nai 痛い itai (painful) 痛くない itaku nai
adj-na -な -na -ではない -de wa nai

-じゃない -ja nai

簡単 kantan (simple) 簡単ではない kantan de wa nai

簡単じゃない kantan ja nai

The ない nai ending conjugates in two ways.

  1. As an i adjective. For example, the past tense of 食べない tabenai is 食べなかった tabenakatta and the te form is 食べなくて tabenakute.
  2. There is a special te/naide form made by adding で de which yields ないで naide – this can be replaced with ず zu in formal usage.
    • Requesting someone to cease/desist: 食べないで下さい tabenaide kudasai "Please don't eat (this)"
    • Joining a subordinate clause: 食べないで、寝た。 tabenaide, neta "Without eating, I went to bed."

i form

The i form, or 連用形 ren'yōkei, is very regular, and in almost all cases it is formed by replacing the u with i. Phonetically, this changes す su to し shi, and つ tsu to ち chi.

Type i form Examples i form
aux da, です desu であり de ari
vs する suru (do) shi 勉強する benkyō suru 勉強し benkyō shi
vk 来る kuru (come) ki
v5u(-s) -う -u -い -i 使う tsukau (use) 使い tsukai
v5k(-s) -く -ku -き -ki 焼く yaku (grill) 焼き yaki
v5g -ぐ -gu -ぎ -gi 泳ぐ oyogu (swim) 泳ぎ oyogi
v5s -す -su -し -shi 示す shimesu (show) 示し shimeshi
v5t -つ -tsu -ち -chi 待つ matsu (wait) 待ち machi
v5n -ぬ -nu -に -ni 死ぬ shinu (die) 死に shini
v5b -ぶ -bu -び -bi 呼ぶ yobu (call) 呼び yobi
v5m -む -mu -み -mi 読む yomu (read) 読み yomi
v5r -る -ru -り -ri 走る hashiru (run) 走り hashiri
v5r-i -る -ru -り -ri ある aru (be, exist) あり ari
v5aru -る -ru -い -i 下さる kudasaru (give) 下さい kudasai
v1 -る -ru 見る miru (see)

食べる taberu (eat)


食べ tabe


The i form has many uses, typically as a prefix. These include:

The i form also has some uses on its own, such as:

For some verbs, the i form also forms part of related words in ways that are not governed by any general rules. For example:

te form

The te form of a Japanese verb (sometimes called the "participle") is used when the verb has some kind of connection to the following words. This originally came from the combination of the "i" form described above plus the particle "te". For all verbs, it is formed by changing the -a of the perfective aspect form to -e. Adjectives behave slightly differently.

Type Becomes Examples Te form
aux da (copula) de
vs する suru (do) して shite 愛する aisuru (to love) 愛して aishite
vk 来る kuru (come) 来て kite
-ます -masu (polite suffix) -まして -mashite 開けます akemasu (open) 開けまして akemashite
v5u -う -u -って -tte 使う tsukau (use) 使って tsukatte
v5u-s -う -u -うて -ute 問う tou (ask) 問うて tōte
v5k -く -ku -いて -ite 焼く yaku (grill) 焼いて yaite
v5k-s 行く iku (go) 行って itte 行く yuku (go) 行って itte
v5g -ぐ -gu -いで -ide 泳ぐ oyogu (swim) 泳いで oyoide
v5s -す -su -して -shite 示す shimesu (show) 示して shimeshite
v5t -つ -tsu -って -tte 待つ matsu (wait) 待って matte
v5n -ぬ -nu -んで -nde 死ぬ shinu (die) 死んで shinde
v5b -ぶ -bu -んで -nde 呼ぶ yobu (call) 呼んで yonde
v5m -む -mu -んで -nde 読む yomu (read) 読んで yonde
v5r -る -ru -って -tte 走る hashiru (run) 走って hashitte
v5r-i -る -ru -って -tte ある aru (be, exist) あって atte
v5aru -る -ru -って -tte いらっしゃる irassharu (be in honorific speech) いらっしゃって irasshatte
いらして irashite
v1 -る -ru -て -te 見る miru (see)

食べる taberu (eat)

見て mite

食べて tabete

adj-i -い -i -くて -kute 安い yasui (cheap) 安くて yasukute
adj-na -な -na -で -de 簡単な kantan na (simple) 簡単で kantan de



The general pattern is: u becomes eru.

Type Potential Examples Potential
vs する suru 出来る dekiru

(せられる serareru)
(せる seru)

勉強する benkyō suru

察する sassuru (guess)
愛する aisuru (love)

勉強出来る benkyō dekiru

察せられる sasserareru
愛せる aiseru

vk 来る kuru 来られる korareru

来れる koreru

v5u(-s) -う -u -える -eru 使う tsukau (use) 使える tsukaeru
v5k(-s) -く -ku -ける -keru 焼く yaku (grill) 焼ける yakeru
v5g -ぐ -gu -げる -geru 泳ぐ oyogu (swim) 泳げる oyogeru
v5s -す -su -せる -seru 示す shimesu (show) 示せる shimeseru
v5t -つ -tsu -てる -teru 待つ matsu (wait) 待てる materu
v5n -ぬ -nu -ねる -neru 死ぬ shinu (die) 死ねる shineru
v5b -ぶ -bu -べる -beru 呼ぶ yobu (call) 呼べる yoberu
v5b -む -mu -める -meru 読む yomu (read) 読める yomeru
v5r -る -ru -れる -reru 走る hashiru (run) 走れる hashireru
v5r-i ある aru あり得る ari eru/uru
v5aru -る -ru -り得る -ri eru/uru 下さる kudasaru (give) 下さり得る kudasari eru/uru
v1 -る -ru -られる -rareru 見る miru

食べる taberu

見られる mirareru

食べられる taberareru

v1 -る -ru -れる -reru[5] (colloquial form,

so-called ら抜き言葉 ra-nuki kotoba)

見る miru

食べる taberu

見れる mireru

食べれる tabereru


The potential is used to express that one has the ability to do something. Direct objects are marked with the particle が ga instead of を o. For example, 日本語が読める nihongo ga yomeru: "I can read Japanese".

It is also used to request some action from someone, in the exact sense of the English "Can you ... ?" For example, 「コーヒー買える?」 kōhī kaeru?: "Can (you) buy (some) coffee?" However, sometimes in English "Will you...?" and "Can you ... ?" is used interchangeably to make requests. Though it is possible in Japanese, 「コーヒー買う?」 kōhī kau?, it is very casual and might also mean simply "Are you buying/Will you buy coffee?" in a very dry factual sense.

Unlike in English, the potential is not often used to express permission (as in the sentence "Can I eat this apple?") as it is almost always understood to mean "Do I have the ability to eat this apple?": 「このりんごが食べられる?」 kono ringo ga taberareru?. And since the -reru form is more often used in speech than the more correct passive potential form -rareru, and subjects are often implied in Japanese, it may implicitly be asking (in this case) if the apple is edible. So, to seek permission, a more polite form is used, such as the -てもいい -te mo ii or more casual -ていい "-te ii"" usage of the -て -te form, resulting in something literally more like "Is eating this apple OK?" 「このりんごを食べてもいいですか?」 Kono ringo o tabete mo ii desu ka? or 「このりんごを食べていい?」 Kono ringo o tabete ii?.

The potential -ru ending conjugates as a vowel stem verb.

Consonants and vowels conjugate differently, see consonant and vowel conjugation.

There is no potential equivalent for です; other constructions for expressing may-be situations are used:


The general pattern for the passive voice is: -u becomes -areru.

Type Passive Examples Passive
vs する suru される sareru 愛する ai suru (love) 愛される ai sareru
vk 来る kuru (come) 来られる korareru
v5u(-s) -う -u -われる -wareru 使う tsukau (use) 使われる tsukawareru
v5k(-s) -く -ku -かれる -kareru 焼く yaku (grill) 焼かれる yakareru
v5g -ぐ -gu -がれる -gareru 泳ぐ oyogu (swim) 泳がれる oyogareru
v5s -す -su -される -sareru 示す shimesu (show) 示される shimesareru
v5t -つ -tsu -たれる -tareru 待つ matsu (wait) 待たれる matareru
v5n -ぬ -nu -なれる -nareru 死ぬ shinu (die) 死なれる shinareru
v5b -ぶ -bu -ばれる -bareru 呼ぶ yobu (call) 呼ばれる yobareru
v5m -む -mu -まれる -mareru 読む yomu (read) 読まれる yomareru
v5r -る -ru -られる -rareru 走る hashiru (run) 走られる hashirareru
v1 -る -ru -られる -rareru 見る miru

食べる taberu

見られる mirareru

食べられる taberareru


The passive is used:


The causative forms are characterized by the final u becoming aseru for consonant stem verbs, and ru becoming saseru for vowel stem verbs.

Type Causative Examples Causative
vs する suru (do) させる saseru 勉強する benkyō suru (study) 勉強させる benkyō saseru
vk 来る kuru (come) 来させる kosaseru
v5u(-s) -う -u -わせる -waseru 使う tsukau (use) 使わせる tsukawaseru
v5k(-s) -く -ku -かせる -kaseru 焼く yaku (grill) 焼かせる yakaseru
v5g -ぐ -gu -がせる -gaseru 泳ぐ oyogu (swim) 泳がせる oyogaseru
v5s -す -su -させる -saseru 示す shimesu (show) 示させる shimesaseru
v5t -つ -tsu -たせる -taseru 待つ matsu (wait) 待たせる mataseru
v5n -ぬ -nu -なせる -naseru 死ぬ shinu (die) 死なせる shinaseru
v5b -ぶ -bu -ばせる -baseru 呼ぶ yobu (call) 呼ばせる yobaseru
v5m -む -mu -ませる -maseru 読む yomu (read) 読ませる yomaseru
v5r(-i) -る -ru -らせる -raseru 走る hashiru (run) 走らせる hashiraseru
v5aru -る -ru causative not used in honorific speech
v1 -る -ru -させる -saseru 見る miru

食べる taberu

見させる misaseru

食べさせる tabesaseru


The causative is used for:

Causative passive

The causative passive form is obtained by first conjugating in the causative form and then conjugating the result in the passive form.


As its rule suggests, the causative passive is used to express causation passively: 両親に勉強させられる ryōshin ni benkyō saserareru: "(I) am made to study by (my) parents".

Because words such as 待たせられる mataserareru are considered to be difficult to pronounce, frequently in colloquial speech, the middle part of the causative passive would contract. That is, 待たせられる mataserareru (I was made to wait), would become 待たされる matasareru. Another example such as "(I) was made to buy (something)" would formally be 買わせられた kawaserareta from the verb 買う kau, but colloquially, it is frequently contracted to 買わされた kawasareta. This abbreviation is not used for vowel-stem verbs, nor for the irregular する suru and くる kuru.

Provisional Conditional eba form

The eba provisional conditional form is characterized by the final -u becoming -eba for all verbs (with the semi-exception of -tsu verbs becoming -teba).

Type Conditional Examples Conditional
aux da (copula) であれば de areba
vs する suru すれば sureba 勉強する benkyō suru (study) 勉強すれば benkyō sureba
vk 来る kuru くれば kureba
v5u(-s) -う -u -えば -eba 使う tsukau (use) 使えば tsukaeba
v5k(-s) -く -ku -けば -keba 焼く yaku (grill) 焼けば yakeba
v5g -ぐ -gu -げば -geba 泳ぐ oyogu (swim) 泳げば oyogeba
v5s -す -su -せば -seba 示す shimesu (show) 示せば shimeseba
v5t -つ -tsu -てば -teba 待つ matsu (wait) 待てば mateba
v5n -ぬ -nu -ねば -neba 死ぬ shinu (die) 死ねば shineba
v5b -ぶ -bu -べば -beba 呼ぶ yobu (call) 呼べば yobeba
v5m -む -mu -めば -meba 読む yomu (read) 読めば yomeba
v5r -る -ru -れば -reba 走る hashiru (run) 走れば hashireba
v5r-i -る -ru -れば -reba ある aru (be, exist) あれば areba
v1 -る -ru -れば -reba 見る miru

食べる taberu

見れば mireba

食べれば tabereba

adj-i -い -i -ければ -kereba 寒い samui 寒ければ samukereba
adj-na -な -na -であれば -de areba 簡単 kantan 簡単であれば kantan de areba
aux-adj ない nai (negative) -なければ -nakereba 行かない ikanai 行かなければ ikanakereba


The -eba provisional conditional form is used:

The nakereba negative conditional form means "if not X" or also "unless X". It is obtained by replacing the final -i of the plain negative form with -kereba. (tabenakereba: "if I don't eat" or "unless I eat")

The conditional is also called the "provisional form" in some grammars, because the implied condition is "provided that X happens" (mireba shiru: "provided that you see, you'll know" = "if you see, you'll know").

Conditional ra form

The conditional ra form (also called the past conditional) is formed from the past tense (TA form) by simply adding ra. ba can be further added to that, which makes it more formal.


The conditional ra form can be used in the same way as the provisional eba form. However, it implies more certainty about the condition, and therefore places more emphasis on the result than the condition. It can be used to mean more like "if and when", and is typically preferred over the eba form when this meaning is more accurate. For example:

The conditional ra form can also be used when the main clause is in the past tense. In such situations, it means "when", and carries the additional implication that the result was unexpected. For example:


Most of the imperative forms are characterized by the final u becoming e.

Type Becomes Examples Imperative
aux da (copula) であれ de are
vs する suru しろ shiro

せよ seyo
(せ se)

勉強する benkyō suru (study)

愛する aisuru (love)

勉強しろ benkyō shiro

勉強せよ benkyō seyo
愛せ aise
愛せよ ai seyo

vk 来る kuru 来い koi
-ます -masu (polite suffix) -ませ -mase いらっしゃいます irasshaimasu (come, go) いらっしゃいませ irasshaimase
v5u(-s) -う -u -え -e 使う tsukau (use) 使え tsukae
v5k(-e) -く -ku -け -ke 焼く yaku (grill) 焼け yake
v5g -ぐ -gu -げ -ge 泳ぐ oyogu (swim) 泳げ oyoge
v5s -す -su -せ -se 示す shimesu (show) 示せ shimese
v5t -つ -tsu -て -te 待つ matsu (wait) 待て mate
v5n -ぬ -nu -ね -ne 死ぬ shinu (die) 死ね shine
v5b -ぶ -bu -べ -be 呼ぶ yobu (call) 呼べ yobe
v5m -む -mu -め -me 読む yomu (read) 読め yome
v5r -る -ru -れ -re 走る hashiru (run) 走れ hashire
v5r-i -る -ru -れ -re ある aru (be, exist) あれ are
v5aru -る -ru -い -i いらっしゃる irassharu

なさる nasaru

いらっしゃい irasshai

なさい nasai

v1 -いる -iru, -える -eru -いろ -iro, -いよ -iyo

-えろ -ero, -えよ -eyo

着替える kigaeru (change clothes) 着替えろ kigaero

着替えよ kigaeyo


The imperative form is used

Volitional (Presumptive, Hortative)

Type Volitional Examples Volitional
aux da (copula) だろう darō
aux です desu (polite copula) でしょう deshō
vs する suru (do) しよう shiyō

(そう )

勉強する benkyō suru (study)

愛する aisuru (love)

勉強しよう benkyō shiyō

愛そう aisō

vk 来る kuru (come) 来よう koyō
-ます -masu (polite suffix) -ましょう -mashō 行きます ikimasu (go, polite) 行きましょう ikimashō
v5u(-s) -う -u -おう 使う tsukau (use) 使おう tsukaō
v5k(-s) -く -ku -こう -kō 焼く yaku (grill) 焼こう yakō
v5g -ぐ -gu -ごう -gō 泳ぐ oyogu (swim) 泳ごう oyogō
v5s -す -su -そう -sō 示す shimesu (show) 示そう shimesō
v5t -つ -tsu -とう -tō 待つ matsu (wait) 待とう matō
v5n -ぬ -nu -のう -nō 死ぬ shinu (die) 死のう shinō
v5b -ぶ -bu -ぼう -bō 呼ぶ yobu (call) 呼ぼう yobō
v5m -む -mu -もう -mō 読む yomu (read) 読もう yomō
v5r -る -ru -ろう -rō 走る hashiru (run) 走ろう hashirō
v5r-i -る -ru -ろう -rō ある aru (be, exist) あろう arō
v1 -る -ru -よう -yō 着替える kigaeru (change clothes) 着替えよう kigaeyō
adj-i -い -i -かろう -karō 近い chikai (near) 近かろう chikakarō
adj-na -な -na -だろう -darō 好き suki (like) 好きだろう suki darō
adj-aux ない nai (negative) -なかろう -nakarō 見えない mienai (invisible) 見えなかろう mienakarō


In general, the volitional form expresses intention, such as in these cases:

See also


  1. Rita Lampkin (14 May 2010). Japanese Verbs & Essentials of Grammar, Third Edition. McGraw-Hill Education. pp. 14–40. ISBN 978-0-07-171363-4.
  2. EDICT abbreviation list: http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/jmdict_dtd_h.html
  3. Herr, John Nihongo Web. University of Alabama. Retrieved May 19, 2010.
  4. "'問う'の過去形って何ですか - その他(学問&教育) - 教えて!goo" [What is the past tense of "tou"? - Other (Lit. & Edu.) - Tell Me! goo] (in Japanese). 2002-06-18. Retrieved 2011-01-19. しかし、hyeonさんのご指摘どおり、方言では現存しています。 大阪では 「買った→買うた(こうた)」 「合った→合うた(おうた)」 「言った→言うた(いうた)」 「揃った→揃うた(そろうた)」 「構った→構うた(かもうた)」 など、ワ行五段活用動詞+「た」の組み合わせだと、ウ音便化します。 line feed character in |quote= at position 32 (help)
  5. Eri BANNO et al. Genki—An Integrated Course In Elementary Japanese, volume 2. The Japan Times, 1999, p. 10

External links

The Wikibook Japanese has a page on the topic of: Verb conjugation table
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