Thirty-Seventh Army (Japan)
|Japanese Thirty-Seventh Army|
|Active||11 April 1942 – 15 August 1945|
|Country||Empire of Japan|
|Branch||Imperial Japanese Army|
|Nickname(s)||Nada (灘 Bay)|
The Japanese 37th Army was formed as Borneo Defence Army, a garrison force organised on 11 April 1942 under the Southern Expeditionary Army Group following the Japanese invasion and occupation of the British protectorates of Sarawak, Brunei, North Borneo on the island of Borneo.
On 12 September 1944, with the threat of possible landings of Allied forces to retake the former colonial territories in Southeast Asia increasing, the organisational structure of the Southern Expeditionary Army changed, and the Borneo Defence Army was re-designated the Japanese Thirty-Seventh Army.
The Japanese 37th Army was undermanned and poorly equipped, with most equipment and experienced units shifted toward more critical areas of the Southwest Pacific front. Nonetheless, it put up a stiff resistance to landings by Australian troops in the Borneo campaign of 1945, notably at the Battle of North Borneo and Operation Oboe Six.
List of commanders
|1||General Toshinari Maeda||11 April 1942||5 September 1942||Borneo Defence Army|
|2||General Masataka Yamawaki||5 September 1942||22 September 1944||Borneo Defence Army|
|3||Lieutenant General Masao Baba||26 December 1944||September 1945||Japanese 37th Army|
Chief of Staff
|1||Major General Satoshi Makoto||11 April 1942||22 September 1944||Borneo Defence Army|
|2||Lieutenant General Keishin Managi||22 September 1944||24 February 1945||Japanese 37th Army|
|3||Major General Shigeru Kuroda||24 February 1945||September 1945||Japanese 37th Army|
- Frank, Richard B. (1999). Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-679-41424-X. OCLC 40783799.
- Madej, Victor (1981). Japanese Armed Forces Order of Battle, 1937–1945. Allentown, PA: Game Publishing Company. OCLC 8930220.
- Wendel, Marcus. "Borneo Defence Army". Axis History Factbook.
- Wendel, Marcus. "Japanese Thirty-Seventh Army". Axis History Factbook.