Ibn Zuhr

Ibn Zuhr ابن زهر
Born 1094
Seville, Almoravid dynasty, now Province of Seville, Spain
Died 1162 (aged 68)
Seville, Almoravid dynasty, now Province of Seville, Spain
Residence Al-Andalus
Academic background
  • Abu al-'Ala' (father)
  • Galen
Academic work
Era Medieval Islamic civilization
Notable works Kitab al-Taisir fi al-Mudawat wa al-Tadbir
Influenced Averroes, Maimonides, Pietro d'Abano, Guy de Chauliac

Ibn Zuhr (Arabic: ابن زهر; 10941162), traditionally known by his Latinized name of Avenzoar, was a Muslim Arab physician and surgeon and poet. He was born at Seville in medieval Andalusia (present-day Spain), was a contemporary of Averroes and Ibn Tufail, and was the most well-regarded physician of his era.[1] He was particularly known for his emphasis on a more rational, empiric basis of medicine. His major work, Al-Taysīr fil-Mudāwāt wal-Tadbīr ("Book of Simplification Concerning Therapeutics and Diet"), was translated into Latin and Hebrew and was influential to the progress of surgery. He also improved surgical and medical knowledge by keying out several diseases and their treatments.

Ibn Zuhr performed the first experimental tracheotomy on a goat.[2] He is thought to have made the earliest description of bezoar stones as medicinal items.[3]



His full name is Abū-Marwān ʻAbd al-Malik ibn Abī al-ʻAlāʼ Ibn Zuhr (أبو مروان عبد الملك بن أبي العلاء بن زهر). His name was Latinized as Avenzoar, Abumeron, Abhomeron, Alomehón or Abhomjeron.

Early life

He was born in Seville and belonged to the Banu Zuhr family (of Arab origin), which produced six consecutive generations of physicians, and included jurists, poets, viziers or courtiers, and midwives who served under rulers of Al-Andalus.[4][5] He studied medicine with his father, Abu'l-Ala Zuhr (d.1131)[6] at an early age.

Exile and return to Seville

He fell out of favour of with the Almoravid ruler, 'Ali bin Yusuf bin Tashufin, and fled from Seville. He was however, apprehended and jailed in Marrakesh in 1140. Later in 1147 when the Almohad dynasty conquered Seville, he returned and devoted himself to medical practice. He died in Seville in 1162.


Ibn Zuhr wrote three major books:[7]


Ibn Zuhr presented an accurate description of the esophageal and stomach cancers, as well as other lesions.[8][9]

Animal testing

Ibn Zuhr introduced animal testing as an experimental method of testing surgical procedures before applying them to human patients.[10]

Identification of Scabies.

He is the first to record evidence of the Scabies mite, which contributed to the scientific advancement of microbiology.[11]


The Jewish physician-philosopher Maimonides admired Ibn Zuhr,[12] describing him as "unique in his age and one of the great sages". He frequently quoted him in his medical texts.[13] He performed medical procedures on animals before doing them on humans to know if they would work


See also

Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Avenzoar.


  1. Azar 2008, p. 1.
  2. Missori, Paolo; Brunetto, Giacoma M.; Domenicucci, Maurizio (7 February 2012). "Origin of the Cannula for Tracheotomy During the Middle Ages and Renaissance". World Journal of Surgery. 36 (4): 928–934. doi:10.1007/s00268-012-1435-1.
  3. Byrne, Joseph P. Encyclopedia of the Black Death. ABC-CLIO. p. 33. ISBN 1598842536.
  4. Azar 2008, p. 1.
  5. The Art as a Profession, United States National Library of Medicine
  6. Arvide Cambra, L.M.(2015), "Abu l-'Ala' Zuhr, The Quack of Al-Andalus", International Journal of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE), vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 99-102.
  7. Azar 2008, p. 3.
  8. Tweel, Jan G.; Taylor, Clive R. (25 May 2010). "A brief history of pathology". Virchows Archiv. 457 (1): 3–10. doi:10.1007/s00428-010-0934-4.
  9. "2 Early concepts of cancer", 2000, Cancer and metastasis reviews, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 205-205.
  10. Hajar, Rachel (1 January 2011). "Animal testing and medicine". Heart Views. 12 (1): 42. doi:10.4103/1995-705X.81548.
  11. Microbiology in islam http://www.diwanalarab.com/spip.php?article34512
  12. Kraemer, Joel L. (2010). Maimonides: The Life and World of One of Civilization's Greatest Minds. Random House of Canada. p. 91. ISBN 0385512007.
  13. Azar 2008, p. 2.
  14. Shulman, S.T., M.D. 2002, "Otitis media: Old problem, new problem", Pediatric annals, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 767-768.


External links

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