# Introduction to Algorithms

Cover of the third edition | |

Author |
Thomas H. Cormen Charles E. Leiserson Ronald L. Rivest Clifford Stein |
---|---|

Country | United States |

Language | English |

Subject | Computer algorithms |

Publisher | MIT Press |

Publication date | 1990 (first edition) |

Pages | 1292 |

ISBN | 978-0-262-03384-8 |

* Introduction to Algorithms* is a book by Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson, Ronald L. Rivest, and Clifford Stein. It is used as the textbook for algorithms courses at many universities and is commonly cited as a reference for algorithms in published papers, with over 8900 citations documented on CiteSeerX.

^{[1]}The book sold half a million copies during its first 20 years.

^{[2]}Its fame has led to the common use of the abbreviation "

**CLRS**" (Cormen, Leiserson, Rivest, Stein), or, in the first edition, "CLR" (Cormen, Leiserson, Rivest).

^{[3]}

## Editions

The first edition of the textbook did not include Stein as an author, and thus the book became known by the initialism CLR. After the addition of the fourth author in the second edition, many began to refer to the book as "CLRS". This first edition of the book was also known as "The Big White Book (of Algorithms)." With the second edition, the predominant color of the cover changed to green, causing the nickname to be shortened to just "The Big Book (of Algorithms)."^{[4]} A third edition was published in August 2009.

## Cover design

The mobile depicted on the cover, *Big Red* (1959) by Alexander Calder, can be found at the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York City.^{[5]}

## Table of Contents

- I Foundations
- 1 The Role of Algorithms in Computing
- 2 Getting Started
- 3 Growth of Functions
- 4 Divide-and-Conquer
- 5 Probabilistic Analysis and Randomized Algorithms

- II Sorting and Order Statistics
- 6 Heapsort
- 7 Quicksort
- 8 Sorting in Linear Time
- 9 Medians and Order Statistics

- III Data Structures
- 10 Elementary Data Structures
- 11 Hash Tables
- 12 Binary Search Trees
- 13 Red-Black Trees
- 14 Augmenting Data Structures

- IV Advanced Design and Analysis Techniques
- 15 Dynamic Programming
- 16 Greedy Algorithms
- 17 Amortized Analysis

- V Advanced Data Structures
- 18 B-Trees
- 19 Fibonacci Heaps
- 20 van Emde Boas Trees
- 21 Data Structures for Disjoint Sets

- VI Graph Algorithms
- 22 Elementary Graph Algorithms
- 23 Minimum Spanning Trees
- 24 Single-Source Shortest Paths
- 25 All-Pairs Shortest Paths
- 26 Maximum Flow

- VII Selected Topics
- 27 Multithreaded Algorithms
- 28 Matrix Operations
- 29 Linear Programming
- 30 Polynomials and the FFT
- 31 Number-Theoretic Algorithms
- 32 String Matching
- 33 Computational Geometry
- 34 NP-Completeness
- 35 Approximation Algorithms

- VIII Appendix: Mathematical Background
- A Summations
- B Sets, Etc.
- C Counting and Probability
- D Matrices

## Publication history

- Cormen, Thomas H.; Leiserson, Charles E.; Rivest, Ronald L. (1990).
*Introduction to Algorithms*(1st ed.). MIT Press and McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-262-03141-8. - Cormen, Thomas H.; Leiserson, Charles E.; Rivest, Ronald L.; Stein, Clifford (2001) [1990].
*Introduction to Algorithms*(2nd ed.). MIT Press and McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-262-03293-7. - Cormen, Thomas H.; Leiserson, Charles E.; Rivest, Ronald L.; Stein, Clifford (2009) [1990].
*Introduction to Algorithms*(3rd ed.). MIT Press and McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-262-03384-4.

## See also

## References

- ↑ "Introduction to Algorithms—CiteSeerX citation query".
*CiteSeerX*. The College of Information Sciences and Technology at Penn State. Retrieved 2012-05-15. - ↑ Larry Hardesty (August 10, 2011). "Milestone for MIT Press's bestseller". MIT News Office. Retrieved August 16, 2011.
- ↑ "Eternally Confuzzled - Red/Black Trees".
- ↑ Neato Tech Books (J. Blustein)
- ↑ Cormen et al, back cover. See, also,
*Big Red*at the Whitney Museum of American Art web site.

## External links

- Official websites
- by MIT Press

- MIT lecture "MIT 6.046J / 18.410J Introduction to Algorithms - Fall 2005". Held in part by coauthor Charles Leiserson. Released as part of MIT OpenCourseWare.
- At OCW.MIT.Edu. Video recordings and transcripts of the lectures.
- At VideoLectures.Net. Video recordings of the lectures. Includes slides automatically synchronized to video content.

- Exercise Solutions
- While there are no official solutions, the following may be helpful:
- Chapters 1 - 11
- Chapters 13 - 26
- GitHub
- CLRS Sols on Gitbooks