IB Diploma Programme

For other uses, see Baccalaureate (disambiguation).

The International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP) is a two-year educational programme primarily aimed at students aged 16–19. The program provides an internationally accepted qualification for entry into higher education and is recognised by many universities worldwide. It was developed in the early to mid-1960s in Geneva, Switzerland, by a group of international educators. After a six-year pilot programme ended in 1975, a bilingual diploma was established.

Administered by the International Baccalaureate (IB), the IBDP is taught in schools in over 140 countries, in one of three languages: English, French, or Spanish. In order to participate, students must attend an IB school. IBDP students complete assessments in six subjects, one from each subject group, and three core requirements. Students are evaluated using both internal and external assessments, and courses finish with an externally assessed series of examinations, usually consisting of two or three timed written tests. Internal assessment varies by subject: there may be oral presentations, practical work, or written work. In most cases, these are initially graded by the classroom teacher, whose grades are then verified or modified, as necessary, by an appointed external moderator.

Generally, the IBDP has been well received. It has been commended for introducing interdisciplinary thinking to students. In the United Kingdom, The Guardian newspaper claims that the IBDP is "more academically challenging and broader than three or four A-levels".[1] However, a pledge to allow children in all areas to participate in the programme was shelved amid concerns that a "two-tier" education system was emerging, because the growth in IB was driven by private schools and sixth form colleges. British students who take the IB with its six subjects, Extended Essay (EE), Theory of Knowledge (TOK), and Creativity, Action and Service (CAS) receive differently structured university offers to those who sit three A-levels, with universities working carefully to construct appropriate equivalent offer conditions.[2]

History and background

In 1948 the "Conference of Internationally-minded Schools" asked the International School of Geneva (Ecolint) to create an international schools program.[3][4] When he became director of Ecolint's English division, Desmond Cole-Baker began to develop the idea, and in 1962, his colleague Robert Leach organised a conference in Geneva, at which the term "International Baccalaureate" was first mentioned.[3][5] An American social studies teacher, Leach organized the conference—with a $2500 grant from UNESCO—which was attended by observers from European schools and UNESCO. Writing about the genesis of the International Baccalaureate in Schools Across Frontiers, Alec Peterson credits Leach as "the original promoter of the International Baccalaureate."[6] At the end of the conference, Unesco funded the International School Association with an additional $10,000, which was inadequate to do more than produce a few papers, or bring teachers together for meetings.[7]

Château at Ecolint where IB was developed.

By 1964, international educators such as Alec Peterson (director of the Department of Education at Oxford University), Harlan Hanson (director of the College Board Advanced Placement Program), Desmond Cole (director of United Nations International School in New York) and Desmond Cole-Baker (head of the International School of Geneva) founded the International Schools Examination Syndicate (ISES).[8][9] Cole and Hanson brought experience with college entrance examinations in the United States, and Hanson, in particular, brought his experience from a long relationship with the College Board.[9] According to Peterson, "the breakthrough in the history of the IB" came in 1965 with a grant from the Twentieth Century Fund, which commissioned Martin Mayer, author of The Schools, to produce a report on the feasibility of establishing a common curriculum and examination for international schools that would be acceptable for entry to universities worldwide.[7] This led to conferences involving Ecolint, the United World College of the Atlantic (Atlantic College), and others in the spring and fall of 1965, at which details about the curriculum for the Diploma Programme were discussed and agreed upon.[7]

The Ford Foundation grant, secured in 1966, funded Peterson's study at Oxford University, which focused on three issues: a comparative analysis of "secondary educational programmes in European countries...in cooperation with the Council of Europe"; university expectations for secondary students intending to enter university; and a "statistical comparison of IB pilot examination results with...national school leaving examinations such as British A Levels and US College Board (AP) Tests".[7][8] As a result of the study and the curriculum model developed at Atlantic College, Peterson initiated the pattern of combining "general education with specialization", which melded with the curricula of the United States and Canada, and became the "curriculum framework" proposed at the UNESCO conference in Geneva in 1967.[8] Late in 1967, ISES was restructured and renamed the IB Council of Foundation, and John Goormaghtigh became the first president in January 1968.[7] In 1967, the group, which by then also included Ralph Tyler, identified eight schools to be used for the experimentation of the curriculum.[10]

In 1968, the IB headquarters were officially established in Geneva for the development and maintenance of the IBDP. Alec Peterson became IBO's first director general, and in 1968, twelve schools in twelve countries participated in the IBDP, including Atlantic College and UNIS of New York.[7][8][11] The aim was to "provide an internationally acceptable university admissions qualification suitable for the growing mobile population of young people whose parents were part of the world of diplomacy, international and multi-national organizations."[12]

The first six years of the IB Diploma Programme, with a limited number of students, are referred to as the "experimental period".[13] Each school was to be inspected by ISES or IBO and had to be approved by their government.[14] The experimental period ended in 1975, and in that year, the International Baccalaureate North America (IBNA) was established as a separate entity, allowing the funding for implementation of the IBDP to remain in the country rather than being sent to Geneva.[15] The first official guide to the programme containing its syllabus and official assessment information was published in 1970 and included the theory of knowledge course. The extended essay was introduced in 1978, but creativity, action, service (CAS), although mentioned in guides beforehand, was not specifically identified in the guide until 1989.[7][16]

In 1980, responding to criticism that the "internationalism" was Eurocentric, the IB hosted a seminar in Singapore with the goal of incorporating Asian culture and education into the IB curriculum. In 1982, the Standing Conference of Heads of IB Schools took steps to modify the Eurocentrism in the curriculum. The same year, the Japanese government hosted a science conference for IBO "as a token of Japanese interest in the various dimensions of the IB".[8]

From the start, all subjects of the IB Diploma Programme were available in English and French, and it was mandatory for all students to study both a first and a second language.[17] In 1974, bilingual diplomas were introduced that allowed students to take one or more of their humanities or science subjects in a language other than their first. The IB Diploma Programme subjects became available in Spanish in 1983.[17]

Core requirements and subject groups

To be awarded an IB diploma, a candidate must fulfill three core requirements, in addition to passing his or her subject examinations:[18]

Subject groups

Students who pursue the IB diploma must take six subjects: one each from Groups 1–5,[20] and either one from Group 6 or a permitted substitute from one of the other groups, as described below.[25] Three or four subjects must be taken at Higher level (HL) and the rest at Standard level (SL).[20] The IB recommends a minimum of 240 hours of instructional time for HL courses and 150 hours for SL courses.[20]

While the IB encourages students to pursue the full IB diploma, the "substantial workload require a great deal of commitment, organization, and initiative". Students may instead choose to register for one or more individual IB subjects, without the core requirements. Such students will not receive the full diploma.[26]

The six IBDP subject groups and course offerings are summarised below. More information about the subject groups and individual courses can be found at the respective subject group articles:

Environmental systems and societies SL is an interdisciplinary course designed to meet the diploma requirements for groups 3 and 4, while Literature and Performance SL meets the requirements of Groups 1 and 6.[33]

Online Diploma Programme and pilot courses

The IB is developing a pilot online version of the IBDP and currently offers several online courses to IBDP students.[34] Eventually, it expects to offer online courses to any student who wishes to register.[35] Additionally, the IB has developed pilot courses that include World Religions; Sports, Exercise and Health Sciences, Dance, and a transdisciplinary pilot course, Literature and Performance, Global Politics.[33][36][37] These pilot courses have now become part of the mainstream courses.[38][39][40][41][42]

Assessment and awards

All subjects (with the exception of CAS) are evaluated using both internal and external assessors. The externally assessed examinations are given worldwide in May (usually for Northern Hemisphere schools) and in November (usually for Southern Hemisphere schools). Each exam usually consists of two or three papers, generally written on the same or successive weekdays.[43] The different papers may have different forms of questions, or they may focus on different areas of the subject syllabus. For example, in Chemistry SL, paper 1 has multiple choice questions, paper 2 has extended response questions and data analysis, and paper 3 focuses on the "Option(s)" selected by the teacher. The grading of all external assessments is done by independent examiners appointed by the IB.[44]

The nature of the internal assessment (IA) varies by subject. There may be oral presentations (used in languages), practical work (in experimental sciences and performing arts), or written work. Internal assessment accounts for 20 to 50 percent of the mark awarded for each subject and is marked by a teacher in the school. A sample of at least five per subject at each level from a school will also be graded by a moderator appointed by the IB, in a process called external moderation of internal assessment. Based on this moderation, the grades of the whole subject from that school will change.[44]

Points are awarded from 1 to 7, with 7 being equal to A*, 6 equal to A, and so on. Up to three additional points are awarded depending on the grades achieved in the extended essay and theory of knowledge, so the maximum possible point total in the IBDP is 45.[45] The global pass rate for the IB diploma is approximately 80%.[46] In order to receive an IB diploma, candidates must receive a minimum of 24 points or an average of four (or C) out of a possible seven points for six subjects. Candidates must also receive a minimum of 12 points from their Higher Level subjects and a minimum of 9 points from their Standard Level subjects. Additionally, candidates must complete all of the requirements for the EE, CAS and TOK. Failing conditions that will prevent a student from being awarded a diploma, regardless of points received, are non-completion of CAS, more than three scores of 3 or below, not meeting the specific points required for Higher Level or Standard Level subjects, or plagiarism.[47]

Candidates who successfully complete all the requirements of the IB Diploma Programme and one or more of the following combinations are eligible to receive a bilingual diploma: two Group 1 subjects (of different languages), a Group 3 or 4 subject taken in a language other than the candidate's Group 1 language, or an Extended Essay in a Group 3 or Group 4 subject written in a language other than the candidate's Group 1 language.[48] IB certificates are issued to indicate completion of diploma courses and exams for non-diploma candidate students.[49]

Special circumstances

Where standard assessment conditions could put a student with special educational needs at a disadvantage, special arrangements may be allowed. The Candidates with Special Assessment Needs publication contains information regarding procedures and arrangements for students with special needs.[50]

Application and authorization

To offer the IB Diploma Programme, an institution must go through an application process, and during that period the teachers are trained in the IB. At the end of the application process, IB conducts an authorisation visit.[51] Once a school is authorised to offer the programme, an annual fee ensures ongoing support from the IB, legal authorisation to display the IB logo, and access to the Online Curriculum Centre (OCC) and the IB Information System (IBIS).[51] The OCC provides information, resources, and support for IB teachers and coordinators. IBIS is a database employed by IB coordinators.[52] Other IB fees also include student registration and individual diploma subject examination fees.[51]

University recognition

The IB diploma is accepted in 75 countries at over 2,000 universities, and the IB has a search directory on its website, although it advises students to check recognition policies directly with each university.[53] The IB also maintains a list of universities offering scholarships to IBDP graduates under conditions specified by each institution, including 58 colleges and universities in the United States.[54] The following is an overview of university recognition policies in various countries.

For the purposes of university admissions in Austria, the IB diploma is considered a foreign secondary school leaving certificate, even if the school issuing the diploma is in the country. Admission decisions are at the discretion of higher education institutions.[55]

In Finland, the IB diploma gives the same qualification for matriculation as the national matriculation examination.[56] The core requirements differ very little, although the Finnish degree has more electives and languages are a larger part of the final grading.

In France, the IBDP is one of the foreign diplomas that allow students access into French universities.[57]

Germany sets certain conditions for the IB diploma to be accepted (a foreign language at minimum A2 Standard Level; mathematics Standard Level minimum; economics, geography, or history as the Group 3 subject; and at least one science or mathematics course at Higher Level).[58] German International Baccalaureate students in some schools are able to earn a "bilingual diploma" that gains them access to German universities; half of the classes in this programme are held in German.[59]

The Italian Ministry of Education recognises the IB diploma as academically equivalent to the national diploma, provided the curriculum includes the Italian language and the particular IB programme is accepted for H.E.D. matriculation in Italy.[60]

Spain considers the IB diploma academically equivalent to the "Título de bachillerato español". As of 1 June 2008, IB diploma holders no longer need to pass the University Entrance Examination to be admitted to Spanish universities.[61]

Turkish universities accept the IB diploma, but all applicants are required by law to take the university entrance examinations.[62]

According to the IB, there are two universities in Russia that officially recognise the IB diploma subject to certain guidelines. The Russian Ministry of Education considers the IB diploma issued by state-accredited IB schools in Russia equivalent to the certificate of secondary (complete) general education (attestat).[63]

In the United Kingdom, UCAS publishes a university entrance tariff table that converts IB and other qualifications into standardised "tariff points",[64] but these are not binding,[65] so institutions are free to set minimum entry requirements for IB candidates that are not the same as those for A level candidates. Most universities in the UK require IB students to take more courses than A-level students—requiring, for instance, four As and two Bs from an IB student, whereas an A-level student will only need an ABB—because each subject taken as a part of the IB gives a less broad coverage of a similar subject taken at A-level.

Although every university in Australia accepts the IB diploma, entry criteria differ from university to university. Some universities accept students on their IB point count, whereas others require the points to be converted. In most states, this is based on the Australian Tertiary Admission Rank (ATAR).[66] In Queensland, IBDP scores are converted to a QTAC scale to determine selection rank.[67]

In the United States, institutions of higher education set their own admission and credit policies for IB diploma recognition.[68] Colorado and Texas have legislation requiring universities to adopt and implement policy which awards college credit to students who have successfully completed the IBDP.[69][70]

In Canada, IB North America publishes a IB Recognition Policy Summary for Canadian Universities.[71] Peruvian universities do not officially accept the IB diploma. However, the Ministry of Education may grant partial equivalence to national diploma for students who have satisfactorily completed the fourth year of high school in the country.[72]

In Hong Kong, IB diploma students may apply to universities as non-JUPAS (Joint University Programmes Admissions System).[73]

The People's Republic of China does not formally accept the IB diploma for university qualification.[74]

In the 2008–2009 prospectus in Singapore, the National University of Singapore (NUS) accepts the IBDP as a high school qualification for Singapore universities. University requirements are as follows: three HL subjects with scores of 5 or better, two SL subjects with scores of 4 or better, and a grade of 4 or better in English A, Standard Level.[75]

In India, the Association of Indian Universities recognises the IBDP as an entry qualification to all universities, provided that the applicants include a document from the IB detailing percentage equivalency and that specific course requirements for admission to medical and engineering programs are satisfied.[76][77]


The IBDP was described as "a rigorous, off-the-shelf curriculum recognized by universities around the world” in the December 10, 2006, edition of Time magazine, in an article titled "How to bring our schools out of the 20th century".[78] It was also featured in the summer 2002 edition of American Educator, where Robert Rothman described it as "a good example of an effective, instructionally sound, exam-based system".[79] Howard Gardner, a professor of educational psychology at Harvard University, said that the IBDP curriculum is "less parochial than most American efforts" and helps students "think critically, synthesize knowledge, reflect on their own thought processes and get their feet wet in interdisciplinary thinking".[80] An admissions officer at Brown University claims the IBDP garners widespread respect.[81]

In the United Kingdom, the IBDP is "regarded as more academically challenging but broader than three or four A-levels", according to an article in the Guardian.[1] In 2006, government ministers provided funding so that "every local authority in England could have at least one centre offering sixth-formers the chance to do the IB".[1] In 2008, Children's Secretary Ed Balls abandoned a "flagship Tony Blair pledge to allow children in all areas to study IB". Fears of a "two-tier" education system further dividing education between the rich and the poor emerged as the growth in IB is driven by private schools and sixth-form colleges.[82]

In the United States, criticism of the IBDP has centered on the claim that it is anti-American, according to The New York Times. Early funding from UNESCO, and the organization's ties to the United Nations are cited as objectionable. The cost of the program is also considered to be too high.[81] In 2012, the school board in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, voted to eliminate all IB programmes in the district because of low participation and high costs.[83]

See also


  1. 1 2 3 Shepard, Jessica (10 February 2009). "Leap from Cardiff to Amsterdam for Baccalaureate". Guardian.co.uk. London. Retrieved 28 July 2009.
  2. Murray, Janet (September 7, 2010). "International baccalaureate gaining ground in state schools". The Guardian. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
  3. 1 2 Peterson p. 17
  4. Fox p. 5
  5. HIll, 2007 p. 19
  6. Peterson p. 18
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Peterson p. 18-26
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 Fox, pp. 65-75
  9. 1 2 Mathews, p. 22
  10. Peterson pp. 24–27
  11. "International Baccalaureate history". uwc.org. Retrieved 25 August 2009.
  12. Hayden p. 94
  13. Peterson pp. 61–98
  14. Peterson, p. 31
  15. Peterson, p. 141
  16. Hill pp. 27 et. seq.
  17. 1 2 HIll p. 27 et. seq.
  18. "Diploma Programme curriculum, core requirements". International Baccalaureate. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
  19. "Diploma Programme curriculum, extended essay". International Baccalaureate. Retrieved 6 June 2009.
  20. 1 2 3 4 Schools' Guide to IBDP, p. 5.
  21. Schools' Guide to IBDP, p. 9.
  22. Schools' Guide to IBDP, p. 6.
  23. Theory of knowledge guide (first examinations 2008). International Baccalaureate. March 2006.
  24. 1 2 Creativity, action, service Guide for students graduating in 2010 and thereafter, Published March 2008 International Baccalaureate
  25. 1 2 Schools' Guide to IBDP, p. 11.
  26. van Loo, Marc (20 September 2004). "The parents guide to the IB Diploma" (PDF). p. 3. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
  27. 1 2 Schools' Guide to IBDP, p. 10.
  28. "Diploma Programme curriculum: Group 2, Second Language". ibo.org. Retrieved 3 July 2009.
  29. "Diploma Programme curriculum: Group 3, Individuals and societies". ibo.org. Retrieved 1 Dec 2013.
  30. "Diploma Programme curriculum: Group 5, Mathematics and Computer Science". ibo.com. Retrieved 3 July 2009.
  31. "Diploma Programme curriculum: Group 6, The Arts". ibo.com. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
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  35. "Diploma Programme Online". Retrieved 31 July 2009.
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  39. "Sports, exercise and health science (SEHS)". Retrieved 1 December 2013.
  40. "Dance (SL and HL)". Retrieved 1 December 2013.
  41. IB Group 6 subjects
  42. "Studying global politics | International Baccalaureate®". International Baccalaureate®. Retrieved 2016-11-17.
  43. "2008 IBO examination schedule" (PDF). International Baccalaureate. Retrieved 2 July 2009.
  44. 1 2 "Diploma Programme Assessment". Retrieved 6 June 2009.
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  49. "Frequently Asked Questions: IB Diploma Programme". ibo.org. Retrieved 2 July 2009.
  50. Candidates with Special Assessment Needs International Baccalaureate Organization. March 2007. Retrieved 2009-06-29
  51. 1 2 3 "North America Diploma Programme Application Process and Fees For schools seeking to start implementation in the Fall Term of 2011 and later" (PDF). International Baccalaureate North America. Retrieved 2 July 2009.
  52. "Annual School Fees". ibo.org. Retrieved 16 August 2010.
  53. "University recognition directory". ibo.org. Retrieved 29 September 2009.
  54. "University scholarships for IB diploma holders". ibo.org. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
  55. "Recognition of IB diploma for admission to universities and colleges: Austria". ibo.org. 26 May 2006. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
  56. http://www.oph.fi/koulutus_ja_tutkinnot/lukiokoulutus/eri_vaihtoehtoja_suorittaa_lukio
  57. "texte du décret n° 85-906 du 23 août 1985 (in french)" (PDF).
  58. "Recognition of IB diploma for admission to universities and colleges: Germany". Retrieved 1 October 2009.
  59. "International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme at ISHR". Retrieved 1 October 2009.
  60. "Study in Italy". Retrieved 2 October 2009.
  61. "Recognition of IB diploma for admission to universities and colleges: Spain". ibo.org. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
  62. "Recognition of IB diploma for admission to universities and colleges: Turkey". ibo.org. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
  63. "Recognition of IB diploma for admission to universities and colleges: Russia". ibo.org. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
  64. "UCAS – Tariff tables". The Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS). Archived from the original on 1 October 2009. Retrieved 1 October 2009.
  65. "UCAS – How does the Tariff work?". The Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS). Retrieved 2 October 2009.
  66. "VTAC Notional ATAR Conversion Table" (PDF). Retrieved 19 March 2015.
  67. "International Baccalaureate (IB) Studies". Queensland Tertiary Admissions Centre. 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2009.
  68. "Recognition of IB diploma for admission to universities and colleges: United States". ibo.org. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
  69. Colorado Revised Statutes 23-1-113.2. Department directive - admission standards for students holding international baccalaureate diplomas.
  70. [NB]]Texas Education Code Section 51.968(b); this section also requires each institution of higher education that offers freshman-level courses to adopt and implement a policy to grant undergraduate course credit to entering freshman students who have achieved required scores on one or more examinations in the Advanced Placement Program or the College-Level Examination Program, or who have successfully completed one or more courses offered through concurrent enrollment in high school and at an institution of higher education.
  71. IB Recognition Policy Summary – Canadian Universities IB North America Recognition Services. 1–4. March 2007. Retrieved 2 July 2009.
  72. "Recognition of IB diploma for admission to universities and colleges: Peru". ibo.org. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
  73. "Joint University Programmes Admissions System". Retrieved 1 October 2009.
  74. "International Schools in Hong Kong". Retrieved 13 June 2009.
  75. "International Schools Worldwide". Retrieved 13 June 2009.
  76. "Recognition of IB diploma for admission to universities and colleges: India". ibo.org. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
  77. "IB Diploma is accepted by Indian colleges" (PDF). April 2012. Retrieved 2015-07-08 via online search.
  78. Wallis, Claudia (10 December 2006). "How to bring our schools out of the 20th Century". Time. Retrieved 16 July 2009.
  79. Rothman, Robert (Summer 2002). "A test worth teaching to". American Educator. Retrieved 16 July 2009.
  80. Gross, Jane (21 June 2003). "Diploma for the 'Top of the Top'; International Baccalaureate Gains Favor in Region". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 July 2009.
  81. 1 2 Lewin, Tamar (2 July 2010). "International Program Catches on in US Schools". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 July 2010.
  82. Clark, Laura (19 May 2009). "Fears of 'two-tier' education system as pupils taking rival exam to A-levels rise by 40%". Daily MailOnline. Retrieved 29 July 2009.
  83. Maben, Scott (6 August 2012). "IB program booted from Coeur d'Alene School District". The Spokesman Review. Retrieved 12 February 2013.


    • Elisabeth Fox (2001). "The Emergence of the International Baccalaureate as an Impetus for Curriculum Reform". In Mary Hayden and Jeff Thompson. International Education: Principles and Practice (2nd ed.). Routledge. pp. 65–75. ISBN 0-7494-3616-6. 
    • Diploma Programme, Dance draft subject guide 2009. International Baccalaureate Organization. 2008. 
    • Diploma Programme, Handbook of Procedures for the Diploma Program, May and November 2009 examination sessions. Cardiff, Wales, UK: International Baccalaureate Organization. 2008. 
    • Diploma Programme, Sports, Exercise, and Health Science draft subject guide. International Baccalaureate Organization. 2007. 
    • Diploma Programme, Text and Performance draft subject guide 2008. Geneva, Switzerland: International Baccalaureate Organization. 2008. 
    • Diploma Programme, World Religions draft subject guide, first examinations 2011. International Baccalaureate Organization. 2009. 
    • Ian Hill (2002). "The History of International Education: An International Baccalaureate Perspective". In Mary Hayden. Jeff Thompson, and George Walker. International Education in Practice (1st ed.). Routledge. pp. 18–28. ISBN 978-0-7494-3835-7. 
    • Ian Hill (2007). "International Education as developed by the International Baccalaureate Organization". In Mary Hayden; Jeff Thompson; Jack Levy. The SAGE handbook of research in international education. SAGE. pp. 27 et seq. ISBN 1-4129-1971-1. 
    • Mathews, Jay (2005). Supertest: How the International Baccalaureate can Strengthen our Schools. Open Court. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-8126-9577-9. Retrieved 25 August 2009. 
    • Peterson, A.D.C. (2003). Schools Across Frontiers (2nd ed.). Open Court. pp. 18–26. ISBN 0-8126-9505-4. Retrieved 23 July 2009. 
    • Schools' Guide to the Diploma Programme (PDF). Geneva, Switzerland: International Baccalaureate Organization. 2002. Retrieved 3 July 2009. 

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