International Brigades

International Brigades

Symbol of the International Brigades.
Active 18 September 1936 – 23 September 1938
Country France, Italy, Germany, Poland, Soviet Union, United States, United Kingdom, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Canada, Sweden, Switzerland, Bulgaria, etc.
Allegiance Soviet Union Communist International
Second Spanish Republic Second Spanish Republic
Type Infantry
Role Paramilitary
Size 59,380
Garrison/HQ Albacete (Castilla-La Mancha)
Motto(s) Por vuestra libertad y la nuestra
("For your freedom and ours")

Spanish Civil War

Political Commissar André Marty
Manfred Stern, Hans Kahle, Karol Świerczewski, Máté Zalka and Wilhelm Zaisser

The International Brigades (Spanish: Brigadas Internacionales) were paramilitary units set up by the Communist International to assist the Popular Front government of the Second Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War. The organisation existed for two years, from 1936 until 1938. It is estimated that during the entire war, between 32,000 and 35,000 members served in the International Brigades, including 15,000 who died in combat; however there was never more than 20,000 brigade members present on the front line at one time.[1]

The headquarters of the brigade was located at the Los Llanos Air Base, Albacete, Castilla-La Mancha. They participated in the Battle of Madrid, Jarama, Guadalajara, Brunete, Belchite, Teruel, Aragon and the Elbro. Most of these ended in defeat. For the last year of its existence, the International Brigades were integrated into the Spanish Republican Army as part of the Spanish Foreign Legion. The organisation was dissolved on 23 September 1938 by Spanish Prime Minister, Juan Negrín, in an attempt to get more support from the liberal democracies on the Non-Intervention Committee.

The Brigades represented Comintern and Stalin's Soviet Union commitment to provide assistance to the Spanish Republic (which also included arms, military advisors and the NKVD), as Italy, Portugal and Germany were then providing assistance to the Nationalist insurgency.[2] The largest number of volunteers came from France (where the French Communist Party had many members) and communist exiles from Italy and Germany. A large number of Jews from the Anglosphere and Eastern Europe also participated.[3] Republican volunteers who were opposed to "Stalinism" fought for the Trotskyist POUM (such as George Orwell)[4] or anarcho-syndicalist groups such as the Durruti Column, the IWA and the CNT.

Formation and recruitment

A unit of the Bulgarian International Brigade, 1937
Flag of the Hungarian International Brigades.
For military structure and organization, see International Brigades order of battle. For anti-Stalinist communist brigades, see POUM.

Using foreign Communist Parties to recruit volunteers for Spain was first proposed in the Soviet Union in September 1936—apparently at the suggestion of Maurice Thorez[5]—by Willi Münzenberg, chief of Comintern propaganda for Western Europe. As a security measure, non-Communist volunteers would first be interviewed by an NKVD agent.

By the end of September, the Italian and French Communist Parties had decided to set up a column. Luigi Longo, ex-leader of the Italian Communist Youth, was charged to make the necessary arrangements with the Spanish government. The Soviet Ministry of Defense also helped, since they had experience of dealing with corps of international volunteers during the Russian Civil War. The idea was initially opposed by Largo Caballero, but after the first setbacks of the war, he changed his mind, and finally agreed to the operation on 22 October. However, the Soviet Union did not withdraw from the Non-Intervention Committee, probably to avoid diplomatic conflict with France and the United Kingdom.

The main recruitment centre was in Paris, under the supervision of Soviet colonel Karol "Walter" Świerczewski. On 17 October 1936, an open letter by Joseph Stalin to José Díaz was published in Mundo Obrero, arguing that victory for the Spanish second republic was a matter not only for Spaniards, but also for the whole of "progressive humanity"; in a matter of days, support organisations for the Spanish Republic were founded in most countries, all more or less controlled by the Comintern.

Entry to Spain was arranged for volunteers: for instance, a Yugoslav, Josip Broz, who would become famous as Marshal Josip Broz Tito, was in Paris to provide assistance, money and passports for volunteers from Eastern Europe. Volunteers were sent by train or ship from France to Spain, and sent to the base at Albacete. However, many of them also went by themselves to Spain. The volunteers were under no contract, nor defined engagement period, which would later prove a problem.

Also many Italians, Germans, and people from other countries joined the movement, with the idea that combat in Spain was a first step to restore democracy or advance a revolutionary cause in their own country. There were also many unemployed workers (especially from France), and adventurers. Finally, some 500 communists who had been exiled to Russia were sent to Spain (among them, experienced military leaders from the First World War like "Kléber" Stern, "Gomez" Zaisser, "Lukacs" Zalka and "Gal" Galicz, who would prove invaluable in combat).

The operation was met with enthusiasm by communists, but by anarchists with skepticism, at best. At first, the anarchists, who controlled the borders with France, were told to refuse communist volunteers, but reluctantly allowed their passage after protests. A group of 500 volunteers (mainly French, with a few exiled Poles and Germans) arrived in Albacete on 14 October 1936. They were met by international volunteers who had already been fighting in Spain: Germans from the Thälmann Battalion, Italians from Centuria Gastone Sozzi and French from Commune de Paris Battalion. Among them was British poet John Cornford. Men were sorted according to their experience and origin, and dispatched to units.

Albacete soon became the International Brigades headquarters and its main depot. It was run by a troika of Comintern heavyweights: André Marty was commander; Luigi Longo (Gallo) was Inspector-General; and Giuseppe Di Vittorio (Nicoletti) was chief political commissar.[6]

The French Communist Party provided uniforms for the Brigades. They were organized into mixed brigades, the basic military unit of the Republican People's Army.[7] Discipline was extreme. For several weeks, the Brigades were locked in their base while their strict military training was under way.


First engagements: Siege of Madrid

Main article: Siege of Madrid
The flag of the International Brigades was the Spanish Republican flag with the three-pointed star of the Popular Front in the center

The Battle of Madrid was a major success for the Republic. It staved off the prospect of a rapid defeat at the hands of Francisco Franco's forces. The role of the International Brigades in this victory was generally recognised, but was exaggerated by Comintern propaganda, so that the outside world heard only of their victories, and not those of Spanish units. So successful was such propaganda that the British Ambassador, Sir Henry Chilton, declared that there were no Spaniards in the army which had defended Madrid. The International Brigade forces that fought in Madrid arrived after other successful Republican fighting. Of the 40,000 Republican troops in the city, the foreign troops numbered less than 3,000.[8] Even though the International Brigades did not win the battle by themselves, nor significantly change the situation, they certainly did provide an example by their determined fighting, and improved the morale of the population by demonstrating the concern of other nations in the fight. Many of the older members of the International Brigades provided valuable combat experience, having fought during the First World War (Spain remained neutral in 1914–18) and the Irish War of Independence (Some had fought in the British army while others had fought in the IRA).

One of the strategic positions in Madrid was the Casa de Campo. There the Nationalist troops were Moroccans, commanded by General José Enrique Varela. They were stopped by III and IV Brigades of the Spanish Republican Army.

On 9 November 1936, the XI International Brigade - comprising 1,900 men from the Edgar André Battalion, the Commune de Paris Battalion and the Dabrowski Battalion, together with a British machine-gun company — took up position at the Casa de Campo. In the evening, its commander, General Kléber, launched an assault on the Nationalist positions. This lasted for the whole night and part of the next morning. At the end of the fight, the Nationalist troops had been forced to retreat, abandoning all hopes of a direct assault on Madrid by Casa de Campo, while the XIth Brigade had lost a third of its personnel.

On 13 November, the 1,550-man strong XII International Brigade, made up of the Thälmann Battalion, the Garibaldi Battalion and the André Marty Battalion, deployed. Commanded by General "Lukacs", they assaulted Nationalist positions on the high ground of Cerro de los Angeles. As a result of language and communication problems, command issues, lack of rest, poor coordination with armoured units, and insufficient artillery support, the attack failed.

On November 19, the anarchist militias were forced to retreat, and Nationalist troops — Moroccans and Spanish Foreign Legionnaires, covered by the Nazi Condor Legion — captured a foothold in the University City. The 11th Brigade was sent to drive the Nationalists out of the University City. The battle was extremely bloody, a mix of artillery and aerial bombardment, with bayonet and grenade fights, room by room. Anarchist leader Buenaventura Durruti was shot there on 19 November 1936, and died the next day. The battle in the University went on until three quarters of the University City was under Nationalist control. Both sides then started setting up trenches and fortifications. It was then clear that any assault from either side would be far too costly; the nationalist leaders had to renounce the idea of a direct assault on Madrid, and prepare for a siege of the capital.

On 13 December 1936, 18,000 nationalist troops attempted an attack to close the encirclement of Madrid at Guadarrama — an engagement known as the Battle of the Corunna Road. The Republicans sent in a Soviet armoured unit, under General Dmitry Pavlov, and both XI and XII International Brigades. Violent combat followed, and they stopped the Nationalist advance.

An attack was then launched by the Republic on the Córdoba front. The battle ended in a form of stalemate; a communique was issued, saying: "During the day the advance continued without the loss of any territory." Poets Ralph Winston Fox and John Cornford were killed. Eventually, the Nationalists advanced, taking the hydroelectric station at El Campo. André Marty accused the commander of the Marseillaise Battalion, Gaston Delasalle, of espionage and treason and had him executed. (It is doubtful that Delasalle would have been a spy for Francisco Franco; he was denounced by his own second-in-command, André Heussler, who was subsequently executed for treason during World War II by the French Resistance.)

Further Nationalist attempts after Christmas to encircle Madrid met with failure, but not without extremely violent combat. On 6 January 1937, the Thälmann Battalion arrived at Las Rozas, and held its positions until it was destroyed as a fighting force. On January 9, only 10 km had been lost to the Nationalists, when the XIII International Brigade and XIV International Brigade and the 1st British Company, arrived in Madrid. Violent Republican assaults were launched in attempt to retake the land, with little success. On January 15, trenches and fortifications were built by both sides, resulting in a stalemate.

The Nationalists did not take Madrid until the very end of the war, in March 1939, when they marched in unopposed. There were some pockets of resistance during the consecutive months.

Battle of Jarama

Main article: Battle of Jarama

On 6 February 1937, following the fall of Málaga, the nationalists launched an attack on the MadridAndalusia road, south of Madrid. The Nationalists quickly advanced on the little town Ciempozuelos, held by the XV International Brigade, which was composed of the British Battalion (British Commonwealth and Irish), the Dimitrov Battalion (miscellaneous Balkan nationalities), the 6 Février Battalion (Belgians and French), the Canadian Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion and the Abraham Lincoln Brigade (Americans, including African-American). An independent 80-men-strong (mainly) Irish unit, known as the Connolly Column, made up of people from both sides of the Irish border also fought. Several histories of the Irish in Spain record that they included an ex-Catholic Christian Brother and an ordained Church of Ireland (Anglican Protestant) Clergyman, fighting and dying on the same side. (These battalions were not composed entirely of one nationality or another, rather they were for the most part a mix of many)

On 11 February 1937, a Nationalist brigade launched a surprise attack on the André Marty Battalion (XIV International Brigade), stabbing its sentries and crossing the Jarama. The Garibaldi Battalion stopped the advance with heavy fire. At another point, the same tactic allowed the Nationalists to move their troops across the river.

On 12 February, the British Battalion, XV International Brigade took the brunt of the attack, remaining under heavy fire for seven hours. The position became known as "Suicide Hill". At the end of the day, only 225 of the 600 members of the British battalion remained. One company was captured by ruse, when Nationalists advanced among their ranks singing The Internationale.

On 17 February, the Republican Army counter-attacked. On February 23 and 27, the International Brigades were engaged, but with little success. The Lincoln Battalion was put under great pressure, with no artillery support. It suffered 120 killed and 175 wounded. Amongst the dead was the Irish poet Charles Donnelly[9] and Leo Greene.

There were heavy casualties on both sides, and although "both claimed victory ... both suffered defeats".[10] It resulted in a stalemate, with both sides digging in, creating elaborate trench systems.

On 22 February 1937 the League of Nations Non-Intervention Committee ban on foreign volunteers went into effect.

Battle of Guadalajara

Flag of Giustizia e Libertà, an Italian anti-fascist resistance movement led by Carlo Rosselli. Rosselli took part in the war, uniting a mix of Italian anti-fascist political forces, including socialists, anarchists, communists, and liberals together to support the Republican cause and took part in the fighting. Rosselli was assassinated by a French fascist in 1937.
Main article: Battle of Guadalajara

After the failed assault on the Jarama, the Nationalists attempted another assault on Madrid, from the North-East this time. The objective was the town of Guadalajara, 50 km from Madrid. The whole Italian expeditionary corps — 35,000 men, with 80 battle tanks and 200 field artillery — was deployed, as Benito Mussolini wanted the victory to be credited to Italy. On 9 March 1937, the Italians made a breach in the Republican lines, but did not properly exploit the advance. However, the rest of the Nationalist army was advancing, and the situation appeared critical for the Republicans. A formation drawn from the best available units of the Republican army, including the XI and XII International Brigades, was quickly assembled.

At dawn on 10 March, the Nationalists closed in, and by noon, the Garibaldi Battalion counterattacked. Some confusion arose from the fact that the sides were not aware of each other's movements, and that both sides spoke Italian; this resulted in scouts from both sides exchanging information without realising they were enemies.[11] The Republican lines advanced and made contact with XI International Brigade. Nationalist tanks were shot at and infantry patrols came into action.

On March 11, the Nationalist army broke the front of the Republican army. The Thälmann Battalion suffered heavy losses, but succeeded in holding the TrijuequeTorija road. The Garibaldi also held its positions. On March 12, Republican planes and tanks attacked. The Thälmann Battalion attacked Trijuete in a bayonet charge and re-took the town, capturing numerous prisoners.

The International Brigades also saw combat in the Battle of Teruel in January 1938. The 35th International Division suffered heavily in this battle from aerial bombardment as well as shortages of food, winter clothing and ammunition. The XIV International Brigade fought in the Battle of Ebro in July 1938, the last Republican offensive of the war.


Although exact figures are not available, an estimated 5,857 to 25,229 brigadiers died in Spain, of an estimated 23,670 to 59,380 who served, with estimated death rates of 16.7% to 29.2%. These high casualty rates are blamed on lack of training, poor leadership and use as shock troops.[12]


Bronze plaque honoring the British soldiers of the International Brigades who died defending the Spanish Republic at the monument on Hill 705, Serra de Pàndols.

In October 1938, at the height of the Battle of the Ebro, the Non-Intervention Committee ordered the withdrawal of the International Brigades which were fighting on the Republican side.[13] The Republican government of Juan Negrín announced the decision in the League of Nations on 21 September 1938. The disbandment was part of an ill-advised effort to get the Nationalists' foreign backers to withdraw their troops and to persuade the Western democracies such as France and Britain to end their arms embargo on the Republic.

By this time there were about an estimated 10,000 foreign volunteers still serving in Spain for the Republican side, and about 50,000 foreign conscripts for the Nationalists (excluding another 30,000 Moroccans).[14] Perhaps half of the International Brigadists were exiles or refugees from Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy or other countries, such as Hungary, which had authoritarian right-wing governments at the time. These men could not safely return home and some were instead given honorary Spanish citizenship and integrated into Spanish units of the Popular Army. The remainder were repatriated to their own countries. The Belgian and Dutch volunteers lost their citizenship because they had served in a foreign army.[15]



For military structure and organization, see International Brigades order of battle.

The first brigades were composed mostly of French, Belgian, Italian, and German volunteers, backed by a sizeable contingent of Polish miners from Northern France and Belgium. The XIth, XIIth and XIIIth were the first brigades formed. Later, the XIVth and XVth Brigades were raised, mixing experienced soldiers with new volunteers. Smaller Brigades — the 86th, 129th and 150th - were formed in late 1937 and 1938, mostly for temporary tactical reasons.

About 32,000 [2] people volunteered to defend the Spanish Republic. Many were veterans of World War I. Their early engagements in 1936 during the Siege of Madrid amply demonstrated their military and propaganda value.

The international volunteers were mainly socialists, communists, or under communist authority, and a high proportion were Jewish. Some were involved in the fighting in Barcelona against Republican opponents of the Communists: the Workers' Party of Marxist Unification (POUM) (Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista, an anti-Stalinist Marxist party) and anarchists. These more libertarian groups like the POUM fought together on the front with the anarchist federations of the CNT (CNT, Confederación Nacional del Trabajo) and the FAI (FAI, Iberian Anarchist Federation) who had large support in the area of Catalonia. However, overseas volunteers from anarchist, socialist, liberal and other political positions also served with the international brigades.

To simplify communication, the battalions usually concentrated people of the same nationality or language group. The battalions were often (formally, at least) named after inspirational people or events. From Spring 1937 onwards, many battalions contained one Spanish volunteer company (about 150 men).

Later in the war, military discipline tightened and learning Spanish became mandatory. By decree of 23 September 1937, the International Brigades formally became units of the Spanish Foreign Legion.[16] This made them subject to the Spanish Code of Military Justice. However the Spanish Foreign Legion itself sided with the Nationalists throughout the coup and the civil war.[16] The same decree also specified that non-Spanish officers in the Brigades should not exceed Spanish ones by more than 50 per cent[17]

MKVD created in 1937 ‘Control and Security Service’.

Non-Spanish battalions

Spanish Civil War Medal awarded to the International Brigades

Brigadiers by country of origin

Flag/s Nationality Estimate Notes
France France 8,962[19]–9,000[2][20]
Italy Italy 3,000[19][20]–3,350[21]
Germany/Austria Germany/Austria 3,000[2]–5,000[20] Beevor quotes 2,217 Germans and 872 Austrians.[19] The Documentation Centre of Austrian Resistance in Vienna names exactly 1400 Austrians and publishes short biographies of them on their website.
Poland Poland 3,000[2][20]–3,113[19]
United States United States 2,341[19]–2,800[20][21] See Abraham Lincoln brigade.
  Balkan countries 2,095[19]
Soviet Union Soviet Union 2,000-3,000[2] Though "never more than 800 present at any one time".[22]
United Kingdom United Kingdom 2,500 [23]
Belgium Belgium 1,600[20]–1,722[19]
Canada Canada 1,546–2,000[20] Thomas estimates 1,000.[21]
Kingdom of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia 1,500[2]–1,660[20] See Yugoslav volunteers in the Spanish Civil War.
Cuba Cuba 1,101[24][25]
Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia 1,006[19]–1,500[2][20]
  Baltic states 892[19]
Argentina Argentina 740[26]
Netherlands Netherlands 628[19]
Denmark Denmark 550 220 died.
Hungary Hungary 528[19]–1,500[2]
Sweden Sweden 500[27] An estimated 799[19]–1,000[21] people from Scandinavia (Thomas estimates about 1,000 – of whom 500 were Swedes.[27])
Romania Romania 500 Even some Romanian communist leaders like Petre Borilă and Emil Bodnăraș
Bulgaria Bulgaria 462
Switzerland Switzerland 408[19]–800[28]
Republic of Ireland Ireland 250 Split between the British Battalion and the Abraham Lincoln Battalion which included the famous Connolly Column
Norway Norway 225 100 died.[29][30][31]
Finland Finland 225 Including 78 Finnish Americans and 73 Finnish Canadians, ca. 70 died.[32]
Estonia Estonia 200[33]
Greece Greece 290–400[34]
Portugal Portugal 134[19]
Luxembourg Luxembourg 103 Livre historiographic d'Henri Wehenkel: D'Spueniekämfer (1997)
Taiwan China 100[35]Organised by the Chinese Communist Party, members were mostly overseas Chinese. Their leader was Xie Weijin.[36]
Mexico Mexico 90
Cyprus Cyprus 60[34]
Philippines Philippines 50 [37][38]
Albania Albania 43
Costa Rica Costa Rica 24[2]
Others 1,122[19]

Status after the war

East German stamp honoring Hans Beimler with a fight scene of the International Brigades in the background

Since the Civil War was eventually won by the Nationalists, the Brigadiers were initially on the "wrong side" of history, especially since most of their home countries had a right-wing government (in France, for instance, the Popular Front was not in power any more).

However, since most of these countries found themselves at war with the very powers which had been supporting the Nationalists, the Brigadists gained some prestige as the first guard of the democracies, having fought a prophetical combat. Retrospectively, it was clear that the war in Spain was as much a precursor of the Second World War as a Spanish civil war.

Some glory therefore accrued to the volunteers (a great many of the survivors also fought during World War II), but this soon faded in the fear that it would promote (by association) communism.

An exception is among groups to the left of the Communist Parties, for example anarchists. Among these groups the Brigades, or at least their leadership, are criticised for their alleged role in suppressing the Spanish Revolution. An example of a modern work which promotes this view is Ken Loach's film Land and Freedom. A well-known contemporary account of the Spanish Civil War which also takes this view is George Orwell's book Homage to Catalonia.

East Germany

Germany was undivided until after the Second World War. At that time, the new German Democratic Republic began to create a national identity which was separate from and antithetical to the former Nazi Germany. The Spanish Civil War, and especially the role of the International Brigades, became a substantial part of East Germany's memorial rituals because of the substantial numbers of German communists who had served in the brigades. These showcased a commitment by many Germans to antifascism at a time when Germany and Nazism were often conflated together.[39]


Survivors of the Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion were often investigated by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and denied employment when they returned to Canada. Some were prevented from serving in the military during the Second World War due to "political unreliability".

In 1995 a monument to veterans of the war was built near Ontario's provincial parliament.[40][41] On February 12, 2000, a bronze statue "The Spirit of the Republic" based on an original poster from the Spanish Republic, by sculptor Jack Harman, was placed on the grounds of the BC Legislature.[42] And in 2001, the few remaining Canadian veterans of the Spanish Civil War dedicated a monument to Canadian members of the International Brigades in Ottawa's Green Island Park.


In Switzerland, public sympathy was high for the Republican cause, but the federal government banned all fundraising and recruiting activities a month after the start of the war so as to preserve Swiss neutrality.[28] Around 800 Swiss volunteers joined the International Brigades, among them a small number of women.[28] Sixty percent of Swiss volunteers identified as communists, while the others included socialists, anarchists and antifascists.[28]

Some 170 Swiss volunteers were killed in the war.[28] The survivors were tried by military courts upon their return to Switzerland for violating the criminal prohibition on foreign military service.[28][43] The courts pronounced 420 sentences which ranged from around two weeks to four years in prison, and often also stripped the convicts of their political rights. In the judgment of Swiss historian Mauro Cerutti, volunteers were punished more harshly in Switzerland than in any other democratic country.[28]

Motions to pardon the Swiss brigadists on the account that they fought for a just cause have been repeatedly introduced in the Swiss federal parliament. A first such proposal was defeated in 1939 on neutrality grounds.[28] In 2002, Parliament again rejected a pardon of the Swiss war volunteers, with a majority arguing that they did break a law that remains in effect to this day.[44] In March 2009, Parliament adopted a third bill of pardon, retroactively rehabilitating Swiss brigadists, only a handful of whom were still alive.[45]

United Kingdom

On disbandment, 305 British volunteers left Spain.[46] They arrived at Victoria Station on 7 December, to be met by a crowd of supporters including Clement Attlee, Stafford Cripps, Willie Gallacher, and Will Lawther.

United States

In the United States, the returned volunteers were labeled "premature anti-fascists" by the FBI, denied promotion during service in the US military during World War II, and pursued by Congressional committees during the Red Scare of 1947-1957.[47][48] However, threats of loss of citizenship were not carried out.



On 26 January 1996, the Spanish government gave Spanish citizenship to the Brigadists. At the time, roughly 600 remained. At the end of 1938, Prime Minister Juan Negrín had promised Spanish citizenship to the Brigadists, which citizenship was of course not recognized by the Nationalists who were about to take over the entire country.


In 1996, Jacques Chirac, then French President, granted the former French members of the International Brigades the legal status of former service personnel ("anciens combattants") following the request of two French communist Members of Parliament, Lefort and Asensi, both children of volunteers. Before 1996, the same request was turned down several times including by François Mitterrand, the former Socialist President.


There is a full list of British and Irish monuments on the International Brigade Memorial Trust's website.

Symbolism and heraldry

The Internationalist star, a three-pointed red star used as emblem by International Brigades

The International Brigades were inheritors of a socialist aesthetic.

The flags featured the colours of the Spanish Republic: red, yellow and purple, often along with socialist symbols (red flags, hammer and sickle, fist). The emblem of the brigades themselves was the three-pointed red star, which is often featured.

Notable associated people

Note: not all the following were International Brigade members.

See also


  1. Thomas (2003), pp. 941–5; Beevor (2006), p. 157.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Thomas (2003), pp. 941–5
  3. Sugarman, Martin. "Against Fascism – Jews who served in The International Brigade in the Spanish Civil War" (PDF). Jewish Virtual Library. p. 122. Retrieved January 26, 2012.
  4. Homage to Catalonia. Author:Orwell, George.Publisher: Penguin Group. Date: Re-print, 2000. Work: Auto-biographical account of the Authors participation in the Spanish Civil War. ISBN 978 0 141 18305 3
  5. Beevor 1982, p. 124
  6. Thomas 2003, p. 443
  7. Orden, circular, creando un Comisariado general de Guerra con la misión que se indica. (PDF). Año CCLXXV Tomo IV, Núm. 290. Gaceta de Madrid: diario oficial de la República. 16 October 1936. p. 355.
  8. Beevor (1982), p 137; Anderson (2003), p 59.
  9. Archived April 4, 2005, at the Wayback Machine.
  10. Thomas 2003, p. 579
  11. Beevor 1982, p. 158
  12. Michael W. Jackson (1995). Fallen Sparrows: The International Brigades in the Spanish Civil War. American Philosophical Society. p. 106.
  13. Lorenzo Peña, [email protected]. "Mensaje de de despedida a los voluntarios de las Brigadas Internacionales y otros discursos de La Pasionaria". Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  14. Exit - Time, Monday, 3 October 1938
  15. Orwell (1938).
  16. 1 2 Beevor 2006, p. 309
  17. Castells (1974), pp. 258–9
  18. Kantorowicz (1948)
  19. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Lefebvre (2003), p. 16. Quoted by Beevor (2006), p. 468.
  20. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Quoted in Alvarez (1996).
  21. 1 2 3 4 Thomas (1961), pp. 634–639.
  22. Beevor 2006, p. 163
  23. Richard Baxell, British Volunteers in the Spanish Civil War, 2012
  24. "Los voluntarios cubanos en la GCE". Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  25. "New book on Cubans in SCW". Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  26. "Voluntarios Argentinos en la Brigada XV Abraham Lincoln". Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  27. 1 2 Thomas 2003, p. 943
  28. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Daniele Mariani (February 27, 2008). "No pardon for Spanish civil war helpers". Swissinfo.
  29. Moen, Jo Stein og Sæther, Rolf: Tusen dager – Norge og den spanske borgerkrigen 1936-1939, Gyldendal 2009, ISBN 978-82-05-39351-6
  30. " - Nyheter fra arbeidslivet og fagbevegelsen". Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  31. "Tusen dager". Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  32. Juusela, Jyrki: Suomalaiset Espanjan sisällissodassa, Atena Kustannus 2003, ISBN 951-796-324-6
  33. Kuuli, (1965).
  34. 1 2 efor. "The Greek antifascist volunteers in the Spanish Civil War". Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  35. China Museum (May 31, 2012). "朱德等赠给国际纵队中国支队的锦旗". chnmuseum.
  36. Unknown (March 30, 2005). "战斗在西班牙反法西斯前线的中国支队". Luobinghui.
  37. "Spanish Civil War - Filipino Involement [sic]". Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  38. "SPANISH FALANGE IN THE PHILIPPINES, 1936-1945". Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  39. The Cult of the Spanish Civil War in East Germany (abstract) - Krammer, Arnold, Texas A&M University. Retrieved 2008-05-14.
  40. "Canadians in the Spanish Civil War" (PDF).
  41. "Unsung Canadian soldiers honored . . .at las". Toronto Star. 1995-06-04.
  42. "Untitled Document". Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  43. Swiss Military Penal Code , SR/RS 321.0 (E·D·F·I), art. 94 (E·D·F·I)
  44. Report of the Judicial Committee of the National Council, Off. J. 2002 pp. 7786 et seq.
  45. "Parliament pardons Spanish Civil War fighters". Swissinfo. Retrieved 2009-03-13.
  46. Baxell, Richard (September 6, 2012). Unlikely Warriors: The British in the Spanish Civil War and the Struggle Against Fascism (Hardcover). London: Aurum Press Limited. p. 400. ISBN 1845136977.
  47. Premature antifascists and the Post-war world, Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archives — Bill Susman Lecture Series. King Juan Carlos I of Spain Center at New York University, 1998. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
  48. Bernard Knox, Premature Anti-Fascist, reprinted from The Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archives — Bill Susman Lecture Series. King Juan Carlos I of Spain Center — New York University, 1998. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
  49. Thomas 2003, p. 927
  50. Thomas 2003, p. 926


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