Jack Warner (football executive)

Jack Warner

Jack Warner (right) meets then British Prime Minister Gordon Brown in 2009
Minister of National Security
In office
28 May 2010  21 April 2013
Prime Minister Kamla Persad-Bissessar
Preceded by John Sandy
Succeeded by Dr. Keith Rowley
Member of Parliament
for Chaguanas West
In office
5 November 2007  7 September 2015
Preceded by Constituency established
Succeeded by Ganga Singh
Majority 18,352 (93%)
24 May 2010
President of CONCACAF
In office
Preceded by Joaquín Soria Terrazas
Succeeded by Lisle Austin
Personal details
Born Austin Warner
(1943-01-26) 26 January 1943
Rio Claro, Trinidad and Tobago
Political party Independent Liberal Party (ILP)
Alma mater University of the West Indies

Austin "Jack" Warner (born 26 January 1943) is a Trinidad and Tobago politician, businessman, and former football executive. Warner was Vice President of FIFA and President of CONCACAF until his suspension and eventual resignation from these roles in 2011.[1][2] He is also the former Minister of National Security of Trinidad and Tobago and was an elected member of the country's parliament from 2007 to 2015. A former history teacher, he is the owner of Joe Public F.C., a professional football club in Tunapuna, Trinidad and Tobago.[3]

Warner had been a member of the FIFA Executive Committee since 1983, and CONCACAF President since 1990. He was re-elected for a new term in 2011.[4] Warner was implicated in numerous corruption allegations dating back to the 1980s.[5][6] On 29 May 2011, Warner and Mohammed bin Hammam were provisionally suspended by the FIFA Ethics Committee pending the outcome of the investigation of corruption allegations against them.[7]

On 20 June 2011, FIFA announced Warner's resignation from all his positions in international football.[8][9]

On 18 April 2013, The Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football (CONCACAF) published its Integrity Committee report into Warner concluding that he had committed fraud against CONCACAF and FIFA.[10]

In 2015, Warner and several other FIFA officials were arrested before the annual FIFA Congress in Zurich and charged in the United States with "wire fraud, racketeering and money laundering."[11] Warner is facing extradition to the United States for criminal prosecution.

On 29 September 2015, the adjudicatory chamber of the Ethics Committee, chaired by Hans-Joachim Eckert, decided to ban him from taking part in any kind of football-related activity at national and international level for life.[12]

Early life

Austin "Jack" Warner was born in Rio Claro, south Trinidad, on 26 January 1943. He is one of three brothers and three sisters who were brought up almost single-handedly by their mother Stella.[13] After gaining a scholarship from Trinidad Clay Products, he attended the College of St Phillip's and St James, which in 1958 became Presentation College, Chaguanas. After attending Teachers Training College, he then graduated with a BA degree from the University of the West Indies at St Augustine, and subsequently earned a Diploma in International Relations from the same institution.[14]

In 1971, Warner became a teacher at North Eastern College, and was also at this time until 1973 a part-time sociology lecturer at UWI. From 1972 until 1993, he was a lecturer in history at the Polytechnic Institute.[15]

Football administrator

In 1966, Warner became General Secretary of the Central Football Association, and from 1971–1973 was General Secretary of the Central St. George Football Association.[15]

Warner became the secretary of the Trinidad and Tobago Football Federation (TTFF) in 1973. In 1990 he was elected President of the Caribbean Football Union, resigning his post at TTFF but was immediately appointed a special advisor, a position that he still holds.[13]

In 1983, Warner became a CONCACAF Vice-President and also joined the FIFA Executive Committee.[15] Warner was elected CONCACAF President in 1990, unseating Joaquín Soria Terrazas who had held the seat for twenty years.[16] Warner and the new CONCACAF General Secretary, Chuck Blazer, took over an organization with US$140,000 in annual revenue.[17] Warner was appointed as a FIFA Vice-President in 1997.[15] In 2010, Warner stated his intent to stand for re-election in 2011.[18]

Warner with Sepp Blatter and Barack Obama.

Jack Warner is the chairman of the Joe Public Football Club which he founded in 1996, in the aftermath of Trinidad and Tobago's failed World Cup qualifying campaign. Warner also helped to found Trinidad and Tobago's Professional Football League (PFL), then the first professional football league in the Caribbean, which has since been superseded by the TT Pro League.

In 1998, Warner purchased the Scarlet Ibis Hotel in St Augustine for TT$6 million,[19] which he renovated and renamed the Emerald Apartments and Plaza. Run by Warner's son Daryl, the Emerald Apartments and Plaza sponsor local football competitions, including the 2010 Eastern Football Association Emerald Apartments & Plaza Cup. Warner also owns Kantac Plaza[19] in Arouca, which was used as the base for Trinidad and Tobago's successful 2006 World Cup qualifying campaign.[20] Warner had other real estate holdings in the twin island republic, including the offices used by TTFF and CONCACAF. CONCACAF pays Warner "nearly a third of a million dollars a year" rent.[21] Warner also claims business interests in Costa Rica and the United States. Warner states that his investments were funded from "the salary and allowances I received from FIFA".[19]


Trinidad and Tobago 2006 World Cup bonuses

Before the 2006 FIFA World Cup, Warner, as special advisor to TTFF, brokered a deal between the Federation and the players on Trinidad and Tobago's 2006 World Cup team to share the proceeds from their participation in the World Cup. After the tournament the Federation declared revenue of TT$18.25 million, costs of TT$17.9 million and offered the players a split of TT$5,644.08 per player. The players rejected this figure, disputing the Federation's numbers. Warner criticized the players for refusing to accept the TTFF's unaudited statement, saying “What Trinidad is suffering from is from a situation whereby 16 or 18 players are holding a country and a federation to ransom because of greed.”[22][23]

Shaka Hislop, the interim president of the Football Players Association of Trinidad and Tobago, responded with a letter to Warner writing “You have continually proven yourself heavily biased and opinionated in this matter.” In 2010, Hislop added that "Jack Warner, though not on the TTFA officially, makes every single decision: how much bonus should be paid, who is the right coach."[24]

The Trinidad and Tobago government revealed that the Federation received in excess of TT$173 million for their part in the tournament in Germany.

TTFF proposed that the bonus dispute be heard before the UK Sports Dispute Resolution Panel, which the players agreed to. Arbitrator Ian Mill QC heard the case and ruled that Warner had “the authority of the TTFA to commit it to financial transactions" and that the players were entitled to 50 per cent of the FIFA World Cup participation money and the commercial revenues gained from Trinidad and Tobago's qualification, as well as half the net income from World Cup warm-up matches.[25]

The players' lawyer, Michael Townley, said "At the moment, the players have not received a single cent" and alleged that the T&TFF defaulted on its payment to the arbitration body.[26]

England World Cup bid

Warner once again caused controversy in 2007 in an interview with the BBC about England's chances of holding the 2018 FIFA World Cup. He asserted that "England invented the sport but has never made any impact on world football" despite being one of only (then) seven nations to ever lift the world cup, "For Europe, England is an irritant", and that "Nobody in Europe likes England". Furthermore, Warner proposed that, if the World Cup were to be held in Europe, it should be held in Italy, Spain or France (countries that last hosted the competition in 1990, 1982 and 1998 respectively). He said that he would "battle to bring...the tournament to his region"[27][28][29]

However, on 14 February 2008, Warner retracted this stance. England's Football Association agreed to visit Trinidad and Tobago to play a friendly against the Trinidad and Tobago national football team on the condition that Warner apologize.[30]

Warner argued that, "The time has come. The fact is they invented this sport [...] They last held the World Cup 42 years ago. That is almost two to three generations. There are guys in England who have never seen a World Cup on English soil." Warner maintained that the choice of England would not be popular among mainland Europe though.[31]

During the bidding process to host the 2018 and 2022 FIFA World Cup's Warner continually supported the English bid, promising to vote in England's favour at the draw in December 2010. Warner approached the England bid team through David Beckham, offering to hold off on bringing out the vote for Russia in exchange for promises in relation to CONCACAF.[32] Russia won the vote to hold the FIFA World Cup in 2018, with Warner widely reported to have voted for the Russian bid.[33]

Dwight Yorke

In September 2008, after Sunderland player Dwight Yorke had withdrawn from the Trinidad and Tobago national football team, Warner attacked the club and the manager, Roy Keane. In a letter leaked to the press, Warner accused Keane of disrespecting "small countries" and having a "mean streak".[34][35] Keane responded by denying the allegation, accusing Warner of being a "clown" and a "disgrace", and insisted that Yorke was retired from international football.[36]

Corruption allegations

Warner has been accused of corruption for repeatedly taking advantage of his position for financial gain.[21]

Black market ticket sales

Via a private family company, Warner owned shares in Simpaul, a travel and holiday company. In late 2002, various global media publications alleged that Warner had made a profit of $350,000 selling 2002 FIFA World Cup tickets.[37]

In a series of exposés during December 2005, the Trinidad and Tobago Express revealed that Simpaul was offering $30,000 packages to the 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany, which effectively marked up match tickets at a high rate.[38] FIFA's ethics committee criticised the ticket deals, concluding Warner had abused his position to obtain personal benefits and failed to declare his business interests. Warner agreed to sever all family links with Simpaul immediately. However, his son Daryan remained a director of Simpaul throughout World Cup 2006, while his personal assistant remained the company secretary of Simpaul.[37]

FIFA started an investigation, and asked their auditors Ernst & Young, to investigate. In a report submitted to FIFA in March 2006, E&Y estimated that Warner's family had made a profit of at least $1 million from reselling 2006 World Cup tickets, that Warner had directly ordered or sold on behalf of the T&TFA.[21][39] Minutes of FIFA’s executive committee indicate that in consequence of being found guilty of breaking FIFA's Article 5, a fine of almost $1 million, equal to the expected profiteering, was imposed on the family.[40][41] Despite numerous reminders from FIFA, only $250,000 has been paid.[42]

Andrew Jennings the presenter of FIFA's Dirty Secrets, an edition of BBC's Panorama repeated the allegations in a November 2010 programme during the week Warner and his fellow FIFA ExCo members voted to decide the hosts for the 2018 and 2022 World Cups.

Request for personal payments

Scottish Football Association President John McBeth said Warner asked that monies owed to the TTFF be sent to Warner's personal account. According to McBeth, after Trinidad and Tobago visited Scotland for a friendly match at Easter Road, Edinburgh, on 30 May 2004, Warner asked that the cheque for the game be made out to him. McBeth told Warner, "we don't do that" and noted that Warner also approached other members of the Scottish FA following the game in an attempt to collect money due to the TTFF.[43][44]

2018 World Cup bid

On 10 May 2011, former chairman of the English Football Association, Lord Triesman, accused Warner and several others of asking for compensation in return for votes for England's 2018 World Cup bid. Warner reportedly asked for £2.5 million that would go toward building an education centre in Trinidad.[45][46] Sir Dave Richards, the chairman of the Premier League, who was present at the meeting, confirmed that the intention of cash for votes was implied, although it was not explicitly stated.[47] However, Warner described the allegations as "a piece of nonsense".[48]

On 26 May 2011 the BBC published an email from Warner to the English FA requesting funds to purchase Haiti's World Cup television rights. The above article also quotes FIFA as denying that Haiti had ever been granted television rights for this competition. This email appears to substantiate a separate charge by Lord Triesman (formally heading the England 2018 World Cup bid) whereby Warner had requested funds from the English to (again) be sent into his personal account so that he could purchase the rights as a humanitarian gesture for the Haitian people. In return, the English bid team could expect his support during the bid process. The total sum that Warner had requested in this instance was in the region of $1.6 million.[6]

FIFA World Cup television rights

In December 2011 Warner claimed to have purchased the television rights for the 1998, 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014 editions of the FIFA World Cup for Trinidad & Tobago, via a Mexican company.[49] Warner claimed to have purchased the rights for the 1998 FIFA World Cup for $1.[49] Warner also claimed that he refused to endorse Sepp Blatter in the 2011 FIFA Presidential election despite being offered the rights to the 2018 and 2022 World Cup, again for a nominal fee. Warner further alleged that he was offered other "inducements" to develop football in the Caribbean. Warner claims he used the revenue from selling on the rights to develop football in the Caribbean.[49]

Haiti earthquake funds

In February 2012 the TTFF claimed that funds for Haiti donated following the 2010 earthquake were paid into a bank account controlled by Warner. FIFA subsequently froze funding to the TTFF until it received an explanation.[50] FIFA is also withholding Warner's pension. Warner later suggested that the allegations were a conspiracy, saying that "I have nothing to answer to anybody. Who wants to make allegations, make allegations. Ask yourselves, as objective members of the media: 'Why now...?' And after you get why now, just join the dots and see."[50]

Fraud, mismanagement allegations

On 19 April 2013, the CONCACAF Integrity Committee, headed by David Simmons, former Chief Justice of Barbados, issued a report accusing Warner and his former cohort Chuck Blazer of mismanagement and massive fraud. Warner is alleged to have concealed his ownership of the land on which CONCACAF's $25 million Joao Havelange Center of Excellence was built, which made him the effective owner of the building. Warner's initial public reaction was defiant: "As far as I am aware it is baseless and malicious. I left CONCACAF and turned my back on football two years ago. Since then I have had no interest in any football-related matter."[51]

Indicted for corruption in 2015

Warner was indicted by the United States Department of Justice and an arrest warrant issued for him and other FIFA officials. Warner and the others were accused of "wire fraud, racketeering and money laundering".[11]

Warner handed himself into Trinidad police in May and was bailed pending extradition to the United States. The following week, he said publicly that he had documents linking the outcome of the 2010 Trinidad and Tobago general election with FIFA finances and himself. Warner made the claims in a paid national television political broadcast, saying that his life was in danger, that he had given the documents to lawyers, and, "I will no longer keep secrets for them who actively seek to destroy the country."[52][53]

The following Sunday, the BBC said that it had seen documents listing $10 million wire transfers for the South African Caribbean diaspora programme from FIFA to CONCACAF accounts controlled by Warner, and subsequent use of up to $1.6 million of those funds to pay Warner's credit cards and personal loans. The BBC said the documents support the allegations in the US indictment.[54]

Political career

In October 2007 Warner was elected United National Congress Alliance chairman and co-leader, to lead the party into Trinidad and Tobago's 2007 General Election.[55] They won 15 of 41 seats and Warner was elected as the Member of Parliament for Chaguanas West. Patrick Manning's PNM government, which had comfortably won the 2007 election, called an election less than three years into its mandate. Warner's UNC party formed a coalition with four other parties and won 24 May 2010 elections by a landslide margin of 29 of 41 seats in parliament. Warner was re-elected in Chaguanas West with the highest national vote total. Warner has described the previous Trinidadian administration as the "most corrupt ever", and has pledged to enforce hanging as a method of execution. Warner has said, "It is inconceivable to have 295 on death row awaiting the hangman...when no one is trying to apply the law".[56]

After the 2010 election, Warner was appointed the Works and Transport Minister in Prime Minister Kamla Persad-Bissessar's government. Opposition leader Keith Rowley wrote to the Integrity Commission questioning Warner's ability to be a FIFA Vice President, while also the Trinidad and Tobago Works and Transport Minister.[57] Government counsel concluded that Warner was not breaking any laws, Attorney General Anand Ramlogan said that Warner did not receive a salary from FIFA, Trinidad benefited from Warner's appointment and his two positions were unlikely to conflict.

Although Warner was allowed to withdraw from football-related activities by FIFA with a presumption of innocence in the CFU scandal of 2011, a videotape played during FIFA's disciplinary process was consequently made public. Prime Minister Kamla Persad-Bissessar referred the videotape to the Attorney General of Trinidad and Tobago without endorsing or condemning Warner.[58]

Warner resigned as Minister of National Security on 21 April 2013 and was replaced by Emmanuel George.

Warner resigned as Chairman of the United National Congress on 22 April 2013, and resigned as Member of Parliament for Chaguanas West four days later, triggering a by-election in his constituency.[59][60] Warner subsequently formed a new political party, the Independent Liberal Party (ILP), and won the by-election for Chaguanas West on 29 July.[61]

Warner contested Trinidad and Tobago's 2015 General Election held on 7 September 2015 in the Chaguanas East seat. Warner received 771 votes (4.30%) and failed to win the seat in the election.[62][63]

See also


  1. "Fifa vice-president Jack Warner resigns". BBC News Online. 20 June 2011.
  2. "Corruption Inquiry Leads FIFA to Bar Two More Officials". New York Times. 29 May 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
  3. James, Jennie (19 May 2002). "Last Man Standing". Time Inc. Retrieved 31 May 2007.
  4. "Jack Warner re-elected as CONCACAF President, unopposed". Sport Illustrated. 4 May 2011. Retrieved 4 May 2011.
  5. "The men at the heart of the FIFA probe". Al Jazeera. 31 May 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
  6. 1 2 "Email Adds to Pressure on Fifa's Warner". BBC News. 27 May 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
  7. FIFA announces suspension of Warner, bin Hammam Archived 1 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. FIFA press release, 29 May 2011.
  8. Warner resigns from FIFA post Soccernet.com, 20 June 2011.
  9. FIFA Vice-President Jack A. Warner resigns FIFA press release, 20 June 2011.
  10. INTEGRITY COMMITTEE REPORT OF INVESTIGATION. The Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football (“CONCACAF”) 18 April 2013
  11. 1 2 'FIFA Official Arrested on Corruption Charges...', Matt Apuzo, New York Times 27 May 2015.
  12. "Independent Ethics Committee bans Jack Warner from football-related activities for life". Fifa.com.
  13. 1 2 "Biography". Jack Warner. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  14. "Jack Warner". FIFA. 5 December 2010.
  15. 1 2 3 4 "Profile". Jack Warner. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  16. James Elected 2nd VP Jamaica Gleaner, 2 May 1990.
  17. "Trail Blazer" Street and Smith's SportsBusiness Journal, 7 June 2010.
  18. "CONCACAF President Warner to stand for re-election" Archived 3 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine. concacaf.com, 24 September 2010.
  19. 1 2 3 Moreno, Camille (13 January 2000) THE HOUSE THAT JACK BUILT. Business Guardian. nalis.gov.tt
  20. "The Trinidad Guardian -Online Edition Ver 2.0". guardian.co.tt.
  21. 1 2 3 Jennings, Andrew (11 June 2006). "The Beautiful Bung: Corruption and the World Cup". BBC. Retrieved 10 December 2006.
  22. Herborn, Michael (24 September 2007). "Trinidad and Tobago Football Federation said to understate World Cup earnings by USD 25 million". Play the Game. Retrieved 22 October 2007.
  23. Liburd, Lasana (15 September 2007). "T&TFF got more than $173m". The Trinidad Express. Archived from the original on 9 February 2008. Retrieved 30 September 2007.
  24. "How Fifa vice-president Jack Warner failed to deliver on promises". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. 29 November 2010. Retrieved 3 December 2010.
  25. Liburd, Lasana (21 May 2008). "Hislop relieved over SDRP judgment". The Trinidad Express. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 15 June 2008.
  26. Liburd, Lasana (21 May 2008). "'let's start with $44m'". The Trinidad Express. Archived from the original on 28 December 2009. Retrieved 15 June 2008.
  27. "BBC SPORT – Football – Internationals – Caborn hits back at Warner attack". bbc.co.uk.
  28. "Blatter: 2018 World Cup should be in N. America". ESPNFC.com.
  29. Independent Newspapers Online. "Who will host Soccer World Cup in 2018?". Independent Online.
  30. "England FA wants apology from Warner...or no friendly against Warriors". The Trinidad Guardian. Trinidad Publishing Company Limited. 14 February 2008. Retrieved 15 June 2008.
  31. "Warner backs England 2018 Cup bid". BBC SPORT. 14 February 2008. Retrieved 14 February 2008.
  32. "Jack Warner blasted over failed England bid – Alleged to have switched support". Jamaica Observer. 3 December 2010. Retrieved 3 December 2010.
  33. Gibson, Owen (4 December 2010). "World Cup 2018: The men who betrayed England and why they did it". The Guardian. London, United Kingdom: Guardian News and Media. Sports, p. 2. Retrieved 5 December 2010. Jack Warner, the Concacaf president who has revelled in his status as kingmaker of the English bid, shook hands with Cameron, had his picture taken with Prince William, then promptly took his three votes to Russia. Warner later got his just rewards by being arrested.
  34. "Warner slams Keane for 'disrespect'". The Trinidad Express. 10 September 2008. Retrieved 12 September 2008.
  35. "Keane calls FIFA VP Jack Warner a 'clown'". USA Today. 12 September 2008. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
  36. Taylor, Louise (13 September 2008). "Keane attacks 'clowns' Warner and Yorke over Trinidad saga". The Guardian. London: Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 14 April 2009.
  37. 1 2 Andrew Jennings (12 September 2006). "FIFA chief's World Cup ticket scam". Daily Mail. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  38. "Simpaul's Travel under FIFA scrutiny". TTGapers.com. 1 January 2006. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  39. Norman-Culp., Sheila (23 March 2007). "Blatter denies involvement in graft probe". Associated Press. Retrieved 28 March 2007.
  40. Jennings, Andrew (13 March 2007). "FIFA chief's son in $1m scam fine". Daily Mail. Retrieved 13 March 2007.
  41. Hughes, Rob (19 September 2006). "The stench of corruption". International Herald Tribune. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  42. Jennings, Andrew (12 September 2006). "FIFA chief's World Cup ticket scam". Daily Mail. Retrieved 12 December 2006.
  43. Jennings, Andrew (21 October 2007). "'Warner asked me to make a cheque out to his personal account. I said we don't do that'". The Sunday Herald. Gannett Co., Inc. Archived from the original on 24 December 2007. Retrieved 19 January 2008.
  44. "Fifa and Coe". BBC News. 29 October 2007. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
  45. "Triesman accuses four FIFA members". ESPN Soccernet. 10 May 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
  46. "Lord Triesman accuses Fifa executives of 'unethical behaviour'". The Guardian. 10 May 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
  47. "Richards: Warner demands shocked me". ESPN Soccernet. 11 May 2011. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
  48. "Triesman claims four Fifa members sought 2018 bribes". BBC Sport. 10 May 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
  49. 1 2 3 "Jack Warner claims he bought World Cup rights for $1". The Guardian. 29 December 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2012.
  50. 1 2 "TTFF claims Jack Warner controlled account holding missing Haiti funds". The Guardian. 16 February 2012. Retrieved 19 February 2012.
  51. 'Audit Slays Dynamic Duo..', Andrew Warshaw, "Inside World Football," 19 April 2013.
  52. "Fifa crisis: Jack Warner 'to reveal all despite fears'". BBC Online. 4 June 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2015. Jack Warner, a key figure in the deepening scandal, said he had given lawyers documents outlining the links between Fifa, its funding, himself and the 2010 election in Trinidad and Tobago. He said the transactions also included Fifa chief Sepp Blatter.
  53. Reynolds, Tim. "Former FIFA VP Warner makes televised address in Trinidad" (4 June 2015). Washington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved 4 June 2015. Former FIFA vice president Jack Warner made a televised address in Trinidad on Wednesday night, saying he will prove a link between soccer’s governing body and his nation’s elections in 2010.
  54. Thomas, Ed (7 June 2015). "Fifa corruption: Documents show details of Jack Warner 'bribes'". Trinidad: BBC News Online. Retrieved 8 June 2015. In the three transactions – on 4 January, 1 February and 10 March 2008 – funds totalling $10m (£6.5m) from Fifa accounts were received into Concacaf accounts controlled by Jack Warner. ... Nearly $1.6m was used to pay the former Fifa vice-president's credit cards and personal loans.
  55. Chan Tack, Clint (5 October 2007). "Panday, Warner lead UNC Alliance". Daily News Limited. Retrieved 19 October 2007.
  56. Julien, Joel (7 July 2010). "Jack: Hangings will curb crime". Trinidad Express Newspapers. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  57. "Kamla: Jack stays put", [Newsday], Port of Spain, 18 June 2010.
  58. T&T Atty Genl to investigate Warner Archived 23 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine., Inside World Football 15 October 2011, by Andrew Warshaw.
  59. "Warner quits as UNC Chairman". Trinidad Express. 22 April 2013. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
  60. "Jack's Resignation Letter...quits as Minister, Chairman, and MP". Trinidad Express. 26 April 2013. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
  61. "Jack on Fire". Trinidad Express. 30 July 2013. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
  62. Results of the Parliamentary Election Held on Monday 7th September 2015. ebctt.com
  63. Jack Warner concedes loss of seat in Trinidad and Tobago parliament | Football. The Guardian. Retrieved on 13 November 2015.
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