James A. McDougall
|James A. McDougall|
Senator James Alexander McDougall
|United States Senator|
March 4, 1861 – March 4, 1867
|Preceded by||William M. Gwin|
|Succeeded by||Cornelius Cole|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives|
from California's at-large district
March 4, 1853 – March 3, 1855
|Preceded by||Joseph W. McCorkle|
|Succeeded by||Philemon T. Herbert|
|Attorney General of Illinois|
|Preceded by||Josiah Lamborn|
|Succeeded by||David B. Campbell|
|Attorney General of California|
|Preceded by||Edward J. C. Kewen|
|Succeeded by||Serranus Clinton Hastings|
November 19, 1817|
Bethlehem, New York
September 3, 1867 49) (aged|
Albany, New York
Holy Cross Cemetery,|
|Political party||Union Democrat|
James Alexander McDougall (November 19, 1817 – September 3, 1867) was an American attorney and politician elected to statewide office in two U.S. states, then to the United States House of Representatives and United States Senate. A gifted orator, McDougall began his career as a civil engineer in New York, then read law, rising quickly to heights in his profession in Illinois, where he became a friend of fellow prairie attorneys Abraham Lincoln, Edward D. Baker, and Stephen Douglas. Like many Americans, McDougall was drawn to Gold Rush California in 1849; he resumed his law practice and was elected second attorney general for the new state of California. In the election of 1860, Lincoln won the presidency as a Republican, Baker was elected Republican senator from Oregon, and McDougall was elected senator from California, joining Douglas in the Senate as fellow War Democrats. All three of McDougall's Prairie State friends would die in the six years before his term as senator expired. A noted drinker, McDougall once gave an address to the Senate disparaging a proposed rule to outlaw the sale of alcohol in the United States Capitol, but died shortly after leaving the Senate, "...hastened by his indulgence in the bowl."
James Alexander McDougall was born on November 19, 1817 in Bethlehem, New York and educated in the Albany grammar schools, where he excelled in mathematics and civil engineering. While still a young man, McDougall assisted the survey of the Mohawk and Hudson Railroad, later known as the Albany and Schenectady, one of the first railroads in the nation. McDougall began the study of law in Albany before moving westward, settled in Pike County, Illinois in 1838, married the daughter of a leading Jacksonville attorney, and joined the Democratic Party. He completed his study and began practicing law in Cook County, where McDougall soon made the acquaintance of another rising Chicago lawyer, Stephen A. Douglas.
In January 1843 the 25-year-old McDougall was elected Illinois Attorney General; he was re-elected in 1844. "Small in stature, he had uncommon strength of constitution, as well as of mind. He was a brilliant speaker, skillfully wielding the weapons of repartee, humor, and sarcasm, and made himself one of the most noted speakers of the West." During his tenure in the state capitol, Springfield, Illinois, rising tensions in Nauvoo, Illinois gave way to violence when on June 27, 1844, the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, Joseph Smith was killed by a mob after surrendering to the custody and protection of the state. McDougall was involved in the negotiations by which the Mormons agreed to leave Illinois. Following his two terms as state attorney general, McDougall returned to private practice in Chicago, establishing a law partnership with Ebenezer Peck.
While traveling the circuit and serving as attorney general in Illinois, McDougall became friendly with many fellow lawyers, including Douglas, Edward D. Baker and Abraham Lincoln. By 1849, McDougall had been twelve years in the Prairie State of Illinois, and had made himself "one of the most popular men of his state," but like many of his age was still looking westward. McDougall organized and accompanied an exploration of the Rio del Norte, Gila and Colorado Rivers reaching the headwaters of the Rio Grande in what would soon become southwestern Colorado Territory. Hearing news of the California Gold Rush, McDougall returned to Illinois, gathered up his family and possessions, and took the new steamship California to San Francisco.
Resuming his law practice, McDougall was elected California Attorney General in October 1850 but resigned after a year to accept a seat in the state legislature.
In 1852 McDougall successfully ran for Congress as a Democrat, pledging to get federal support for a railroad to the Pacific. He did introduce a Pacific Railroad bill, but it was opposed by Thomas Hart Benton. McDougall served a single term in the House before returning to law practice in San Francisco.
The Democrats in California split into factions, and election of a California Senator in 1860 became entangled in the national crisis over secession. When it appeared that a secessionist Democrat might be elected, Republicans abandoned their own candidate and threw their support to McDougall.
While serving in the U.S. Senate during the Civil War, McDougall again worked on behalf of a Pacific railroad project, but alcohol abuse made him ineffective. By 1862, McDougall was making a spectacle of himself and neglecting his Senate duties. He fought against some of Lincoln's war measures, but he was mostly dysfunctional. Not once did he travel back to California during his entire six-year term.
Upon leaving office, McDougall retired to his boyhood home in Albany, New York, where he died on September 3, 1867, presumably of alcoholism. His body was sent to California, per his wishes, and buried in Lone Mountain Cemetery in San Francisco, later renamed Calvary; his remains were reinterred at Holy Cross Cemetery in Colma, California in 1942.
- Rhodes, William H. (1870). "James A. McDougal". In Shuck, Oscar Tully. Representative and Leading Men of the Pacific. San Francisco, California: Bacon. p. 700. Retrieved May 8, 2009.
- Shuck, Oscar Tully (1889). "XXVI: Reminiscences of James A. McDougall,...". Bench and Bar in California. 3. San Francisco, California: Occident Printing House. p. 360. Retrieved May 8, 2009.
- Shuck, Bench and Bar in California, p. 357
- Farr, James (June 1986). "Not Exactly a Hero: James Alexander McDougall in the United States Senate". California History. 65 (2): 104–13, 152–53. JSTOR 25158368.
- Rhodes, James A. McDougal, in Shuck, ed. Representative and Leading Men of the Pacific, p.689
- Greene, Evarts Boutell; Thompson, Charles Manfred (1911). The governors' letter-books, 1840-1853. Chicago, Illinois: Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library. p. 166. Retrieved May 8, 2009.
- Nadal, Ehrman Syme (1917). A Virginian Village, and Other Papers. New York: MacMillan. p. 130. Retrieved May 8, 2009.
- Barnes, William Horatio (1868). History of the Thirty-ninth Congress of the United States. New York: Harper and Brothers. p. 605. Retrieved May 8, 2009.
- "James A. McDougall". Appletons' Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1867. 7. New York: D. Appleton. 1869. p. 484. Retrieved May 8, 2009.
- "James A. McDougall, 2nd Attorney General". Office of the Attorney General website. Sacramento, California: State of California, Office of the Attorney General. Retrieved May 8, 2009.
- Bateman, Newton; Selby, Paul (1905). "McDougall, James Alexander". Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois. Munsell Publishing Company. p. 363.
- Buchanan, Russell (September 1926). "James A. McDougall: A Forgotten Senator". California Historical Society Quarterly. XV (3): 199–212.
|Attorney General of Illinois
| Succeeded by|
David B. Campbell
Edward J. C. Kewen
|Attorney General of California
| Succeeded by|
Serranus Clinton Hastings
|United States House of Representatives|
Joseph W. McCorkle
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's at-large congressional district
| Succeeded by|
Philemon T. Herbert
|United States Senate|
William M. Gwin
| U.S. Senator (Class 3) from California
Served alongside: Milton S. Latham, John Conness
| Succeeded by|