Hungarian diaspora (Magyar diaspora) is a term that encompasses the total ethnic Hungarian population located outside of current-day Hungary.
There are two main groups of the diaspora. In the first one are those, who are autochthonous to their homeland, and live outside Hungary since the border changes of the post-World War I Treaty of Trianon of 1920. The victorious forces redrew the borders of Hungary so that it runs through Hungarian majority areas. As a consequence, 3.3 million Hungarians found themselves outside the new borders. These Hungarians are usually not counted into the term "Hungarian diaspora", regardless, they are listed in this article. The other main group are the emigrants, who left Hungary at various times (e.g., the Hungarian Revolution of 1956). There has been some emigration since Hungary joined the EU, especially to countries such as Germany, although this has not been as drastic as for certain other Central European countries like Poland or Slovakia.
Distribution by country
|Neighbor countries of Hungary|
|Romania||1,227,623 (2011) (not including Csángós)||Autochthonous in Transylvania, Csángó people in Moldavia||Hungarians in Romania|
|Slovakia||458,467 (2011)||Autochthonous||Hungarians in Slovakia|
|Serbia||253,899 (2011)||Autochthonous in Vojvodina||Hungarians in Vojvodina|
|Ukraine||156,600 (2001)||Autochthonous in Zakarpattia Oblast||Hungarians in Ukraine|
|Austria||55,038 (2014)||Autochthonous in Burgenland||Hungarians in Austria|
|Croatia||14,048 (2011)||Autochthonous in Croatia, except Istria and Dalmatia.||Hungarians of Croatia|
|Slovenia||6,243 (2001)||Autochthonous in Eastern Slovenia|
|United States||1,563,081 (2006)||Immigrants||Hungarian Americans|
|Canada||315,510 (2006)||Immigrants||Hungarian Canadians|
|Israel||200,000 to 250,000 (2000s)||Most immigrants are Hungarian Jews|
|Germany||120,000 (2004)||Immigrants||Hungarians in Germany|
|France||100,000 to 200,000 (2000s)||Immigrants||Hungarians in France|
|Brazil||80,000 (2002)||Immigrants||Hungarian Brazilians|
|Russia||76,500 (2002)||Immigrants||Hungarians in Russia|
|United Kingdom||52,250 (2011)||Immigrants||Hungarians in the United Kingdom|
|Chile||50,000 (2012)||Immigrants||Hungarians in Chile|
|Argentina||40,000 to 50,000 (2000s)||Immigrants||Hungarian Argentines|
|Switzerland||20,000 to 25,000 (2000s)||Immigrants|
|Czech Republic||14,672 (2001)||Immigrants|
|Turkey||6,800 (2001)||Immigrants||Hungarians in Turkey|
|New Zealand||1,476 (2006)||Immigrants||Hungarian New Zealander|
|TOTAL||4.9 - 5.1 million|
Hungarian immigration patterns to Western Europe increased in the 1990s and especially since 2004, after Hungary's admission in the European Union. Thousands of Hungarians from Hungary sought available work through guest-worker contracts in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Finland, Sweden, Spain and Portugal.
A proposal supported by the DAHR to grant Hungarian citizenship to Hungarians living in Romania but without meeting Hungarian-law residency requirements was narrowly defeated at a 2004 referendum in Hungary. The referendum was invalid because of not enough participants. After the failure of the 2004 referendum, the leaders of the Hungarian ethnic parties in the neighboring countries formed the HTMSZF organization in January 2005, as an instrument lobbying for preferential treatment in the granting of Hungarian citizenship.
In 2010 some amendments were passed in Hungarian law facilitating an accelerated naturalization process for ethnic Hungarians living abroad; among other changes, the residency-in-Hungary requirement was waved. Between 2011 and 2012, 200,000 applicants took advantage of the new, accelerated naturalization process; there were another 100,000 applications pending in the summer of 2012. As of February 2013, the Hungarian government has granted almost 400,000 citizenships to Hungarians ‘beyond the borders’. In June 2013, Deputy Prime Minister Zsolt Semjén announced that he expects the number to reach about half a million by the end of the year.
The citizenship new law, which took effect on 1 January 2011, did not grant however the right to vote, even in national elections, to Hungarian citizens unless they also reside in Hungary on a permanent basis. A month later however, the Fidesz government announced that it intended to grant the right to vote to its new citizens. In 2014, the Hungarian citizens from abroad are able to participate in the parliamentary elections without Hungarian residency, however they can not vote for a candidate running for the seat in the single-seat constituency but for a party list.
In May 2010, Slovakia announced it would strip Slovak citizenship from anyone applying for the Hungarian one. Romania's President Traian Băsescu declared in October 2010 that "We have no objections to the adoption by the Hungarian government and parliament of a law making it easier to grant Hungarian citizenship to ethnic Hungarians living abroad."
Famous people of Hungarian descent
- John von Neumann (1903–1957), American mathematician and physicist of Hungarian descent.
- Mickey Hargitay was a Hungarian-American actor and Mr. Universe 1955.
- Sebők László's ethnic map of Central and Southeastern Europe
- See page 21 of this report
- 2011 Romanian census
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- Serbian Census 2011
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- 2006 Community Survey
- Canadian Census 2006
- Hungarians in Germany Archived February 4, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- Hungarians in France Archived February 4, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- Hungarians in Brazil Archived September 22, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- Estimation 2002 Hungarian-Australians according to national census 2006, Australia.
- "Census 2011 - Country of birth (expanded)". Office for National Statistics. 26 March 2013. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
- "Scotland's Census 2011 - National Records of Scotland - Country of Birth (detailed)" (PDF). National Records of Scotland. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
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- Hungarian Immigration in Latin America
- Statistics Sweden
- Irish census 2006 Archived August 12, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- Ludność. Stan i struktura demograficzno-społeczna. Narodowy Spis Ludności i Mieszkań 2011 (National Census of Population and Housing 2011). GUS. 2013. p. 264.
- Rogers Brubaker (2006). Nationalist Politics and Everyday Ethnicity in a Transylvanian Town. Princeton University Press. p. 328. ISBN 978-0-691-12834-4.
- Tristan James Mabry; John McGarry; Margaret Moore; Brendan O'Leary. Divided Nations and European Integration. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-8122-4497-7.
- Mária M. Kovács, Judit Tóth, Country report: Hungary, Revised and updated April 2013, EUDO Citizenship Observatory, page 1 and 7
- Mária M. Kovács, Judit Tóth, Country report: Hungary, Revised and updated April 2013, EUDO Citizenship Observatory, page 11
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- Hungary and Romania. Flag wars, 21 Feb 2013, The Economist
- Open wound. Trianon remembered 93 years on, Budapest Times, 12 June 2013
- New double citizenship law does not change voting rights, EUobserver, 28.05.2010
- Dual citizenship at its logical conclusion. Policy Solutions’ analysis: A vote for lost Hungarians is a vote for the right, Budapest Times, 7 February 2011
- Slovaks retaliate over Hungarian citizenship law, BBC, 26 May 2010
- Romania backs Hungarian citizenship law, 18 October 2010, AFP text syndicated to eubusiness.com.
- her mother is a Hungarian immigrant. "She is half Hungarian on her mother's side" "Drews Mother - Jaid Barrymore (nee Ildiko Jaid Mako) [was] Born on 8 May 1946 in Brannenburg, West Germany in a camp for displaced persons. Jaids parents (Drew's grandparents) were Hungarian."
- Fox, Chloe (November 12, 2006). "The prime of Adrien Brody". London: Guardian Unlimited. Retrieved December 13, 2006.
- "Born Bernard Schwartz in 1925 to Jewish-Hungarian parents, Curtis grew up in New York’s matinee movie-palaces..."
- Vogel, Laura (May 27, 2007). "Louis C.K.". New York Post. Retrieved November 10, 2010.
- Rodney Dangerfield: A Lifetime of No Respect but Plenty of Sex and Drugs by Rodney Dangerfield "The whole family had come to America from Hungary when my mother was four. My mother's father--my grandfather--was almost never referred to in that house. Rumor has it he's still in Hungary--and still drinking."
- ""Who Do You Think You Are?", Series Two: Celebrity Gallery".
- "Zsa Zsa Gabor born, Budapest Hungary. Though some sources say 1918, 1919, or 1920. 1936 Elected Miss Hungary."
- George de Hevesy: life and work : a biography, Hilde Levi, A. Hilger, 1985
- Weibel, Peter (2005). Beyond Art - A Third Culture : a Comparative Study in Cultures, Art, and Science in 20th Century Austria and Hungary. Springer. p. 350. ISBN 3-211-24562-6.
- Nicholas, Peter (September 21, 2009). "Chasing the king of chess". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 21, 2009.
- Doran, p. 1
- Nathan Myhrvold, "John von Neumann". Time, March 21, 1999. Accessed September 5, 2010
- Naomi Pfefferman (2002-04-12). "The Days of Summer". Jewish Journal. Retrieved 2007-09-01.
- András Csillag, "Joseph Pulitzer's Roots in Europe: A Genealogical History," American Jewish Archives, Jan 1987, Vol. 39 Issue 1, pp 49–68
- Biography. GeneSimmons.com. Retrieved on February 1, 2011.
- her father was a Hungarian immigrant
- Blumesberger, Susanne; et al. (2002). Handbuch österreichischer Autorinnen und Autoren jüdischer Herkunft. 1. K. G. Saur. ISBN 3-598-11545-8.
- Video in which Teller recalls his earliest memories.