Hong Taiji

For the title used by the Mongols, see Khong Tayiji.
Hong Taiji
Khan of the Later Jin dynasty
Reign 20 October 1626 – 15 May 1636
Predecessor Nurhaci
Successor None
(Assumed imperial dignity)
2nd Emperor of the Qing dynasty
Reign 15 May 1636 – 21 September 1643
Predecessor Nurhaci
(as Khan of the Later Jin dynasty)
Successor Shunzhi Emperor
Born (1592-11-28)28 November 1592
Died 21 September 1643(1643-09-21) (aged 50)
Burial Zhao Mausoleum
Spouse Empress Xiaoduanwen
Empress Xiaozhuangwen
First Consort Minhuigonghe
Etc. (see Spouses)
Issue Hooge
Etc. (see Sons and Daughters)
Full name
Posthumous name
Emperor Yingtian Xingguo Hongde Zhangwu Kuanwen Rensheng Ruixiao Wen (in 1643)
Manchu: Genggiyen su hūwangdi
Temple name
Qing Taizong (清太宗)
House Aisin Gioro
Father Nurhaci
Mother Empress Xiaocigao

Hong Taiji (28 November 1592  21 September 1643), sometimes written as Huang Taiji and also referred to as Abahai in Western literature, was an Emperor of the Qing dynasty. He was responsible for consolidating the empire that his father Nurhaci had founded and laid the groundwork for the conquest of the Ming dynasty, although he died before this was accomplished. He was also responsible for changing the name of his people from Jurchen to Manchu in 1635, as well as that of the dynasty from Later Jin to Qing in 1636. The Qing dynasty lasted until 1912.

Because his father, Nurhaci, did not assume an imperial title while alive, Hong Taiji is sometimes considered to be the first Qing emperor, but because Nurhaci was posthumously awarded the imperial title, Hong Taiji is usually called the second emperor of the Qing.

Names and titles

It is unclear whether "Hong Taiji" was a title or a personal name. Written Hung Taiji in Manchu, it was borrowed from the Mongolian title Khong Tayiji.[1] That Mongolian term was itself derived from the Chinese huang taizi 皇太子 ("crown prince", "imperial prince"), but in Mongolian it meant, among other things, something like "respected son".[2] Alternatively, historian Pamela Crossley argues that "Hung Taiji" was a title "of Mongolian inspiration" derived from hung, a word that appeared in other Mongolian titles at the time.[3] Early seventeenth-century Chinese and Korean sources rendered his name as "Hong Taiji" (洪台極).[4] The modern Chinese rendering "Huang Taiji" (皇太極), which uses the character huang ("imperial"), misleadingly implies that Hong Taiji once held the title of "imperial prince" or heir apparent, even though his father and predecessor Nurhaci never designated a successor.[5]

"Hong Taiji" was very rarely used in Manchu sources, because they observed a taboo on the personal names of emperors. In redacted documents, Hong Taiji was simply called the "Fourth Beile" or "fourth prince" (duici beile), indicating that he was the fourth ranked among the eight beile Nurhaci had designated from among his sons.[6] However, an archival document rediscovered in 1996 and recounting events from 1621 calls him "Hong Taiji" in a discussion concerning the possible naming of Nurhaci's heir apparent, a title that the document refers to as taise.[7] Tatiana Pang and Giovanni Stary, two specialists of early Manchu history, consider this document as "further evidence" that Hong Taiji was his real name, "not being at all connected with the Chinese title huang taizi".[7] Historian Mark Elliott views this as persuasive evidence that Hong Taiji was not a title, but a personal name.[8]

Western scholars used to refer to Hong Taiji as "Abahai", but this appellation is now considered mistaken.[9] Hong Taiji was never mentioned under this name in Manchu and Chinese sources; it was a mistake first made by Russian clergyman G.V. Gorsky and later repeated by sinologists starting in the early twentieth century.[10] Giovanni Stary states that this name may have originated by confusing "Abkai" with Abkai sure, which was Hong Taiji's era name in the Manchu language.[11] Though "Abahai" is indeed "unattested in Manchu sources", it might also have derived from the Mongol word Abaġai, an honorary name given to the younger sons of hereditary monarchs.[12] According to another view, Hong Taiji was mistakenly referred to as Abahai as a result of a confusion with the name of Nurhaci's main consort Lady Abahai.

Hong Taiji was first Khan of the Later Jin and then Emperor of the Qing dynasty, after he changed its name. His title as Great Khan was Bogd Khaan (Manchu: Gosin Onco Hūwaliyasun Enduringge Han). His reign names, which were used in his lifetime to record dates, were Tiancong 天聰 ("heavenly wisdom"; Manchu: Abka-i sure) from 1627 to 1636, and Chongde 崇德 ("lofty virtue"; Manchu: Wesihun erdemungge, Mongolian: Degedü Erdemtü) from 1636 to 1643.

Hong Taiji's temple name, by which he was worshipped at the Imperial Ancestral Temple, was Taizong 太宗, the name that was conventionally given to the second emperor of a dynasty.[13] His posthumous name, which was chosen to reflect his style of rule, was "Wen Huangdi" 文皇帝 (Manchu: šu hūwangdi), which means "the culturing emperor" or "the emperor of letters".[14][nb 1]

Consolidation of power

Hong Taiji was the eighth son of Nurhaci, whom he succeeded as the second ruler of the Later Jin dynasty in 1626. Although it was always thought of as gossip, he was said to be involved in the suicide of Prince Dorgon's mother, Lady Abahai in order to block the succession of his younger brother. This is speculated because at the time of Nurhaci's death, there were four Lords/Beile with Hong Taiji as the lowest rank, but also the most fit one. Originally, at the end of Nurhaci's reign, Hong Taiji got hold of the two White Banners, but after Lady Abahai's death, he switched his two banners with Dorgon and Dodo's two Yellow banners (Nurhaci gave his two Yellow Banners to the two). In the end, Hong Taiji had control over the two strongest/highest class banners- the Plain/Bordered Yellow Banner and the most influence. From there, he slowly got rid of his competitor's powers. Later, he would also receive the Plain Blue Banner from his fifth brother Manggūltai, which was the third strongest banner. Those three banners would officially become the Upper Three Banners during the early part of the Qing dynasty.

Ethnic policies

During his reign, Hong Taiji started recruitment of Han ethnicity officials. After a 1623 revolt, Nurhaci came to mistrust his Nikan (Han) followers so Hong Taiji began their assimilation into the country and government. He realized that they would remain the majority and the Manchus would still be the minority, which meant that to control the Han people, they would need to live together or else the Qing dynasty would become a repeat of the Yuan dynasty, the demise of which was in part due to its rulers losing touch with the people.

A mass marriage of Han Chinese officers and officials to Manchu women numbering 1,000 couples was arranged by Prince Yoto and Hongtaiji in 1632 to promote harmony between the two ethnic groups.[15]


He continued the expansion of the state in the region later known as Manchuria, pushing deeper into Mongolia and raiding Korea and Ming China. His personal military abilities were widely praised and he effectively developed the military-civil administration known as the Eight Banners or Banner system. This system was well-suited to accept the different peoples, primarily Chinese and Mongols, who joined the Manchu state either following negotiated agreements or military defeat.

Although Hung Taiji patronized Tibetan Buddhism in public, in private he disdained the Buddhist belief of the Mongols and thought it was destructive of Mongol identity. He is quoted to have said that, "The Mongolian princes are abandoning the Mongolian language; their names are all in imitation of the lamas."[16] The Manchus themselves like Hung Taiji did not personally believe in Tibetan Buddhism and few wanted to convert. Hung Taiji described Tibetan Buddhist lamas as "incorrigibles" and liars",[17] but still patronized Buddhism in order to harness the Tibetans and Mongols belief in the religion.[18]

Hong Taiji started his conquest by subduing the potent Ming ally in Korea. February 1627 his forces crossed the Yalu River which had frozen.[19] In 1628, he attempted to invade China, but was defeated by Yuan Chonghuan and his use of artillery.[19] During the next five years, Hong Taiji spent resources in training his artillery to offset the strength of the Ming artillery. Hong Taji upgraded the weapons of the Empire. He realized the advantage of the Red Cannons and later also bought the Red Cannons into the army. Though the Ming dynasty still had more cannons, Hong Taji now possessed the cannons of equal might and Asia's strongest cavalry. Also during this time, he sent several probing raids into northern China which were defeated. First attack went through the Jehol Pass, then in 1632 and 1634 he sent raids into Shanxi.[19]

In 1636, Hong Taiji invaded Joseon Korea (see the Second Manchu invasion of Korea), as the latter did not accept that Hong Taiji had become emperor and refused to assist in operations against the Ming.[19] With the Joseon dynasty surrendered in 1637, Hong Taiji succeeded in making them cut off relations with the Ming dynasty and force them to submit as tributary state of the Qing Empire. Also during this period, Hung Taji took over Inner Mongolia in three major wars, each of them victorious. From 1636 until 1644, he sent 4 major expeditions into the Amur region.[19] In 1640 he completed the conquest of the Evenks, when he defeated and captured their leader Bombogor. By 1644, the entire region was under his control.[19]

Huang Taji's plan at first was to make a deal with the Ming dynasty. If the Ming was willing to give support and money that would be beneficial to the Qing's economy, the Qing in exchange would not only be willing to not attack the borders, but also admit itself as a country one level lower than the Ming dynasty; however, since Ming court officials were reminded of the deal that preceded the Song dynasty's wars with the Jin Empire, the Ming refused the exchange. Huang Taiji rejected the comparison, saying that, "Neither is your Ming ruler a descendant of the Song nor are we heir to the Jin. That was another time."[20] Hung Taiji had not wanted to conquer the Ming. The Ming's refusal ultimately led him to take the offensive. The people who first encouraged him to invade China were his Han Chinese advisors Fan Wencheng, Ma Guozhu, and Ning Wanwo.[21] Hong Taiji recognized that the Manchus needed Han Chinese defectors in order to assist in the conquest of the Ming, and thus explained to other Manchus why he also needed to be lenient to recent defectors like Ming general Hong Chengchou, who surrendered to the Qing in 1642.[18]


When Hong Taiji came into power, the military was composed of entirely Mongol and Manchu companies. By 1636, Hong Taiji created the first of many Chinese companies. Before the conquest of China, the number of companies organized by him and his successor was 278 Manchu, 120 Mongol, and 165 Chinese.[22] By the time of Hong Taiji's death there were more Chinese than Manchus and he had realized the need for there to be control exerted whilst getting approval from the Chinese majority. Not only did he incorporate the Chinese into the military, but also into the government. The Council of Deliberative Officials was formed as the highest level of policy-making and was composed entirely of Manchu. However, Hong Taiji adopted from the Ming, such institutions as the Six Ministries, the Censorate and others.[22] Each of these lower ministries was headed by a Manchu prince, but had four presidents, 2 were Manchu, 1 was Mongol, and 1 was Chinese. This basic framework remained, even though the details fluctuated over time, for some time.[22]

The change from Jin to Qing

In 1635, Hong Taiji changed the name of his people from Jurchen (Manchu: Jušen) to Manchu, or Manju in the Manchu language. The original meaning of Manju is not known and so the reasons for its adoption remain opaque. There are many theories as to the reason for the choice of name but two of the most commonly cited are its sounding similar to the Manchu word for "brave" and a possible connection with the Bodhisattva Manjusri, the Bodhisattva of Wisdom, of whom Nurhaci claimed to be an incarnation.

The dynastic name Later Jin was a direct reference to the Jin dynasty founded by the Jurchen people, who ruled northern China from 1115 to 1234. As such, the name was likely to be viewed as closely tied to the Jurchens and would perhaps evoke hostility from Chinese who viewed the Song dynasty, rival state to the Jin, as the legitimate rulers of China at that time. Hong Taiji's ambition was to conquer China proper and overthrow the Ming dynasty, and to do that required not only a powerful military force but also an effective bureaucratic administration. For this, he used the obvious model, that of the Ming government, and recruited Ming officials to his cause. If the name of Later Jin would prove an impediment to his goal among many Chinese, then it was not too much to change it. Whatever the precise motivation, Hong Taiji proclaimed the establishment of the Qing dynasty and also changed his name to Chóngdé in 1636.[19] The reasons for the choice of Qing as the new name are likewise unclear, although it has been speculated that the sound – Jin and Qing are pronounced similarly in Manchu – or wuxing theory – traditional ideas held that fire, associated with the character for Ming, was overcome by water, associated with the character for Qing – may have influenced the choice. Another possible reason may be that Hong Taiji changed the name of the dynasty from (Later) Jin to Qing in 1636 because of internecine fraternal struggle and skirmish between brothers and half brothers for the throne. According to Taoist philosophy, the name Jin has the meaning of metal and fire in its constituent, thereby igniting the tempers of the brothers of the Manchu Royal household into open conflicts and wars. Hong Taiji therefore adopted the new name of Qing 清, the Chinese character of which has the water symbol [3 strokes] on its left hand side. The name, which means clear and transparent, with its water symbol was hoped to put out the feud among the brothers of the Manchu Royal household.

The banners status

Before Hong Taiji was emperor, he controlled the two White banners. Upon Nurhaci's death, Hong Taiji immediately switched his two White Banners with Nurhaci's two Yellow Banners, which should have been passed on to Dorgon and his brothers. As emperor, he was the holder of three banners out of eight. He controlled the Upper Three Banners or the Elite banners which at the time were the Plain/Bordered Yellow Banners and Plain Blue Banner. Later the Plain Blue Banner was switched by Dorgon to the Plain White Banner as the third Elite Banner. At the end of his reign, Hong Taiji gave the two Yellow Banners to his eldest son Hooge. Daisan, who was the second son of Nurhaci, and his son controlled the two Red Banners. Dorgon and his two brothers controlled the two White Banners and Šurhaci's son Jirgalang controlled the remaining Bordered Blue Banner.

Death and succession

Hong Taiji died on 21 September 1643 just as the Qing was preparing to attack Shanhai Pass, the last Ming fortification guarding access to the north China plains.[23][nb 2] Because he died without having named an heir, the Qing state now faced a succession crisis.[25] The Deliberative Council of Princes and Ministers debated on whether to grant the throne to Hong Taiji's half-brother Dorgon  a proven military leader  or to Hong Taiji's eldest son Hooge. As a compromise, Hong Taiji's five-year-old ninth son Fulin was chosen, while Dorgon  alongside Nurhaci's nephew Jirgalang  was given the title of "prince regent".[26] Fulin was officially crowned emperor of the Qing dynasty on 8 October 1643 and it was decided that he would reign under the era name "Shunzhi."[27] A few months later, Qing armies led by Dorgon seized Beijing, and the young Shunzhi Emperor became the first Qing emperor to rule from that new capital.[28] That the Qing state succeeded not only in conquering China but also in establishing a capable administration was due in large measure to the foresight and policies of Hong Taiji. His body was buried in Zhaoling, located in northern Shenyang.


As the emperor, he is commonly recognized as having abilities similar to the best emperors such as Yongle, Emperor Taizong of Tang because of his effective rule, effective use of talent, and effective warring skills. According to half historian and half writer Jin Yong, Hong Taiji had the broad and wise views of Qin Shi Huang, Emperor Gaozu of Han, Emperor Guangwu of Han, Emperor Wen of Sui, Emperor Taizong of Tang, Emperor Taizu of Song, Kublai Khan, the Hongwu Emperor, and the Yongle Emperor. His political abilities were paralleled only by Genghis Khan, Emperor Taizong of Tang, and Emperor Guangwu of Han. In this sense, Hong Taiji is considered by some historians as the true first emperor for the Qing dynasty. Some historians suspect Hong Taiji was overall underrated and overlooked as a great emperor because he was a Manchu.




In 1636, Hong Taiji reformed the titles of imperial consorts, who had all until then been called fujin (福晉).[29] From that year on, there would be one empress (huanghou 皇后) and seven kinds of consorts: Imperial Noble Consort (huangguifei 皇貴妃), Noble Consort (guifei 貴妃), Consort (fei 妃), Concubine (bin 嬪), Worthy Lady (guiren 貴人), Palace Woman (changzai 常在), and Responder (daying 答應).[29] Yet ten of Hong Taiji's fifteen wives—one "first consort" (yuanfei 元妃), one "successor consort" (jifei 繼妃), two "side-chamber consorts" (cefei 側妃), and six "ordinary consorts" (shufei 庶妃)—are known by the titles that his father Nurhaci had used to refer to his own harem.[29] Hong Taiji's five primary wives were all from the Borjigit clan of the Khorchin Mongols, "the earliest Mongol allies of the Manchus."[30] Two of them (Bumbutai and Harjol) were sisters, and both were nieces of Jere, who had been married to Hong Taiji in 1614 and became his empress in 1636.[31]

Title / Posthumous title Name Born Died Father Notes
Empress Xiaoduanwen
Borjigit Jerjer
31 May 1600 28 May 1649 Manggusi (莽古思), a Khorchin Mongol beile of the Borjigit clan Married Hong Taiji in 1614 and became Empress in 1636;
Became Empress Dowager in 1643;
Bore Hong Taiji's second, third and eighth daughters[32]
Empress Xiaozhuangwen
Borjigit Bumbutai
28 March 1613 27 January 1688 Jaisang (寨桑), a Khorchin Mongol beile of the Borjigit clan
A portrait of Empress Xiaozhuangwen, painted between 1636 and 1643
Empress Xiaoduanwen's niece;
Married Hong Taiji in 1625 and became Consort Zhuang of Yongfu Palace (永福宮莊妃) in 1636;
Became Empress Dowager in 1643 when her son Fulin became Emperor;
Bore Fulin and Hong Taiji's fourth, fifth and seventh daughters[33]
First Consort Minhuigonghe
Borjigit Harjol
1609 1641 Empress Xiaozhuangwen's sister;
Married Hong Taiji in 1634 and became Consort Chen of Guansui Palace (關睢宮宸妃) in 1636;
Bore Hong Taiji a son who died when he was only a few months old;
Hong Taiji loved her so much that he declared a general amnesty when their son was born in 1637[34]
Great Noble Consort Yijing
Borjigit Namuzhong
unknown 1674 Duo'erji (多爾濟), a Mongol prince of the Borjigit clan Previously a primary consort of Ligdan Khan and held the title "Great Consort Nangnang" (囊囊大福晋);
Married Hong Taiji after the surrender of the Chahar Mongols;
Became Noble Consort of Linzhi Palace (貴妃麟趾宮) in 1636;
Bore Hong Taiji a son and his 11th daughter;
Previously bore Ligdan Khan a son, Abutai (阿布奈; d. 1675), who was informally adopted by Hong Taiji[34]
Consort Kanghuishu
Borjigit Batemazao
unknown 1667 Bodisaichuhu'er (博第塞楚祜爾), a tabunang of the Borjigit clan Previously a secondary consort of Ligdan Khan;
Married Hong Taiji around the same time as Great Noble Consort Yijing;
Became Consort Shu of Yanqing Palace (衍清宮淑妃) in 1636;
Had no children[34]
First Consort
Lady Niohuru
1593 1612 Eidu Hong Taiji's first primary consort;
Bore Hong Taiji one son[34]
Successor Consort
Lady Ulanara
unknown unknown Bokeduo (博客多), a beile of the Ulanara clan Hong Taiji's second primary consort;
Bore Hong Taiji two sons and his first daughter[35]
none Lady Yehenara
unknown unknown unknown Held the rank of a Side-Chamber Consort;
Bore Hong Taiji one son[36]
none Lady Zaru-Borjigit
unknown unknown Daiqing (戴青), a Mongol beile Held the rank of a Side-Chamber Consort;
Bore Hong Taiji his sixth and ninth daughters[37]
none Lady Nara
unknown unknown unknown Held the rank of an Ordinary Consort;
Bore Hong Taiji one son and his 10th and 13th daughters[38]
none Lady Hilei
unknown unknown unknown Held the rank of an Ordinary Consort;
Bore Hong Taiji's 14th daughter[39]
none Lady Yanja
unknown unknown unknown Held the rank of an Ordinary Consort;
Bore Hong Taiji one son[36]
none Lady Irgen-Gioro
unknown unknown unknown Held the rank of an Ordinary Consort;
Bore Hong Taiji one son[36]
none unknown unknown unknown unknown Held the rank of an Ordinary Consort;
Bore Hong Taiji one son (Tose)[36]
none unknown unknown unknown unknown Held the rank of an Ordinary Consort;
Bore Hong Taiji's 12th daughter[40]


# Title / Posthumous title Name Born Died Mother Notes
1 Prince Suwu of the First Rank
16 April 1609 April 1648 Successor Consort [41]
2 none Loge
1611 1621 Successor Consort [41]
3 none Lobohoi
1611 1617 First Consort [34]
4 Fuguo Gong
1627 1690 Lady Yanja [36]
5 Prince Chengzeyu
17 January 1629 12 January 1655 Lady Yehenara [36]
6 Zhenguo Quehou Gong
1637 1670 Lady Nara [36]
7 Fuguo Gong
1637 1699 Lady Irgen-Gioro [36]
8 none unnamed 27 August 1637 13 March 1638 First Consort Minhuigonghe [34]
9 Shunzhi Emperor
15 March 1638 5 February 1661 Empress Xiaozhuangwen
A portrait of Hong Taiji's ninth son Fulin in adulthood, after he had become the Shunzhi Emperor
10 Fuguo Gong
1639 1695 Hong Taiji's Ordinary Consort [36]
11 Prince Xiangzhao of the First Rank
20 January 1642 22 August 1656 Great Noble Consort Yijing [34]


Whereas Nurhaci's daughters had been called gege (which then meant "young lady"), in 1636 Hong Taiji declared that imperial daughters would henceforth be named "state princess" (Manchu: gurun gungju; Chinese: 固倫公主).[43] This system was followed with few exceptions until the end of the dynasty.[43]

# Title / Posthumous title Name Born Died Mother Spouse Notes
1 Gulun Princess of Aukhan
1621 1654 Successor Consort Bandi (班第), an Aukhan Mongol prince of the Borjigit clan, married in 1633 [44]
2 Gulun Princess Wenzhuang
1625 1663 Empress Xiaoduanwen Eje (額哲), a Chahar Mongol prince, married in 1635;
Abunai (阿布奈), Eje's younger brother, married in 1661 after Eje's death
3 Gulun Princess Jingduan
1628 1686 Empress Xiaoduanwen Jitate (奇塔特) of the Mongol Borjigit clan, married in 1639 [45]
4 Gulun Princess Yongmu
1629 1678 Empress Xiaozhuangwen Birtakhar (弼爾塔哈爾) of the Khorchin Mongols, married in 1641 [46]
5 Gulun Princess Shuhui
1632 1700 Empress Xiaozhuangwen Suo'erha (索爾哈) of the Plain Yellow Banner;
Sebuteng (色布騰) of the Mongol Balin tribe (巴林部)
6 Gulun Princess
1633 1649 Lady Zaru-Borjigit Kuazha (夸札), a Manchu bannerman [47]
7 Gulun Princess Shuzhe
1633 1648 Empress Xiaozhuangwen Lamasi (喇瑪思), a Manchu bannerman [47]
8 Gulun Princess Yong'an
1634 1692 Empress Xiaoduanwen Bayasihulang (巴雅斯護朗) of the Khorchin Mongols [48]
9 none 1635 1652 Lady Zaru-Borjigit Hashang (哈尚) of the Mongol Borjigit clan [49]
10 Xianjun
1635 1661 Lady Nara Huise (輝塞) of the Manchu Gūwalgiya clan [49]
11 Gulun Princess Duanshun
1636 1650 Great Noble Consort Yijing Ge'ermasuonuomu (噶爾瑪索諾木) of the Mongol Borjigit clan [49]
12 Xiangjun
1637 1678 Hong Taiji's Ordinary Consort Bandi (班第) of the Mongol Borjigit clan [50]
13 none 1638 1657 Lady Nara Hala (哈拉) of the Manchu Gūwalgiya clan [50]
14 Heshuo Princess Kechun
1641 1704/5 Lady Hilei Wu Yingxiong (吳應熊), Wu Sangui's son [51]


  1. Hong Taiji's complete posthumous name was much longer:
    • 1643: Yingtian xingguo hongde zhangwu kuanwen rensheng ruixiao Wen Emperor (應天興國弘德彰武寬溫仁聖睿孝文皇帝)
    • 1662: Yingtian xingguo hongde zhangwu kuanwen rensheng ruixiao longdao xiangong Wen Emperor (應天興國弘德彰武寬溫仁聖睿孝隆道顯功文皇帝)
      • Longdao xiangong 隆道顯功 ("prosperous way and manifestation of might") was added
    • 1723: Yingtian xingguo hongde zhangwu kuanwen rensheng ruixiao jingmin longdao xiangong Wen Emperor (應天興國弘德彰武寬溫仁聖睿孝敬敏隆道顯功文皇帝)
      • Jingmin 敬敏 ("reverent and diligent") was added
    • 1735: Yingtian xingguo hongde zhangwu kuanwen rensheng ruixiao jingmin zhaoding longdao xiangong Wen Emperor (應天興國弘德彰武寬溫仁聖睿孝敬敏昭定隆道顯功文皇帝)
      • Zhaoding 昭定 ("illustrious stability") was added
  2. Most sources give the date of Hong Taiji's death on September 21 (Chongde 崇德 8.8.9); however others give the date as September 9.[24]


  1. Rawski 1998, p. 50 ("probably a rendition of the Mongol noble title, Khongtaiji"); Pang & Stary 1998, p. 13 ("of Mongolian origin"); Elliott 2001, p. 397, note 71 (Khong tayiji was "quite common among the Mongols, from whom the Jurchens borrowed it").
  2. Elliott 2001, p. 397, note 71 (Khong tayiji as "meaning loosely 'Respected Son'"); Miyawaki 1999, p. 330 (derivation from huang taizi and other meaning as "viceroy").
  3. Crossley 1999, p. 165, note 82.
  4. Crossley 1999, pp. 164–65.
  5. Pang & Stary 1998, p. 13 (""Nurhaci never assigned him to such position"); Crossley 1999, p. 165 ("this ['imperial prince', 'heir apparent'] is certainly not what his name meant"); Elliott 2001, p. 397, note 71 ("Huang Taiji" gives the "mistaken impression that he was a crown prince").
  6. Crossley 1999, p. 164.
  7. 1 2 Pang & Stary 1998, p. 13.
  8. Elliott 2001, p. 397, note 71 ("that Hong (not Hung) Taiji was indeed his given name, and not a title, is persuasively established on the basis of new documentary evidence in Tatiana A. Pang and Giovanni Stary...").
  9. Stary 1984; Crossley 1999, p. 165; Elliott 2001, p. 396, note 71.
  10. Stary 1984, pp. 298–99.
  11. Stary 1984, p. 299.
  12. Grupper 1984, p. 69.
  13. Wilkinson 2012, pp. 270 and 806.
  14. Crossley 1999, pp. 137 and 165.
  15. ed. Walthall 2008, p. 148.
  16. Wakeman 1985, p. 203
  17. The Cambridge History of China: Pt. 1 ; The Ch'ing Empire to 1800. Cambridge University Press. 1978. pp. 64–. ISBN 978-0-521-24334-6.
  18. 1 2 The Cambridge History of China: Pt. 1 ; The Ch'ing Empire to 1800. Cambridge University Press. 1978. pp. 65–. ISBN 978-0-521-24334-6.
  19. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Dupuy & Dupuy 1986, p. 592
  20. Wakeman 1985, p. 205.
  21. Wakeman 1985, p. 204.
  22. 1 2 3 Schirokauer 1978, pp. 326–327
  23. Oxnam 1975, p. 38; Wakeman 1985, p. 297; Gong 2010, p. 51
  24. Dennerline 2002, p. 74
  25. Roth Li 2002, p. 71.
  26. Dennerline 2002, p. 78.
  27. Fang 1943, p. 255.
  28. Wakeman 1985, pp. 313–315 and 858.
  29. 1 2 3 Rawski 1998, p. 132.
  30. Rawski 1991, p. 176.
  31. Rawski 1991, p. 174 (sister pair); Rawski 1998, p. 132 (Jere as Bumbutai's aunt).
  32. Zhao et al. 1927, pp. 5270 (2nd and 3rd daughters) and 5273 (8th) in ch. 166 ("Tables of princesses" 公主表); and p. 8901 (dates and successive ranks) in ch. 214 ("Biographies of consorts" 后妃傳).
  33. Zhao et al. 1927, pp. 5271 (4th daughter), 5272 (5th and 7th), and 8903 (dates and ranks).
  34. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Zhao et al. 1927, p. 8904.
  35. Zhao et al. 1927, pp. 5269 (1st daughter) and pp. 8904–5 (sons).
  36. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Zhao et al. 1927, p. 8905.
  37. Zhao et al. 1927, pp. 5272 (6th daughter), 5274 (9th daughter), and 8905 (rank and name of consort).
  38. Zhao et al. 1927, pp. 5274 (10th daughter), 5275 (13th daughter), and 8905 (name and rank; son).
  39. Zhao et al. 1927, pp. 5276 (14th daughter) and 8905 (rank).
  40. Zhao et al. 1927, pp. 5275 (identity of daughter) and 8905 (rank of consort).
  41. 1 2 Zhao et al. 1927, pp. 8904-5.
  42. Zhao et al. 1927, p. 8903.
  43. 1 2 Rawski 1998, p. 145.
  44. Zhao et al. 1927, p. 5269.
  45. 1 2 Zhao et al. 1927, p. 5270.
  46. Zhao et al. 1927, p. 5271.
  47. 1 2 3 Zhao et al. 1927, p. 5272.
  48. Zhao et al. 1927, p. 5273.
  49. 1 2 3 Zhao et al. 1927, p. 5274.
  50. 1 2 Zhao et al. 1927, p. 5275.
  51. Zhao et al. 1927, p. 5276.

Works cited

Further reading

  • di Cosmo, Nicola (2004). "Did Guns Matter? Firearms and the Qing Formation". In Lynn A. Struve (ed.). The Qing Formation in World-Historical Time. Cambridge (MA) and London: Harvard University Press. pp. 121–166. ISBN 0-674-01399-9.  External link in |title= (help)
  • Elliott, Mark (2005). "Whose Empire Shall It Be? Manchu Figurations of Historical Process in the Early Seventeenth Century: East Asia from Ming to Qing". In Lynn A. Struve (ed.). Time, Temporality, and Imperial Transition. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. pp. 31–72. ISBN 0-8248-2827-5.  External link in |title= (help)

See also

  • Daily life in the Forbidden City, Wan Yi, Wang Shuqing, Lu Yanzhen. ISBN 0-670-81164-5.
  • Qing imperial genealogy(清皇室四譜).
  • Qing dynasty Taizong’s veritable records《清太宗實錄》
  • Royal archives of the Qing dynasty (清宮档案).
  • Samjeondo Monument
Hong Taiji
Born: 28 November 1592 Died: 21 September 1643
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Emperor(/Khan) of Qing empire(/Later Jin)
Succeeded by
Shunzhi Emperor
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 11/10/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.