Isobutyric acid

Isobutyric acid[1]
Skeletal formula of isobutyric acid
Ball-and-stick model of the isobutyric acid molecule
IUPAC name
2-Methylpropanoic acid
Other names
Isobutyric acid
2-Methylpropionic acid
Isobutanoic acid
79-31-2 YesY
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image
ChEBI CHEBI:16135 YesY
ChEMBL ChEMBL108778 YesY
ChemSpider 6341 YesY
DrugBank DB02531 N
ECHA InfoCard 100.001.087
KEGG C02632 YesY
UNII 8LL210O1U0 YesY
Molar mass 88.11 g/mol
Density 0.9697 g/cm3 at 0 °C
Melting point −47 °C (−53 °F; 226 K)
Boiling point 155 °C (311 °F; 428 K)
Acidity (pKa) 4.86[2]
NFPA 704
Flammability code 2: Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperature before ignition can occur. Flash point between 38 and 93 °C (100 and 200 °F). E.g., diesel fuel Health code 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g., turpentine Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Isobutyric acid, also known as 2-methylpropanoic acid, is a carboxylic acid with structural formula (CH3)2-CH-COOH. It is found in the free state in carobs (Ceratonia siliqua), in vanilla and in the root of Arnica dulcis, and as an ethyl ester in croton oil. Isobutyric acid is an isomer of n-butyric acid; they have the same chemical formula C4H8O2 but a different structure.


Isobutyric acid may be artificially prepared by the hydrolysis of isobutyronitrile with alkalis, by the oxidation of isobutanol with potassium dichromate and sulfuric acid,[3] or by the action of sodium amalgam on methacrylic acid. Isobutyric acid is a liquid under common conditions with a somewhat unpleasant smell. It boils at 155 °C and has a specific gravity is 0.9697 (0 °C). When heated with a chromic acid solution to 140 °C, it decomposes to form carbon dioxide and acetone. Alkaline potassium permanganate oxidizes it to α-hydroxyisobutyric acid, (CH3)2-C(OH)-COOH. Its salts are more soluble in water than those of butyric acid.

Biological production

Isobutyric acid can also be manufactured commercially using engineered bacteria using a sugar feedstock.[4]

Isobutyric acid is a retained trivial name under the IUPAC rules.[5]


  1. Merck Index, 11th Edition, 5039
  2. Bjerrum, J., et al. Stability Constants, Chemical Society, London, 1958.
  3. I. Pierre and E. Puchot (1873). "New Studies on Valerianic Acid and its Preparation on a Large Scale". Ann. Chim. Phys. 28: 366.
  4. "Biological pathways to produce methacrylate".
  5. Panico R, Powell WH, Richer JC, eds. (1993). "Recommendation R-9.1". A Guide to IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds. IUPAC/Blackwell Science. ISBN 0-632-03488-2.

Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

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