Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis
|Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis|
Jacqueline Kennedy in 1961
|First Lady of the United States|
January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963
|President||John F. Kennedy|
|Preceded by||Mamie Eisenhower|
|Succeeded by||Lady Bird Johnson|
Jacqueline Lee Bouvier|
July 28, 1929
Southampton, New York, U.S.
May 19, 1994 64) (aged|
Manhattan, New York, U.S.
Aristotle Onassis (m. 1968–75)
|Children||Arabella, Caroline, John Jr., and Patrick|
John Vernou Bouvier III|
Janet Lee Bouvier
George Washington University
Jacqueline Lee "Jackie" Kennedy Onassis (née Bouvier, pronounced / /; July 28, 1929 – May 19, 1994) was the wife of the 35th President of the United States, John F. Kennedy, and First Lady of the United States during his presidency from 1961 until his assassination in 1963.
Bouvier was the elder daughter of Wall Street stockbroker John Vernou Bouvier III and socialite Janet Lee Bouvier. In 1951, she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in French literature from George Washington University and went on to work for the Washington Times-Herald as an inquiring photographer.
In 1952, Bouvier met Congressman John F. Kennedy at a dinner party. Shortly after, he was elected to the United States Senate and the couple married the following year. They had four children, two of whom died in infancy. As First Lady, she aided her husband's administration with her presence in social events and with her highly publicized restoration of the White House. On November 22, 1963, she was riding with him in a motorcade in Dallas, Texas, when he was assassinated. She and her children withdrew from public view after his funeral, and she married Aristotle Onassis in 1968.
Following her second husband's death in 1975, she had a career as a book editor for the final two decades of her life. She is remembered for her contributions to the arts and preservation of historic architecture, as well as for her style, elegance, and grace. She was a fashion icon; her famous ensemble of pink Chanel suit and matching pillbox hat has become a symbol of her husband's assassination and one of the most iconic images of the 1960s. She ranks as one of the most popular First Ladies and in 1999 was named on Gallup's list of Most Admired Men and Women in 20th century America.
Early life (1929–1951)
Family and childhood
Jacqueline Lee Bouvier was born on July 28, 1929, at Southampton Hospital in Southampton, New York, to Wall Street stockbroker John Vernou "Black Jack" Bouvier III (1891–1957) and socialite Janet Norton Lee (1907–1989). Bouvier's mother was of Irish ancestry, and her father had French, Scottish, and English ancestry. Named after her father, Bouvier was baptized at the Church of St. Ignatius Loyola in Manhattan; she was raised in the Catholic faith. Her younger sister Lee was born in 1933.
Bouvier spent her early childhood years in Manhattan and at Lasata, the Bouviers' country estate in East Hampton on Long Island. She idolized her father, who likewise favored her over her sister, calling his eldest child "the most beautiful daughter a man ever had". Biographer Tina Flaherty attributes her father's praise to fueling Bouvier's confidence in herself, and her sister Lee has stated that she would not have gained her "independence and individuality" had it not been for the relationship she had with their father and paternal grandfather. From an early age, Bouvier was an enthusiastic equestrienne and successfully competed in the sport; horse-riding would remain a lifelong passion. She also took ballet lessons, was an avid reader, and excelled at learning languages, with French being particularly emphasized in her upbringing.
Bouvier was enrolled in the Chapin School in Manhattan in 1935, which she attended for grades 1–6. While a bright student, she often misbehaved; one of her teachers described her as "a darling child, the prettiest little girl, very clever, very artistic, and full of the devil". Bouvier's mother attributed her behavior to her finishing assignments before classmates and then acting out in boredom. Her behavior improved after the headmistress warned her that none of her positive qualities would matter if she did not behave.
Bouvier's parents' marriage was strained by her father's alcoholism and extramarital affairs; the family had also been in constant financial problems since the Wall Street Crash of 1929. They separated in 1936 and divorced four years later, with the press publishing intimate details of the split. According to her cousin John H. Davis, Bouvier was deeply affected by the divorce, and subsequently had a "tendency to withdraw frequently into a private world of her own". When her mother married Standard Oil heir Hugh Dudley Auchincloss, Jr., Bouvier and her sister did not attend the ceremony as it was arranged quickly and travel was restricted due to World War II. Bouvier gained three step-siblings from Auchincloss' two previous marriages, Hugh "Yusha" Auchincloss III, Thomas Gore Auchincloss, and Nina Gore Auchincloss; she formed the closest bond with Yusha, who became one of her most trusted confidants. The marriage later produced two more children, Janet Jennings Auchincloss (1945–1985) and James Lee Auchincloss (born 1947).
After the remarriage, the Bouvier sisters' primary residence was Auchincloss' Merrywood estate in McLean, Virginia, although they also spent time at his other estate, Hammersmith Farm in Newport, Rhode Island, and in their father's homes in New York City and Long Island. Although she retained a relationship with her father, Bouvier also regarded her stepfather as a close paternal figure. He gave her a stable environment and the pampered childhood she never would have experienced otherwise. While Bouvier adjusted to her mother's remarriage, she sometimes felt like an outsider in the WASP social circle of the Auchinclosses, attributing the feeling to her being Catholic as well as being a child of divorce, which was not common in that social group at that time.
After six years at Chapin, Bouvier attended the Holton-Arms School in Bethesda, Maryland, from 1942 to 1944, and Miss Porter's School in Farmington, Connecticut, from 1944 to 1947. She chose Miss Porter's because it was a boarding school, which allowed her to distance herself from the Auchinclosses, and because the school placed an emphasis on college preparatory classes. In her senior year yearbook, Bouvier was acknowledged for "her wit, her accomplishment as a horsewoman, and her unwillingness to become a housewife". One of her close friends since childhood was Nancy Tuckerman, who later was hired by Jackie to be her social secretary at the White House. She graduated among the top students of her class and received the Maria McKinney Memorial Award for Excellence in Literature.
College and early career
Bouvier enrolled as a student in Vassar College in Poughkeepsie, New York, in the fall of 1947. She had wanted to attend Sarah Lawrence College, closer to New York City, but her parents insisted that she choose the more geographically isolated Vassar. Bouvier was an accomplished student, participated in the school's art and drama clubs and wrote for its newspaper. Due to her dislike for the college, she did not take an active part in its social life, and instead traveled back to New York City on the weekends. She had made her society debut in the summer before entering college, and became a frequent presence in New York social functions; Hearst columnist Igor Cassini dubbed her the "debutante of the year". Bouvier spent her junior year (1949–1950) in France – at the University of Grenoble in Grenoble, and at the Sorbonne in Paris – in a study-abroad program through Smith College. Upon returning home, she transferred to The George Washington University in Washington, D.C., graduating with a Bachelor of Arts degree in French literature in 1951. During the early years of her marriage to John F. Kennedy, she took continuing education classes in American History at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C.
While attending Georgetown, Bouvier won a twelve-month junior editorship at Vogue magazine, selected over several hundred of girls from across the country. The position entailed six months working in the magazine's New York City office and spending the remaining six in Paris. Before beginning the editorship, Bouvier celebrated her college graduation and the high school graduation of her sister Lee by traveling with her to Europe for the summer. The trip was the subject of her only autobiographical book, One Special Summer, co-authored with her sister; it is also the only one of her published works to feature her drawings. On the first day of her Vogue editorship, Jackie's managing editor advised her to quit and go back to Washington. According to biographer Barbara Leaming, Jackie's managing editor was concerned about Jackie's marriage prospects, as at the age of 22 she was already considered almost too old to be single in her social circles. Following the advice of her managing editor, Jackie left the editorship and returned to Washington after only one day of work.
Bouvier moved back to Merrywood, and was hired as a part-time receptionist at the Washington Times-Herald. After a week, she approached editor Frank Waldrop requesting more challenging work, and was given the position of an "Inquiring Camera Girl", despite Waldrop's initial concerns about her competence. The position required her to pose witty questions to individuals chosen at random on the street and take their pictures to be published in the newspaper alongside selected quotations from their responses. In addition to the random "man on the street" vignettes, she sometimes sought interviews with people of interest such as six-year-old Tricia Nixon after her father Richard Nixon was elected to the vice presidency several days after the 1952 presidential election. During this time, Bouvier was also briefly engaged to a young stockbroker, John G. W. Husted, Jr.; the announcement was published in The New York Times in January 1952, after only a month of dating. She broke off the engagement after three months, as she began to find him "immature and boring" once she got to know him better.
Wedding and early years of marriage to John F. Kennedy
Bouvier and then-U.S. Representative John F. Kennedy belonged to the same social circle, and were formally introduced by a mutual friend, journalist Charles L. Bartlett, at a dinner party in May 1952. Bouvier was attracted to Kennedy's physical appearance, charm, wit and wealth. The two also shared similarities in both being Catholic and writers, enjoying reading and previously having lived abroad. Kennedy was then busy running for the U.S. Senate but after his election in November, the relationship grew more serious and he proposed marriage to her. Bouvier took some time to accept, as she had been assigned to cover the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in London for The Washington Times-Herald. After a month in Europe, she returned to the United States, accepted the proposal, and resigned from her position at the newspaper. Their engagement was officially announced on June 25, 1953.
Bouvier and Kennedy were married on September 12, 1953, at St. Mary's Church in Newport, Rhode Island, in a mass celebrated by Boston's Archbishop Richard Cushing. The wedding was considered the social event of the season with an estimated 700 guests at the ceremony and 1,200 at the reception that followed at Hammersmith Farm. The wedding dress, now housed in the Kennedy Library in Boston, Massachusetts, and the dresses of her attendants were created by designer Ann Lowe of New York City.
The newlyweds honeymooned in Acapulco, Mexico before settling in their new home, Hickory Hill in McLean, Virginia, a suburb of Washington, D.C. Kennedy developed a warm relationship with her husband's parents, Joe and Rose Kennedy. In the early years of their marriage, the couple faced several personal setbacks. John Kennedy suffered from Addison's Disease and from chronic and at times debilitating back pain due to a war injury; in late 1954, he underwent two near-fatal spinal operations. Additionally, Kennedy suffered a miscarriage in 1955 and in August 1956 gave birth to a stillborn daughter, Arabella. They subsequently sold their Hickory Hill estate to John's brother Robert, who occupied it with his wife Ethel and their growing family, and bought a townhouse on N Street in Georgetown.
Kennedy gave birth to a daughter, Caroline, on November 27, 1957, via Caesarean section. She and John Kennedy were at the time campaigning for his re-election to the Senate, and posed with their infant daughter for the cover of the April 21, 1958 issue of Life. They traveled together during the campaign, trying to narrow the geographical gap between them that had persisted for the first five years of the marriage. Soon enough, John Kennedy started to notice the value she had for his campaign, Kenneth O'Donnell remembering "the size of the crowd was twice as big" when she accompanied her husband, also recalling her as "always cheerful and obliging". But her husband's mother observed Kennedy as not being "a natural-born campaigner" due to her shyness and being uncomfortable with too much attention. In November 1958, John Kennedy was reelected to a second term. He credited Kennedy's help with securing his victory due to her visibility in both ads and stumping, calling her "simply invaluable".
In July 1959, historian Arthur M. Schlesinger visited the Kennedy Compound in Hyannis Port, having his first conversation with Kennedy and finding her to have "tremendous awareness, an all-seeing eye and a ruthless judgement". That year, her husband traveled to fourteen states, with Kennedy taking long breaks from the trips so she could spend time with their daughter. She also counseled her husband on improving his wardrobe in preparation for his intended presidential campaign the following year. In particular, she traveled to Louisiana to visit Edmund Reggie and to help her husband garner support in the state for his presidential bid.
First Lady of the United States (1960–1963)
Campaign for presidency
John F. Kennedy announced his candidacy for the presidency and launched his nationwide campaign on January 3, 1960. In the early months of the election year, Jacqueline Kennedy accompanied her husband to campaign events such as whistle-stops and dinners. But shortly after the campaign began, she became pregnant again and due to her previous high-risk pregnancies was forced to stay at home in Georgetown. Kennedy subsequently participated in the campaign by writing a weekly syndicated newspaper column, Campaign Wife, answering correspondence, and giving interviews to the media.
Despite not participating on the campaign trail, Kennedy's fashion choices became subject to intense media attention. On the one hand, she was admired for her personal style: frequently featured in women's magazines alongside film stars and named as one of the twelve best-dressed women of the world. On the other, her preference for French designers and her spending on her wardrobe brought her negative press. In order to downplay her wealthy background, Kennedy stressed the amount of work she was doing for the campaign and declined to publicly discuss her clothing choices.
On July 13, 1960, John Kennedy was nominated by the Democratic Party for President of the United States in Los Angeles at the 1960 Democratic National Convention. Kennedy did not attend the nomination due to her pregnancy, which had been publicly announced ten days earlier. She watched the September 26, 1960 debate between her husband and Vice President Richard Nixon at Hyannis Port with Marian Cannon, wife of Arthur Schlesinger. Days after the debates, Kennedy contacted Schlesinger, informing him that her husband wanted his aid along with that of John Kenneth Galbraith in preparing for the third debate on October 13 and wished for them to give him new ideas and speeches. On September 29, 1960, the Kennedys appeared together for a joint interview on Person to Person, interviewed by Charles Collingwood.
As First Lady
John F. Kennedy narrowly beat Republican opponent Richard Nixon in the U.S. presidential election on November 8, 1960. A little over two weeks later, on November 25, Kennedy gave birth to the couple's first son, John F. Kennedy, Jr., via Caesarean section. She spent two weeks recovering in the hospital, during which the most minute details of both her and her son's conditions were reported by the media in what has been considered the first instance of national interest in the Kennedy family.
When her husband was sworn in as president on January 20, 1961, 31-year-old Kennedy became the third youngest First Lady in American history (behind Frances Folsom (21) and Julia Gardiner (22). As a presidential couple, the Kennedys differed from the Eisenhowers by their relative youth and their relationship with the media. Historian Gil Troy has noted that in particular, they "emphasized vague appearances rather than specific accomplishments or passionate commitments" and therefore fit in well in the early 1960s' "cool, TV-oriented culture". The discussion on Kennedy's fashion choices continued during her years in the White House, and she became a trendsetter, hiring American designer Oleg Cassini to design her wardrobe. She was the first First Lady to hire a press secretary, Pamela Turnure, and carefully managed her contact with the media, usually shying away from making public statements, and strictly controlling the extent to which her children were photographed. Portrayed by the media as the ideal woman, academic Maurine Beasley has stated that Kennedy "created an unrealistic media expectation for first ladies that would challenge her successors". Nevertheless, by attracting worldwide positive public attention, the First Lady gained allies for the White House and international support for the Kennedy administration and its Cold War policies.
Although Kennedy stated that her priority as a First Lady was to take care of the President and their children, she also dedicated her time to the promotion of American arts and preservation of its history. Her main contribution was the restoration of the White House, but she also furthered the cause by hosting social events that brought together elite figures from politics and the arts. One of her unrealized goals was to found a Department of the Arts, but she did contribute to the establishment of the National Endowment for the Arts and the National Endowment of the Humanities, established during Johnson's tenure.
White House restoration
Kennedy had visited the White House twice prior to becoming First Lady, once as a tourist in 1941 and as the guest of Mamie Eisenhower in 1960. Already as a child, she had been dismayed to find that the mansion's rooms were furnished with undistinguished pieces with little historical significance. She made it her first major project as a First Lady to restore the house's historical character. Her first efforts, begun on her first day in residence with the help of society decorator Sister Parish, were to make the family quarters attractive and suitable for family life, by for example adding a kitchen on the family floor and rooms for her children. Upon almost immediately exhausting the $50,000 appropriated for this effort, she established a fine arts committee to oversee and fund the restoration process and asked early American furniture expert Henry du Pont to consult. To solve the funding problem, a White House guidebook was published, sales of which were used for the restoration. Working with Rachel Lambert Mellon, Kennedy also oversaw redesign and replanting of the White House Rose Garden and the East Garden, which was renamed the Jacqueline Kennedy Garden after her husband's assassination. In addition, Kennedy helped to stop the destruction of historic homes in Lafayette Square in Washington, D.C., because she felt these buildings were an important part of the nation's capital and played an essential role in its history.
Prior to Kennedy's years as First Lady, furnishings and other items from the White House had been taken by presidents and their families after their tenures, leading to the lack of original historical pieces in the mansion. To track down these missing furnishings and other historical pieces of interest, she personally wrote to possible donors. She also initiated a Congressional bill establishing that White House furnishings would be the property of the Smithsonian Institution, rather than available to departing ex-presidents to claim as their own, and founded the White House Historical Association, the Committee for the Preservation of the White House, the position of a permanent Curator of the White House, the White House Endowment Trust, and the White House Acquisition Trust. She was the first First Lady to hire a White House curator.
On February 14, 1962, Kennedy took American television viewers on a tour of the White House with Charles Collingwood of CBS News. In the tour she stated that "I feel so strongly that the White House should have as fine a collection of American pictures as possible. It's so important... the setting in which the presidency is presented to the world, to foreign visitors. The American people should be proud of it. We have such a great civilization. So many foreigners don't realize it. I think this house should be the place we see them best." The film was watched by 56 million television viewers in the United States, and was later distributed to 106 countries. Kennedy won a special Academy of Television Arts & Sciences Trustees Award for it at the Emmy Awards in 1962, which was accepted on her behalf by Lady Bird Johnson. Kennedy was the only First Lady to win an Emmy.
Throughout her husband's presidency, Kennedy made many official visits to other countries, on her own or with the President – more than any of the preceding First Ladies. Despite the initial worry that she might not have "political appeal", she proved popular among international dignitaries. Before the Kennedys' first official visit to France in 1961, a television special was shot in French with the First Lady on the White House lawn. After arriving in the country, she impressed the public with her ability to speak French, as well as her extensive knowledge of French history. At the conclusion of the visit, Time magazine seemed delighted with the First Lady and noted, "There was also that fellow who came with her." Even President Kennedy joked, "I am the man who accompanied Jacqueline Kennedy to Paris – and I have enjoyed it!"
From France, the Kennedys traveled to Vienna, Austria, where Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, when asked to shake the President's hand for a photo, stated, "I'd like to shake her hand first." Khrushchev later sent her a puppy, significant for being the offspring of Strelka, the dog that had gone to space during a Soviet space mission.
At the urging of John Kenneth Galbraith, U.S. Ambassador to India, Kennedy undertook a tour of India and Pakistan with her sister Lee Radziwill in 1962, which was amply documented in photojournalism of the time as well as in Galbraith's journals and memoirs. She was gifted with a horse called Sardar by the President of Pakistan, Ayub Khan, as he had found out on his visit to the White House that he and the First Lady had a common interest in horses. Life magazine correspondent Anne Chamberlin wrote that Kennedy "conducted herself magnificently” although noting that her crowds were smaller than those that President Dwight Eisenhower and Queen Elizabeth II attracted when they had previously visited these countries. In addition to these well-publicized trips during the three years of the Kennedy administration, she traveled to countries including Afghanistan, Austria, Canada, Colombia, England, Greece, Italy, Mexico, Morocco, Turkey, and Venezuela.
Death of infant son
In early 1963, Kennedy was again pregnant, leading her to curtail her official duties. She spent most of the summer at a home she and her husband had rented on Squaw Island, near the Kennedy compound on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. On August 7, five weeks ahead of her scheduled Caesarean section, she went into labor and gave birth to a boy, Patrick Bouvier Kennedy, via emergency Caesarean section at nearby Otis Air Force Base. His lungs were not fully developed, and he was transferred from Cape Cod to Boston Children's Hospital where he died of hyaline membrane disease two days after birth. Kennedy had remained at Otis Air Force Base to recuperate after the Caesarean delivery; her husband went to Boston to be with their infant son, and was present at his death. He returned to Otis on August 14 to take her home, giving an impromptu speech to thank nurses and airmen that had gathered in her suite, and she presented hospital staff with framed and signed lithographs of the White House.
The First Lady was deeply affected by the death, entering a state of depression afterward. However, losing their child had a positive impact on the marriage, bringing the couple closer together in their shared grief. Arthur Schlesinger wrote that while President Kennedy always "regarded Jacqueline with genuine affection and pride", their marriage "never seemed more solid than in the later months of 1963". Aware of her depression, Kennedy's friend Aristotle Onassis invited her to his yacht. Despite President Kennedy initially having reservations, he reportedly believed that it would be "good for her". The trip was widely disapproved of within the Kennedy administration and by much of the general public, as well as in Congress. The First Lady returned to the United States on October 17, 1963. She would later say she regretted being away as long as she was, but had "melancholy after the death of my baby".
Assassination and funeral of John F. Kennedy
On November 21, 1963, The First Lady and the President left the White House for a political trip to Texas, the first time she had joined her husband on such a trip in the U.S. After a breakfast on November 22, they flew from Fort Worth's Carswell Air Force Base to Dallas' Love Field on Air Force One, accompanied by Texas Governor John Connally and his wife Nellie. The First Lady was wearing a bright pink Chanel suit and a pillbox hat, which had been personally selected by President Kennedy. A 9.5-mile (15.3 km) motorcade was to take them to the Trade Mart, where the President was scheduled to speak at a lunch. The First Lady was seated next to her husband in the presidential limousine, with the Governor and his wife seated in front of them. Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson and his wife followed in another car in the motorcade.
After the motorcade turned the corner onto Elm Street in Dealey Plaza, the First Lady heard what she thought to be a motorcycle backfiring and did not realize that it was a gunshot until she heard Governor Connally scream. Within 8.4 seconds, two more shots had rung out; yet another shot struck her husband in the head. Almost immediately, she reached out across the trunk of the car for something. Her Secret Service agent, Clint Hill, later told the Warren Commission that he thought she had been reaching across the trunk for a piece of her husband's skull that had been blown off. Hill ran to the car and leapt onto it, directing her back to her seat. As Hill stood on the back bumper, Associated Press photographer Ike Altgens snapped a photograph that was featured on the front pages of newspapers around the world. She would later testify that she saw pictures "of me climbing out the back. But I don't remember that at all".
The President was rushed to Dallas' Parkland Hospital. The First Lady was allowed, at her request, to be present in the operating room. After her husband was pronounced dead, Kennedy refused to remove her blood-stained clothing and reportedly regretted having washed the blood off her face and hands, explaining to Lady Bird Johnson that she wanted "them to see what they have done to Jack". She continued to wear the blood-stained pink suit as she went on board Air Force One and stood next to Johnson when he took the oath of office as President. The unlaundered suit was donated to the National Archives and Records Administration in 1964, and under the terms of an agreement with Caroline Kennedy will not be placed on public display until 2103. Johnson's biographer Robert Caro wrote that Johnson wanted Kennedy to be present at his swearing-in in order to demonstrate the legitimacy of his presidency to JFK loyalists and to the world at large.
Kennedy took an active role in planning her husband's state funeral, modeling it after Abraham Lincoln's. She requested a closed casket, overruling the wishes of her brother-in-law, Robert. The funeral service was held at Cathedral of St. Matthew the Apostle in Washington D.C., and the burial at Arlington National Cemetery; Kennedy led the procession there on foot and lit the eternal flame at the gravesite, a flame that had been created at her request. Lady Jeanne Campbell reported back to The London Evening Standard: "Jacqueline Kennedy has given the American people... one thing they have always lacked: Majesty."
A week after the assassination, the Warren Commission was established by President Johnson to investigate the assassination, concluding ten months later that Lee Harvey Oswald was the lone perpetrator. Privately, Kennedy cared little about the investigation, stating that even if they had the right suspect, it would not bring her husband back. Nevertheless, she gave a deposition to the Warren Commission. Following the assassination and the media coverage that had focused intensely on her during and after the burial, Kennedy stepped back from official public view, apart from a brief appearance in Washington to honor the Secret Service agent, Clint Hill, who had climbed aboard the limousine in Dallas to try to shield her and the President.
Life following the assassination (1963–1975)
Mourning period and later public appearances
On November 29, 1963, a week after her husband's assassination, Kennedy was interviewed in Hyannis Port by Theodore H. White of Life. In that session, she famously compared the Kennedy years in the White House to King Arthur's mythical Camelot, commenting that the President often played the title song of Lerner and Loewe's musical recording before retiring to bed. She also quoted Queen Guinevere from the musical, trying to express how the loss felt. The era of the Kennedy administration would subsequently often be referred to as the "Camelot Era", although historians have later argued that the comparison is not appropriate, with Robert Dallek stating that Kennedy's "effort to lionize [her husband] must have provided a therapeutic shield against immobilizing grief".
Kennedy and her children remained in the White House for two weeks following the assassination. Wanting to "do something nice for Jackie", President Johnson offered an ambassadorship to France to her, aware of her heritage and fondness for the country's culture, but she turned the offer down, as well as follow-up offers of ambassadorships to Mexico and Great Britain. At her request, he renamed the Florida space center the John F. Kennedy Space Center a week after the assassination. Kennedy later publicly praised Johnson for his kindness to her.
Kennedy spent 1964 in mourning and made few public appearances during that time. In the winter following the assassination, she and the children stayed at Averell Harriman's home in Georgetown. On January 14, 1964, Kennedy made a televised appearance from the office of the Attorney General, thanking the public for the "hundreds of thousands of messages" she had received since the assassination and said she had been sustained by America's affection for her late husband. She purchased a house for herself and the children in Georgetown, but sold it later in 1964 and bought a 15th floor apartment at 1040 Fifth Avenue on Manhattan in the hopes of having more privacy.
In the following years, Kennedy attended selected memorial dedications to her late husband. She also oversaw the establishment of the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, which is the repository for official papers of the Kennedy Administration. Designed by architect I.M. Pei, it is situated next to the University of Massachusetts campus in Boston.
Kennedy was subject to significant media attention in 1966–1967, when she and Robert Kennedy tried to block the publication of William Manchester's authorized account of President Kennedy's death, despite its having been commissioned by her. They sued its publishers, Harper & Row, in December 1966; the suit was settled the following year with Manchester removing passages detailing President Kennedy's family life. White viewed the ordeal as validation of the measures the Kennedy family, Jackie in particular, were prepared to take to preserve President Kennedy's public image.
During the Vietnam War in November 1967, Life magazine dubbed Kennedy "America's unofficial roving ambassador" when she and David Ormsby-Gore, former British ambassador to the United States during the Kennedy administration, traveled to Cambodia, where they visited the religious complex of Angkor Wat with Chief of State Norodom Sihanouk. According to historian Milton Osbourne, her visit was "the start of the repair to Cambodian-US relations, which had been at a very low ebb". She also attended the funeral services of Martin Luther King, Jr. in Atlanta, Georgia, in April 1968, despite her initial reluctancy due to the crowds and reminders of President Kennedy's death.
Relationship with Robert F. Kennedy
After the assassination, Kennedy relied heavily on her brother-in-law Robert F. Kennedy, observing him to be the "least like his father" of the Kennedy brothers. He had been a source of support early in her marriage when she had her miscarriage; it was he, not her husband, who stayed with her in the hospital. In the aftermath of the assassination, Robert Kennedy became like a surrogate father for her children, until eventually demands by his own large family and his responsibilities as Attorney General required a reduction in attention. He credited Kennedy for convincing him to stay in politics, and she supported his 1964 run from New York for the United States Senate.
Following the January 1968 Tet offensive in Vietnam, which resulted in a drop in President Johnson's poll numbers, Robert Kennedy's advisors urged him to enter the presidential race. When asked by Art Buchwald if he intended to run, Robert replied, "That depends on what Jackie wants me to do." Kennedy met with him around this time, encouraging him to run after previously advising him to not copy his brother, but to "be yourself". Privately, she worried about his safety, believing he was more disliked than her husband had been and that there was "so much hatred" in the United States. She confided in him about these feelings, but by her own account, he was "fatalistic" like her. Despite her concerns, Kennedy campaigned for her brother-in-law and supported him, at one point even showing outright optimism that through his victory, members of the Kennedy family would once again occupy the White House.
Just after midnight PDT on June 5, 1968, Robert Kennedy was shot and mortally wounded, minutes after celebrating his victory in the California Democratic presidential primary with a crowd of his supporters. Jacqueline Kennedy rushed to Los Angeles from Manhattan to join his wife, her brother-in-law Ted Kennedy, and the other Kennedy family members at his hospital bedside. He died 26 hours after the shooting without regaining consciousness.
Marriage to Aristotle Onassis
After Robert Kennedy's death, Kennedy reportedly suffered a relapse of the depression she had experienced in the days following her husband's assassination nearly five years prior. She came to fear for her life and those of her children, saying: "If they're killing Kennedys, then my children are targets ... I want to get out of this country".
On October 20, 1968, Kennedy married her long-time friend Aristotle Onassis, a wealthy Greek shipping magnate who was able to provide the privacy and security she sought for herself and her children. The wedding took place on Skorpios, Onassis's private Greek island in the Ionian Sea. Following her marriage and now going by the name Jacqueline Onassis, she lost her right to Secret Service protection, an entitlement to a widow of a U.S. president. The marriage brought her considerable adverse publicity, including talk of excommunication by the Roman Catholic church, though that idea was explicitly dismissed by Boston's Archbishop, Cardinal Richard Cushing as "nonsense." She was condemned as a "public sinner", and became the target of paparazzi who followed her everywhere and nicknamed her "Jackie O".
During their marriage the couple inhabited six different residences: her 15-room Fifth Avenue apartment in New York City, her horse farm in New Jersey, his Avenue Foch apartment in Paris, his private island Skorpios, his house in Athens, and his 325 ft (99 m) yacht The Christina. Kennedy ensured that her children had a connection to the Kennedy family by having Ted Kennedy visit them often. She developed a close relationship with him, and he was involved in her public appearances from then on.
Aristotle Onassis' health began deteriorating rapidly following the death of his son Alexander in a plane crash in 1973, and he died of respiratory failure at age 69 in Paris on March 15, 1975. His financial legacy was severely limited under Greek law, which dictated how much a non-Greek surviving spouse could inherit. After two years of legal battle, Kennedy eventually accepted a settlement of $26 million from Christina Onassis, Onassis' daughter and sole heir, waiving all other claims to the Onassis estate.
Later years (1975–1990s)
After the death of her husband, Onassis returned permanently to the United States, splitting her time between New York City, Martha's Vineyard, and the Kennedy Compound in Hyannis, Massachusetts. In 1975, she became a consulting editor at Viking Press, a position which she held for two years. After almost a decade of avoiding participation in political events, she attended the 1976 Democratic National Convention, stunning the assembled delegates when she appeared in the visitors' gallery. She resigned from Viking Press in 1977 following the false accusation by The New York Times that she held some responsibility for the company's publication of Jeffrey Archer novel Shall We Tell the President?, which was set in a fictional future presidency of Ted Kennedy and described an assassination plot against him. Two years later, she appeared alongside her mother-in-law Rose Kennedy at Faneuil Hall in Boston when Ted Kennedy announced that he was going to challenge incumbent President Carter for the Democratic nomination for president. She participated in the subsequent presidential campaign, which was unsuccessful.
Following her resignation from Viking Press, Onassis moved to Doubleday, where she worked as an associate editor under an old friend, John Turner Sargent, Sr. Among the books she edited for the company are Larry Gonick's The Cartoon History of the Universe, the English translation of the three volumes of Naghib Mahfuz's Cairo Trilogy (with Martha Levin), and autobiographies of ballerina Gelsey Kirkland, singer-songwriter Carly Simon, and fashion icon Diana Vreeland. She also encouraged Dorothy West, her neighbor on Martha's Vineyard and the last surviving member of the Harlem Renaissance, to complete the novel The Wedding (1995), a multi-generational story about race, class, wealth, and power in the U.S..
In addition to her work as an editor, Onassis participated in cultural and architectural preservation. In the 1970s, she led a historic preservation campaign to save from demolition and renovate Grand Central Terminal in New York. A plaque inside the terminal acknowledges her prominent role in its preservation. In the 1980s, she was a major figure in protests against a planned skyscraper at Columbus Circle which would have cast large shadows on Central Park; the project was cancelled, but a large twin-towered skyscraper, the Time Warner Center, would later fill in that spot in 2003.
Onassis remained the subject of considerable press attention, most notoriously involving the paparazzi photographer Ron Galella who followed her around and photographed her as she went about her day-to-day activities, taking candid photos of her without her permission. She ultimately obtained a restraining order against him, and the situation brought attention to the problem of paparazzi photography. From 1980 until her death, her companion and personal financial adviser was Maurice Tempelsman, a Belgian-born industrialist and diamond merchant who was estranged from his wife.
In the early 1990s, Onassis became a supporter of Bill Clinton and contributed money to his presidential campaign. Following the election, she met with First Lady Hillary Clinton, and advised her on raising a child in the White House. Clinton wrote in her memoir Living History, that Onassis was "a source of inspiration and advice for me", while Democratic consultant Ann Lewis viewed Onassis as having reached out to the Clintons "in a way she has not always acted toward leading Democrats in the past".
Illness, death and funeral
In November 1993, while participating in a fox hunt in Middleburg, Virginia, Onassis fell from her horse and was taken to the hospital to be examined. A swollen lymph node was discovered in her groin, which was initially believed by the doctor to be caused by an infection. In December, Onassis developed new symptoms, including a stomach ache and swollen lymph nodes on her neck, and was diagnosed with Ki1 non-Hodgkin lymphoma. She began chemotherapy in January 1994, and publicly announced the diagnosis, initially stating that the prognosis was good. While she continued to work at Doubleday, by March the cancer had spread to her spinal cord and brain, and by May to her liver. Onassis made her last trip home from New York Hospital–Cornell Medical Center on May 18, 1994. The following night at 10:15 p.m., she died in her sleep at age 64.
Following her death, John F. Kennedy Jr. stated to the press, "My mother died surrounded by her friends and her family and her books, and the people and the things that she loved. She did it in her very own way, and on her own terms, and we all feel lucky for that." The funeral was held a few blocks away from her apartment on May 23, 1994, at the Church of St. Ignatius Loyola, the Catholic parish where she was baptized in 1929 and confirmed as a teenager. She was buried alongside President Kennedy, their son Patrick, and their stillborn daughter Arabella at Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia. President Bill Clinton delivered a eulogy at her graveside service.
Onassis was survived by her children Caroline and John Jr., three grandchildren, sister Lee Radziwill, son-in-law Edwin Schlossberg, and half-brother James Lee Auchincloss. She left an estate valued at $43.7 million by its executors.
Among the First Ladies of the United States, Jacqueline Kennedy remains one of the most popular. She was featured on the annual Gallop list of the top 10 most admired people of the second half of the 20th century 27 times, a number superseded by only Billy Graham and Queen Elizabeth II and higher than that of any U.S. President. In 2011, she was ranked in fifth place in a list of the five most influential First Ladies of the twentieth century for her "profound effect on American society." In 2014, she ranked third place in a Siena College Institute survey, behind Eleanor Roosevelt and Abigail Adams. In 2015, she was included in a list of the top ten influential U.S. First Ladies due to the admiration for her based around "her fashion sense and later after her husband's assassination, for her poise and dignity."
Onassis is seen as being customary in her role as First Lady, though Magill argues her life was validation that "fame and celebrity" changed the way First Ladies are evaluated historically. Hamish Bowles, curator of the “Jacqueline Kennedy: The White House Years” exhibit at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, attributed her popularity to a sense of unknown that was felt in her withdrawal from the public which he dubbed "immensely appealing." Writing after her death, Kelly Barber referred to Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis as "the most intriguing woman in the world", furthering that her stature was also due to her affiliation with valuable causes. Historian Carl Sferrazza Anthony summarized that the former First Lady "became an aspirational figure of that era, one whose privilege might not be easily reached by a majority of Americans but which others could strive to emulate.” Since the late 2000s, Kennedy's traditional persona has been invoked by commentators when referring to fashionable political spouses.
During her husband's presidency, Jacqueline Kennedy became a global fashion icon. She retained French-born American fashion designer and Kennedy family friend Oleg Cassini in the fall of 1960 to create an original wardrobe for her as First Lady. From 1961 to late 1963, Cassini dressed her in many of her most iconic ensembles, including her Inauguration Day fawn coat and Inaugural gala gown, as well as many outfits for her visits to Europe, India, and Pakistan. In 1961, Kennedy spent $45,446 more on fashion than the $100,000 annual salary her husband earned as president. Although Cassini was her primary designer, she also wore ensembles by French fashion legends such as Chanel, Givenchy, and Dior.
As a First Lady, Kennedy preferred to wear clean-cut suits with a skirt hem down to middle of the knee, three-quarter sleeves on notch-collar jackets, sleeveless A-line dresses, above-the-elbow gloves, low-heel pumps, and pillbox hats. Dubbed the "Jackie" look, these clothing items rapidly became fashion trends in the Western world. More than any other First Lady, her style was copied by commercial manufacturers and a large segment of young women. Her influential bouffant hairstyle, described as a "grown-up exaggeration of little girls' hair," was created by Kenneth Battelle, who worked for her from 1954 until 1986.
In the years after the White House, Kennedy's style underwent a change, with her new looks consisting of wide-leg pantsuits, large lapel jackets, gypsy skirts, silk Hermès head scarves, and large, round, dark sunglasses. She often chose to wear brighter colors and patterns and even began wearing jeans in public. Beltless, white jeans with a black turtleneck, never tucked in, but pulled down over the hips, was another fashion trend that she set.
Throughout her lifetime, Kennedy acquired a large collection of jewelry. Her triple-strand pearl necklace designed by American jeweler Kenneth Jay Lane became her signature piece of jewelry during her time as First Lady in the White House. Often referred to as the "berry brooch," the two-fruit cluster brooch of strawberries made of rubies with stems and leaves of diamonds, designed by French jeweler Jean Schlumberger for Tiffany & Co., was personally selected and given to her by her husband several days prior to his inauguration in January 1961. She wore Schlumberger's gold and enamel bracelets so frequently in the early and mid-1960s that the press called them "Jackie bracelets"; she also favored his white enamel and gold "banana" earrings. Kennedy wore jewelry designed by Van Cleef & Arpels throughout the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s; her sentimental favorite was the Van Cleef & Arpels wedding ring given to her by President Kennedy.
Kennedy was named to the International Best Dressed List Hall of Fame in 1965. Many of her signature clothes are preserved at the John F. Kennedy Library and Museum; pieces from the collection were exhibited at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York in 2001. Titled "Jacqueline Kennedy: The White House Years," the exhibition focused on her time as a First Lady.
Honors and memorials
|Jacqueline Kennedy, First Ladies, Influence and Image, C-SPAN|
- A high school named Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis High School for International Careers, was dedicated by New York City in 1995, the first high school named in her honor. It is located at 120 West 46th Street between Sixth and Seventh Avenues, and was formerly the High School for the Performing Arts.
- The main reservoir in Central Park, located in New York City, was renamed in her honor as the Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Reservoir.
- The Municipal Art Society of New York presents the Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Medal to an individual whose work and deeds have made an outstanding contribution to the city of New York. The medal was named in honor of the former MAS board member in 1994, for her tireless efforts to preserve and protect New York City's great architecture. She made her last public appearance at the Municipal Art Society two months before her death.
- At George Washington University, a residence hall located on the southeast corner of I and 23rd streets NW in Washington, D.C., was renamed Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis Hall in honor of the alumna.
- The White House's East Garden was renamed the Jacqueline Kennedy Garden in her honor.
- In 2007, her name and her first husband's were included on the list of people aboard the Japanese Kaguya mission to the moon launched on September 14, as part of The Planetary Society's "Wish Upon The Moon" campaign. In addition, they are included on the list aboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission.
- A school and an award at the American Ballet Theatre have been named after her in honor of her childhood study of ballet.
- The companion book for a series of interviews between mythologist Joseph Campbell and Bill Moyers, The Power of Myth, was created under her direction prior to her death. The book's editor, Betty Sue Flowers, writes in the Editor's Note to The Power of Myth: "I am grateful... to Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy Onassis, the Doubleday editor, whose interest in the books of Joseph Campbell was the prime mover in the publication of this book." A year after her death in 1994, Moyers dedicated the companion book for his PBS series, The Language of Life as follows: "To Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. As you sail on to Ithaka." Ithaka was a reference to the C.P. Cavafy poem that Maurice Tempelsman read at her funeral.
- A white gazebo is dedicated to Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis on North Madison Street in Middleburg, Virginia. The First Lady and President Kennedy frequented the small town of Middleburg and intended to retire in the nearby town of Atoka. She also hunted with the Middleburg Hunt numerous times.
- Although the French and English ancestors of the Bouviers were mostly middle class, her paternal grandfather John Vernou Bouvier, Jr., fabricated a more noble ancestry for the family in his vanity family history book, Our Forebears, later disproved by the research by her cousin John Hagy Davis.
- At first she had opposed the magazine's offer of the cover, not wanting the baby to be used to benefit her husband's political career, but changed her mind in exchange for a promise from her father-in-law that Jack would stop campaigning during the summer to go to Paris with her.
- There were some mixed feelings about whether she should testify, Earl Warren in particular indicating an unwillingness to interview her while John J. McCloy outright opposed such an inquiry. Future U.S. President Gerald Ford, who served on the Warren Commission, proposed "most informally" having her interviewed by an associate. With the varying opinions of what to do lingering, Warren held a short meeting with Kennedy at her apartment.
- In May 1965, she, Robert and Ted Kennedy joined Queen Elizabeth II at Runnymede, England, where they dedicated the United Kingdom's official memorial to JFK. The memorial included several acres of meadowland given in perpetuity from the UK to the US, near where King John had signed the Magna Carta in 1215. In 1967, she attended the christening of the U.S. Navy aircraft carrier USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) in Newport News, Virginia, a memorial in Hyannis Port, and a park near New Ross, Ireland. She also attended a private ceremony in Arlington National Cemetery that saw the moving of her husband's coffin, after which he was reinterred so that officials at the cemetery could construct a safer and more stable eternal flame and accommodate the tourists' extensive foot traffic.
- Prior to her publishing employment, she had gained experience by being involved with several posthumous biographies of President Kennedy. The first of these was John F. Kennedy, President, by Hugh Sidey, which was published the year after his death in 1964. Simon Michael Bessie, Sidey's editor at Atheneum, recalled her as having read galleys and submitted detailed notes on them. Despite this recollection, Sidey himself did not acknowledge her contribution in the book. The following year, she helped Ted Sorensen with his book Kennedy. Sorensen told Greg Lawrence that after finishing the "first draft" of his "first big book", he gave Onassis the manuscript since he thought she would be helpful and Onassis provided him with several comments on the book. Sorensen lauded her assistance in his memoir Counselor as he wrote that she had "proved to be a superb editor, correcting typographical errors, challenging mistaken assumptions, defending some of her husband's personnel decisions, suggesting useful clarifications, and repeatedly setting the record straight on matters not known to me".
- Hall, Mimi. "Jackie Kennedy Onassis: America's Quintessential Icon of Style and Grace'. USA Today. Retrieved February 13, 2011.
- Circa 1961: The Kennedy White House Interior by Elaine Rice Bachmann. Quote: "The prescience of her words is remarkable given the influence she ultimately had on fashion, interior decoration, and architectural preservation from the early 1960s until her death in 1994. A disappointing visit to the Executive Mansion when she was 11 left a deep impression, one she immediately acted upon when she knew she was to become first lady..." Retrieved February 13, 2011.
- Craughwell-Varda, Kathleen (October 14, 1999). Looking for Jackie: American Fashion Icons. Hearst Books. ISBN 978-0-688-16726-4. Retrieved May 1, 2011.
- Ford, Elizabeth; Mitchell, Deborah C. (March 2004). The Makeover in Movies: Before and After in Hollywood Films, 1941–2002. McFarland. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-7864-1721-6. Retrieved May 1, 2011.
- "Gallup Most Admired Women, 1948–1998". Gallup. Retrieved August 18, 2009.
- Pottker, p. 64
- Pottker, p. 7
- Flaherty, ch. 1, subsection "Early years"
- Davis, John H. (1995). The Bouviers: Portrait of an American family. National Press Books. ISBN 978-1-882605-19-4.
- Spoto, pp. 22, 61
- McFadden, Robert D. (May 20, 1994). "Death of a First Lady ; Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Dies of Cancer at 64". New York Times.
- Leaming (2014), pp. 6–8.
- Tracy, pp. 9–10.
- Cosgrove-Mather, Bootie (April 1, 2004). "New Book: Jackie O's Lessons".
- Glueckstein, Fred. "Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis: Equestrienne" (PDF). Retrieved September 8, 2012.
- Tracy, p. 38.
- Pottker, p. 74; Spoto, p. 28.
- "Life of Jacqueline B. Kennedy". The John F. Kennedy Library. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
- Harris, pp. 540–541
- Flaherty, Ch. 1, "School Days"; Pottker, p. 99; Leaming, p. 7
- Leaming (2001), p. 5; Flaherty, Ch. 1, "School Days"
- Tracy, p. 17.
- Pottker, p. 114
- Pottker, p. 8
- Pottker, pp. 100-101
- Spoto, p. 57.
- Mead, Rebecca (April 11, 2011). "Jackie's Juvenilia". The New Yorker.
- Spoto, p. 63.
- Pottker, pp. 113–114
- Pottker, pp. 113-114; Leaming, pp. 10–11
- Spoto, pp. 67–68.
- Pottker, p. 116; Leaming, pp. 14–15
- Leaming, pp. 14–15
- Leaming, p. 17
- "First Lady Biography: Jackie Kennedy". First Ladies' Biographical Information. Retrieved February 21, 2012.
- Leaming (2014), pp. 19–21
- Onassis, Jacqueline Kennedy; Radziwill, Lee Bouvier (1974). One Special Summer. New York City: Delacorte Press. ISBN 978-0-440-06037-6.
- Tracy, pp. 72–73.
- Beasley, p. 79; Adler, pp. 20–21
- Leaming (2014), p. 25
- Spoto, pp. 89–91.
- Tracy, p. 70.
- O'Brien, pp. 265–266
- Harris, pp. 548–549.
- "Senator Kennedy to marry in fall". The New York Times. June 25, 1953. p. 31. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
- Alam, p. 8
- "Wedding of Jacqueline Bouvier and John F. Kennedy". jfklibrary.org. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- jfklibrary.org, Special Exhibit Celebrates 50th Anniversary of the Wedding of Jacqueline Bouvier and John F. Kennedy.
- Reed Miller; Rosemary E. (2007). The Threads of Time. ISBN 978-0-9709713-0-2.
- Smith, Sally Bedell (2004). Grace and Power: The Private World of the Kennedy White House. ISBN 978-0-375-50449-5.
- O'Brien, pp. 295-296.
- Leaming (2001), pp. 31–32.
- Gullen, Kevin (May 13, 2007). "Finding her way in the clan Diaries, letters reveal a more complex Kennedy matriarch". The Boston Globe.
- Dallek, Robert. An Unfinished Life: John F. Kennedy, 1917 – 1963. Back Bay Books (2004)
- "Big Year for the Clan". Time. April 26, 1963.
- "Mrs. Kennedy Loses Her Baby". The New York Times. August 24, 1956.
- Leaming (2014), p. 90.
- Heymann, p. 61.
- Spoto, pp. 142–144.
- "Jackie Kennedy's Campaign Ad Appearance, before the 1960 Presidential Election". iagreetosee.com.
- Hunt and Batcher, p. 167
- Schlesinger, p. 17.
- Spoto, p. 146.
- "JFK owes credit to Louisiana for winning 1960 presidential election". nola.com. November 18, 2013.
- Spoto, p. 152
- Beasley, p. 72
- Wertheime, Molly Meijer (2004). Inventing a Voice: The Rhetoric of American First Ladies of the Twentieth Century.
- Mulvagh, Jane (20 May 1994). "Obituary: Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis". The Independent.
- Beasley, pp. 72–76
- Spoto, pp. 155–157.
- Schlesinger, p. 69.
- Cassini, p. 153
- Spoto, p. 164.
- Beasley, p. 76
- Beasley, pp. 73– 74
- "Little-known facts about our First Ladies". Firstladies.org. Retrieved 2015-07-07.
- Beasley, pp. 78–83
- Schwalbe, pp. 111–127
- "Jacqueline Kennedy in the White House". The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
- "Jacqueline Kennedy — First Lady". Miller Center of Public Affairs. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
- "Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved August 10, 2012.
- Abbott, James; Rice, Elaine (1997). Designing Camelot: The Kennedy White House Restoration. Thomson. ISBN 978-0-442-02532-8.
- Goodman, Sidey and Baldrige, pp. 73–74
- "Nation: La Presidente". Time. June 9, 1961. Retrieved June 2, 2010.
- Blair, W. Grainger (June 3, 1961). "Just an Escort, Kennedy Jokes As Wife's Charm Enchants Paris; First Lady Wins Bouquets From Press -- She Also Has Brief Chance to Visit Museum and Admire Manet". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- Perry, Barbara A. (2009). Jacqueline Kennedy: First Lady of the New Frontier. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-1343-4.
- Meagher and Gragg, p. 83
- "Jackie Kennedy adopts Sardar, March 23, 1962". POLITICO. March 23, 2011.
- Glass, Andrew (March 12, 2015). "Jacqueline Kennedy begins South Asia trip, March 12, 1962". Politico.
- Long, Tania (May 1, 1961). "Ottawa Reacts to Mrs. Kennedy With 'Special Glow of Warmth'; Prime Minister Hails Her at Parliament -- Crowds Cheer Her at Horse Show and During Visit to Art Gallery". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- "Pioneering aide to Jacqueline Kennedy dies". Taipei Times. March 24, 2015.
- Beschloss, Michael. (2011). Historical Conversations on Life with John F. Kennedy. ISBN 978-1-4013-2425-4.
- Taraborrelli, J. Randy. Jackie, Ethel, Joan: Women of Camelot. Warner Books: 2000. ISBN 978-0-446-52426-1
- Clarke, Thurston (July 1, 2013). "A Death in the First Family". Vanity Fair.
- Levingston, Steven (October 24, 2013). "For John and Jackie Kennedy, the death of a son may have brought them closer". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 17, 2015.
- Leaming (2014), pp. 120–122.
- Schlesinger, p. xiv.
- Leaming (2014), p. 123.
- Bugliosi, pp. 30, 34
- Alam, p. 36.
- Manchester, William (1967). Death of a President. New York City: Harper & Row. ISBN 978-0-88365-956-4.
- Trask, p. 318
- "Warren Commission Hearings". Mary Ferrell Foundation. 1964. p. 180.
- "Selections from Lady Bird's Diary on the assassination: November 22, 1963". Lady Bird Johnson: Portrait of a First Lady. PBS. Retrieved March 1, 2008.
- Horyn, Cathy (November 14, 2013). "Jacqueline Kennedy's Smart Pink Suit, Preserved in Memory and Kept Out of View". The New York Times. Retrieved December 26, 2014.
- Caro, p. 329
- Campbell, Lady Jeanne (November 25, 1963). "Magic Majesty of Mrs. Kennedy". The London Evening Standard. p. 1.
- Hilty, p. 484
- Peters,Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "Lyndon B. Johnson: "Executive Order 11130 - Appointing a Commission To Report Upon the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy," November 29, 1963". The American Presidency Project. University of California - Santa Barbara.
- Lewis, Anthony (September 28, 1964). "Warren Commission Finds Oswald Guilty and Says Assassin and Ruby Acted Alone". The New York Times. p. 1.
- Leaming, Barbara (September 30, 2014). "The Winter of Her Despair". Vanity Fair.
- White (1987), p. 203
- Leaming (2014), p. 171.
- An Epilogue, in LIFE, Dec 6, 1963, pp. 158–9
- Spoto, pp. 233–234.
- White, Theodore H. (December 6, 1963). "For President Kennedy, an Epilogue". Life. 55 (23). ISSN 0024-3019.
- Tomlin, p. 295
- Hunter, Marjorie (December 7, 1963). "Mrs. Kennedy is in new home; declines 3-acre Arlington plot". The New York Times. pp. 1, 13. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
- Andersen, pp. 55–56
- Adler, Bill. The Eloquent Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis – A Portrait in Her Own Words. 1. ISBN 978-0-06-073282-0.
- Spoto, pp. 239–240.
- Heymann, Clemens David. American Legacy: The Story of John & Caroline Kennedy. ISBN 978-0-7434-9738-1.
- Andersen, Christopher P. (2003). Sweet Caroline: Last Child of Camelot. William Morrow. ISBN 978-0-06-103225-7.
- "Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis". www.u-s-history.com.
- "May 27, 1967 – Jacqueline, Caroline and John at the christening of the U.S.S. John F. Kennedy". YouTube. Retrieved November 15, 2014.
- "JFK's body moved to permanent gravesite". HISTORY.com.
- Tracy, p. 180.
- Mills, p. 363
- Schlesinger, Vol 2., p. 762
- White, pp. 98–99
- Jacqueline Kennedy Visits Angkor Wat November 1967
- Alam, p. 32
- Little, Harriet Fitch (March 21, 2015). "Jacqueline Kennedy's charm offensive". The Phnom Penh Post.
- Leaming (2014), pp. 237–238.
- Thomas, p. 91.
- Hersh, p. 85
- Tracy, p. 194.
- Flynt and Eisenbach, p. 216
- Heymann (2004), p. 141
- Thomas, p. 361.
- Ford, p. 273
- Morriss, John G. (June 6, 1968). "Kennedy claims victory; and then shots ring out". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
- Hill, Gladwin (June 6, 1968). "Kennedy is Dead, Victim of Assassin; Suspect, Arab Immigrant, Arraigned; Johnson Appoints Panel on Violence". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
- Pottker, p. 257.
- Seely, Katherine (July 19, 1999). "John F. Kennedy Jr., Heir to a Formidable Dynasty". The New York Times. Retrieved November 8, 2009.
- Spoto, p. 266.
- In Talk on Jackie Kennedy. October 23, 1968.
- "Roman Catholics: The Cardinal and Jackie". Time. November 1, 1968. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
- Tracy, p. 211.
- Cheslow, Jerry (August 7, 1994). "If You're Thinking of Living In/Peapack and Gladstone; Fox-Hunting and High-Priced Homes". The New York Times. Retrieved March 21, 2011. "She does have a story about Aristotle Onassis, who rented a home in neighboring Bernardsville with his wife, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis."
- Heymann, p. 90
- Hersh, p. 512.
- Spoto, p. 282.
- Tracy, p. 232.
- Lawrence, pp. 13–14.
- Sabato, p. 324.
- Reeves, pp. 124–127
- Silverman, pp. 71–72
- Leaming (2014), p. 292.
- Lawrence, p. 95
- Spoto, p. 319.
- "Hutchins mss.". indiana.edu.
- "Once an Editor, Now the Subject". The New York Times.
- "Jackie O.: A Life in Books". oprah.com. Retrieved January 11, 2015.
- "Jackie Sues Indians In Martha`s Vineyard Over A Beach". Chicago Tribune. January 23, 1989.
- "The Collection". moma.org. Retrieved August 28, 2015.
- Fried, Joseph (January 2, 2005). "Ambush Photographer Leaves the Bushes". The New York Times.
- Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis at Arlington National Cemetery website
- Clinton, pp. 135–138
- Kolbert, Elizabeth (October 13, 2003). "The Student: How Hillary Clinton set out to master the Senate". The New Yorker. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- Lewis, Kathy (August 25, 1993). "Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Reaches Out To President Clinton – She Ends Long Political Isolation". Seattle Times Newspaper.
- Leaming, pp. 308–309
- Altman, Lawrence K. (May 20, 1994). "Death of a first lady; No More Could Be Done, Mrs. Kennedy-Onassis Was Told". The New York Times. Retrieved June 24, 2011.
- Apple, Jr., R. W. (May 24, 1994). "Death of a First Lady: The Overview; Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Is Buried". The New York Times. p. A1.
- Spoto, p.22.
- Horvitz, Paul F. (May 24, 1994). "Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Laid to Rest at Eternal Flame". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- Johnston, David Cay (December 21, 1996). "Mrs. Onassis's Estate Worth Less Than Estimated". The New York Times. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
- "JACKIE KENNEDY'S ENDURING SPELL". National Geographic Channel. October 15, 2013.
- Holland, Bill (March 14, 2011), "5 MOST INFLUENTIAL FIRST LADIES OF THE 20TH CENTURY"
- "Survey: The best of the first ladies". CNN. February 15, 2014.
- Miller, Jake. "Who is the finest first lady of them all?". CBS News.
- "Poll: Roosevelt seen as top first lady". Politico. February 15, 2014.
- Kelly, Martin (May 31, 2015). "Top 10 Most Influential First Ladies". americanhistory.about.com.
- "Who will the next first lady (or first gentleman) of the US be?". aol.com. January 30, 2016.
- Greenhouse, Emily (August 17, 2015). "Vitamins & Caviar: Getting to Know Melania Trump". Bloomberg Politics. Retrieved September 4, 2015.
- Magill, p. 2817
- Brown, DeNeen L. (November 19, 2013). "The enduring legacy of Jacqueline Kennedy, a master at shaping public appearance". Washington Post. Retrieved November 20, 2013.
- Barber, Kelly (June 8, 1994). "Jackie Kennedy was a role model".
- Suhay, Lisa (March 23, 2016). "Is Melania Trump the next Jackie Kennedy? (+video)". csmonitor.com.
- Connolly, Katie (November 28, 2008). "WHY MICHELLE OBAMA IS NOT THE NEXT JACKIE O".
- Karsh, Yousuf; Travis, David (2009). Regarding Heroes. David R Godine. p. 170. ISBN 978-1567923599.
- "Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis dies in 1994". New York Daily News. May 18, 2015.
- Bush, Laura (2010). Spoken From the Heart. Scribner. p. 183. ISBN 978-1439155202.
- Galop, Kathleen P. (Spring 2006). "The Historic Preservation Legacy of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis".
- Anthony, Carl. "The Political and Public Influence of Jacqueline Kennedy". firstladies.org.
- "Return of the Jackie Look – Sort of Fashion from A-Line Dresses to Fitted Jackets". Newsweek.
- Collins, Amy Fine (June 1, 2003). "It had to be Kenneth". Vanity Fair. Retrieved December 3, 2012.
- Wong, pp. 151–154
- "Jackie Kennedy: Post-Camelot Style". Life. Retrieved October 9, 2009.
- "Treasures of the Kennedy Library" (PDF).
- "The Jacqueline Kennedy Collection by Camrose & Kross".
- VF Staff (1965). "The International Best Dressed List: The International Hall of Fame: Women". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on 2013-07-12. Retrieved February 15, 2012.
- Lambert and Zilkha, pp. 64–69 & 90
- "JACQUELINE KENNEDY: THE WHITE HOUSE YEARS". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
- "Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis High School". schools.nyc.gov. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
- Kifner, John (July 23, 1994). "Central Park Honor for Jacqueline Onassis". The New York Times. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
- mas.org, Municipal Art Society.
- "Map". gwu.edu.
- Zweifel and Buckland, p. 87
- "Send a New Year's Message to the Moon on Japan's SELENE Mission: Buzz Aldrin, Ray Bradbury and More Have Wished Upon the Moon" (Press release). The Planetary Society. January 11, 2007. Retrieved July 14, 2007.
- "The Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis School at American Ballet Theatre". www.abt.org. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
- Fitzpatrick, Elayne Wareing (2009). Traveling Backward. Xlibris, Corp. p. 71. ISBN 978-1436382427.
- McFadden, Robert D. (May 24, 1994). "DEATH OF A FIRST LADY: THE COMPANION; Quietly at Her Side, Public at the End". The New York Times. Retrieved September 14, 2014.
- Pottker, p.181.
- Adler, Bill (2009). The Eloquent Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis: A Portrait in Her Own Words. HarperCollins.
- Badrul Alam, Mohammed (2006). Jackie Kennedy: Trailblazer. Nova History Publication. ISBN 978-1594545580.
- Andersen, Christopher (2015). The Good Son: JFK Jr. and the Mother He Loved. Gallery Books. ISBN 978-1476775579.
- Beasley, Maurine (2005). First Ladies and the Press: The Unfinished Partnership of the Media Age. Northwestern University Press. ISBN 978-0810123120.
- Bugliosi, Vincent (2007). Four Days in November: The Assassination of John F. Kennedy. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-33215-5.
- Caro, Robert A. (2013). The Passage of Power: Volume 4 of The Years of Lyndon Johnson (Illustrated reprint ed.). Vintage. ISBN 0375713255.
- Cassini, Oleg (1995). A Thousand Days of Magic: Dressing the First Lady for the White House. Rizzoli International Publications. ISBN 978-0-8478-1900-3.
- Clinton, Hillary Rodham (2003). Living History. Scribner. ISBN 978-0743222259.
- Flaherty, Tina (2004). What Jackie Taught Us: Lessons from the Remarkable Life of Jacqueline. New York City: Penguin Group. ISBN 978-1-101-49427-1.
- Flynt, Larry; David, Ph.D. Eisenbach (2011). One Nation Under Sex: How the Private Lives of Presidents, First Ladies and Their Lovers Changed the Course of American History. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0230105034.
- Goodman, Jon; Sidey, Hugh; Letitia Baldrige (2006). The Kennedy Mystique: Creating Camelot: Essays. National Geographic Books. ISBN 978-0-7922-5308-2.
- Ford, Lynne E. (2008). Encyclopedia of Women and American Politics. Facts on File. ISBN 978-0816054916.
- Harris, Bill (2012). First Ladies Fact Book -- Revised and Updated: The Childhoods, Courtships, Marriages, Campaigns, Accomplishments, and Legacies of Every First Lady from Martha Washington to Michelle Obama. Black Dog & Leventhal. ISBN 978-1579128913.
- Hersh, Burton (2010). Edward Kennedy: An Intimate Biography. Counterpoint. ISBN 978-1582436289.
- Heymann, C. David (2007). American Legacy: The Story of John and Caroline Kennedy. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7434-9738-4.
- Heymann, C. David (2009). Bobby and Jackie: A Love Story. Atria Books. ISBN 978-1416556244.
- Hilty, James (2000). Robert Kennedy: Brother Protector. Temple University Press. ISBN 978-1566397667.
- Hunt, Amber; Batcher, David (2014). Kennedy Wives: Triumph and Tragedy in America's Most Public Family. Lyons Press. p. 167. ISBN 978-0762796342.
- Kennedy, Jacqueline (2011). Jacqueline Kennedy: Historic Conversations on Life with John F. Kennedy. Hyperion. ISBN 1401324258.
- Lambert, Eleanor; Zilkha, Bettina (2004). Ultimate Style – The Best of the Best Dressed List. Assouline. ISBN 2 84323 513 8.
- Lawrence, Greg (2011). Jackie as Editor: The Literary Life of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 978-0312591939.
- Leaming, Barbara (2001). Mrs. Kennedy: The Missing History of the Kennedy Years Free Press. ISBN 978-0684862095.
- Leaming, Barbara (2014). Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis: The Untold Story. Macmillan. ISBN 978-1250017642.
- Mills, Judie (1998). Robert Kennedy. Millbrook Press. ISBN 978-1562942502.
- Magill, Frank Northen (1999). Dictionary of World Biography: The 20th century, O-Z. Routledge. ISBN 978-1579580483.
- Meagher, Michael; Gragg, Larry D. (2011). John F. Kennedy: A Biography. Greenwood.
- O'Brien, Michael (2006). John F. Kennedy: A Biography. St. Martin's Griffin. pp. 265–266. ISBN 978-0312357450.
- Pottker, Jan (2002). Janet and Jackie: The Story of a Mother and Her Daughter, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 978-0312302818.
- Reeves, Richard (1977). Convention. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 978-0151225828.
- Sabato, Larry J. (2013). The Kennedy Half-Century: The Presidency, Assassination and Lasting Legacy. Bloomsbury USA. ISBN 978-1620402801.
- Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. (2002) . A Thousand Days: John F. Kennedy in the White House. Mariner Books. ISBN 978-0618219278.
- Schlesinger, Arthur (2002). Robert Kennedy and His Times, Volume 2. Mariner Books. ISBN 978-0618219285.
- Silverman, Al (2008). The Time of Their Lives. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-35003-1.
- Spoto, Donald (2000). Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis: A Life. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0312977078.
- Schwalbe, Carol B. (2005). "Jacqueline Kennedy and Cold War Propaganda". Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media. 49 (1): 111–127. doi:10.1207/s15506878jobem4901_7.
- Tomlin, Gregory M. (2016). Murrow's Cold War: Public Diplomacy for the Kennedy Administration. University of Nebraska Press.
- Tracy, Kathleen (2008). The Everything Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Book: A portrait of an American icon. Adams Media. ISBN 978-1598695304.
- Trask, Richard B. (1994). Pictures of the Pain: Photography and the Assassination of President Kennedy (hardcover ed.). ISBN 0-9638595-0-1.
- West, J.B., with Mary Lynn Kotz (1973). Upstairs at the White House: My Life with the First Ladies. Coward, McCann & Geoghegan. SBN 698-10546-X.
- White, Mark (2013). Kennedy: A Cultural History of an American Icon. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 978-0786721023.
- White, G. Edward (1987). Earl Warren: A Public Life. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195049367.
- Wolff, Perry (1962). A Tour of the White House with Mrs. John F. Kennedy. Doubleday & Company.
- Wong, Aliza Z. (2010). Julie Willett, ed. The American beauty industry encyclopedia: Hairstylists, Celebrity. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Greenwood. pp. 151–154. ISBN 9780313359491.
- Zweifel, John; Buckland, Gail (1994). The White House in Miniature: Based on the White House Replica by John, Jan, and the Zweifel Fam. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0393036633.
- Exhibition Catalogue, Sale 6834: The Estate of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis April 23–26, 1996. Sotheby's: 1996.
- The White House: An Historic Guide. White House Historical Association and the National Geographic Society: 2001. ISBN 0-912308-79-6.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to:|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis|
- Life of Jacqueline B. Kennedy at the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum
- Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy at the White House
- Jacqueline Kennedy at C-SPAN's First Ladies: Influence & Image
- Jackie Kennedy at the National First Ladies' Library
- The Last Will and Testament of Jacqueline K. Onassis
- Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis at the Internet Movie Database
- Jacqueline Lee "Jackie" Bouvier Kennedy Onassis at Find a Grave
|First Lady of the United States
| Succeeded by|
Lady Bird Johnson