Instruments used in pathology

Instruments used specially in pathology are as follows: [1][2][3]

Instrument list

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.
Instrument Uses
Flow cytometer used for automated cell counting as in total blood count, differential count, etc.
Tissue bath or organ bath or Dale's apparatus used in full tissue experiments, for example using guinea pig ileum mainly used in pharmacology for application of drugs to these tissues.
Sahli Haemoglobinometer an old but rapid and simple method of hemoglobin estimation in the laboratories. Presently used in some places where sophisticated optical instruments are not available
Haemocytometer a microscope associated apparatus used for manual counting of cells in body fluids like blood, etc. including for sperm count
Wintrobe's tube used for ESR (Wintrobe's method), PCV, haematocrit, etc.
Westergren's tube and ESR stand used for ESR (Westergren's method)
Disposable plastic molds or embedding molds (Leukart's L blocks) for tissue paraffin block making w.r.t. Histopathology used to make blocks of tissue for cutting into thin slices for microscopy
Block holders (in histopathology) used to hold the tissue blocks during cutting
•Refrigerated microtome (cryostat) -do-; a special type that is used during operations to aid the surgeon in demarcating the diseased (specially neoplasms) tissue.
•Rocking microtome -do-; a special type
•Base sledge microtome -do-; a special type
•Ultra microtome -do-; a special type
Tissue section floating baths (in histopathology) used to spread the cut thin slices onto water using surface tension from where it is placed onto glass slides
Ryle's tube or nasogastric tube used for nasogastric suction (or at times introduction of food or drugs). video link
FNAC needles used for fine needle aspiration of material from inside the body; used for diagnostic examinations of the cells hence obtained; video link
Trephine biopsy needle[4] used for taking a biopsy from a deep hard tissue like bone marrow (within a hard bone)
Spirometer used to test lung function; video link
•Water-seal type -do-
•Douglas bag type -do-
Peak flow meter or peak expiatory flow rate meter used to test lung function by testing the rate at which the person can exhale; useful to diagnose COPD and asthma
Mercury or other manometers used to measure pressure of a fluid within a cavity like the spinal canal, which is raised in certain diseases



  1. Essentials of medical physiology by Dr. Arun Baran Singha Mahapatra, ISBN 81-86793-56-9
  2. Practical Pathology by Dr. P. Chakraborty n Dr. G. Chakraborty, ISBN 81-7381-332-9
  3. Robbins and Cotran Review of Pathology ISBN 0-7216-0194-4
  4. Bain BJ (2003). "Bone marrow biopsy morbidity and mortality". Br. J. Haematol. 121 (6): 949–51. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2141.2003.04329.x. PMID 12786808.
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