2 Marsham Street, the headquarters of the Home Office
|Jurisdiction||United Kingdom (but in respect of most policing and justice matters: England and Wales only)|
|Headquarters||2 Marsham Street, London, SW1P 4DF|
|Annual budget||£8.9 billion (current) and £500 million (capital) in 2011–12|
The Home Office (HO) is a ministerial department of the Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, responsible for immigration, security and law and order. As such it is responsible for the police, fire and rescue services, visas and immigration and the Security Service (MI5). It is also in charge of government policy on security-related issues such as drugs, counter-terrorism and ID cards. It was formerly responsible for Her Majesty's Prison Service and the National Probation Service, but these have transferred to the Ministry of Justice. The Cabinet minister responsible for the department is the Home Secretary.
The remit of the Home Office was substantially reduced in 2007 when, after Home Secretary John Reid had declared the Home Office "not fit for purpose", the Prime Minister Tony Blair separated a new Ministry of Justice from the reduced Home Office.
Non-ministerial government departments
- HM Inspectorate of Constabulary
- Independent Chief Inspector of Borders and Immigration
- The Independent Police Complaints Commission and other oversight bodies
- The Home Affairs Select Committee
- HM Chief Inspector of Fire Service
- Border Force
- HM Passport Office
- Immigration Enforcement
- Corporate Services
- UK Visas and Immigration
- Fire and Rescue Service
Non-departmental public bodies
- Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs
- Animals in Science Committee
- Disclosure and Barring Service
- Gangmasters Licensing Authority
- Independent Police Complaints Commission
- Investigatory Powers Tribunal
- Migration Advisory Committee
- National DNA Database Ethics Group
- Office of Surveillance Commissioners
- Office of the Immigration Services Commissioner
- Police Advisory Board for England and Wales
- Police Discipline Appeals Tribunal
- Police Remuneration Review Body
- Security Industry Authority
- Technical Advisory Board
In October 2012, a number of functions of the National Policing Improvement Agency were transferred to the Home Office ahead of the future abolition of the agency.
- Use of the Airwave communications system by police forces
- The Police National Database
- The National DNA Database
- Legislative powers regarding police employment
- Forensics policy
- The National Procurement Hub for information technology
|The Rt Hon. Amber Rudd MP||Secretary of State||Overall responsibility for the work of the department, including security and terrorism, legislative programme, expenditure issues|
|Brandon Lewis||Minister of State||Police, Fire Service|
|Ben Wallace||Minister of State||Counter-terrorism, investigatory powers, Northern Ireland-related terrorism, Home Office science, security exports, small and medium enterprise, reducing regulation|
|Robert Goodwill MP||Minister of State||Immigration policy and legislation, the European Union, Her Majesty's Passport Office, asylum, Border Force, immigration enforcement, individual case decisions, UK Visas and Immigration, Extradition and mutual legal assistance (MLA)|
|Sarah Newton MP||Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State||CSE/CSA (online and contact), extremism (House of Commons business), mental health, modern slavery, VAWG, Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), public protection, ASB, gangs, youth violence, hate crime, Parliamentary champion|
|The Baroness Williams of Trafford||Minister of State||Lords Business (except Internet safety and security); devolution|
| The Baroness Shields OBE
|Parliamentary Under Secretary of State||Internet Safety and Security|
|This article is part of a series on the|
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- 1. Empower the public to hold the police to account for their role in cutting crime
- Introduce directly elected Police and Crime Commissioners and make police actions to tackle crime and anti-social behaviour more transparent
- 2. Free up the police to fight crime more effectively and efficiently
- Cut police bureaucracy, end unnecessary central interference and overhaul police powers in order to cut crime, reduce costs and improve police value for money. Simplify national institutional structures and establish a National Crime Agency to strengthen the fight against organised crime (and replace the Serious Organised Crime Agency)
- 3. Create a more integrated criminal justice system
- Help the police and other public services work together across the criminal justice system
- 4. Secure our borders and reduce immigration
- Deliver an improved migration system that commands public confidence and serves our economic interests. Limit non-EU economic migrants, and introduce new measures to reduce inflow and minimise abuse of all migration routes, for example the student route. Process asylum applications more quickly, and end the detention of children for immigration purposes
- 5. Protect people's freedoms and civil liberties
- Reverse state interference to ensure there is not disproportionate intrusion into people‟s lives
- 6. Protect our citizens from terrorism
- Keep people safe through the Government‟s approach to counter-terrorism
- 7. Build a fairer and more equal society (through the Government Equalities Office)
- Help create a fair and flexible labour market. Change culture and attitudes. Empower individuals and communities. Improve equality structures, frontline services and support; and help Government Departments and others to consider equality as a matter of course
- 1. Empower the public to hold the police to account for their role in cutting crime
On 27 March 1782, the Home Office was formed by renaming the existing Southern Department, with all existing staff transferring. On the same day, the Northern Department was renamed the Foreign Office.
To match the new names, there was a transferring of responsibilities between the two Departments of State. All domestic responsibilities were moved to the Home Office, and all foreign matters became the concern of the Foreign Office.
Most subsequently created domestic departments (excluding, for instance, those dealing with education) have been formed by splitting responsibilities away from the Home Office.
The initial responsibilities were:
- Answering petitions and addresses sent to the King
- Advising the King on
- Issuing instructions on behalf of the King to officers of the Crown, Lords Lieutenant and magistrates, mainly concerning law and order
- Operation of the secret service within the UK
- Protecting the public
- Safeguarding the rights and liberties of individuals
- 1793 added: regulation of aliens
- 1794 removed: control of military forces (to Secretary of State for War)
- 1801 removed: colonial business (to Secretary of State for War and the Colonies)
- 1804 removed: Barbary State consuls (to Secretary of State for War and the Colonies)
- 1823 added: prisons
- 1829 added: police services
- 1836 added: registration of births, deaths and marriages in England and Wales
- 1844 added: naturalisation
- 1845 added: registration of Friendly Societies
- 1855 removed: yeomanries and militias (to War Office)
- 1858 added: local boards of health
- 1871 removed: local boards of health (to Local Government Board)
- 1871 removed: registration of births, deaths and marriages (to Local Government Board)
- 1872 removed: highways and turnpikes (to Local Government Board)
- 1875 added: control of explosives
- 1875 removed: registration of Friendly Societies (to Treasury)
- 1885 removed: Scotland (to Secretary for Scotland and the Scottish Office)
- 1886 removed: fishing (to Board of Trade)
- 1889 removed: Land Commissioners (to Board of Agriculture)
- 1900 removed: matters relating to burial grounds (to Local Government Board)
- 1905 removed: public housing (to Local Government Board)
- 1914 added: dangerous drugs
- 1919 removed: aircraft and air traffic (to Air Ministry)
- 1919 removed: use of human bodies in medical training (to Ministry of Health)
- 1919 removed: infant and child care (to Ministry of Health)
- 1919 removed: lunacy and mental health (to Ministry of Health)
- 1919 removed: health and safety (to Ministry of Health)
- 1920 added: firearms
- 1920 removed: Representation of Britain abroad in labour matters (to Ministry of Labour)
- 1920 removed: mining (to Mines Department)
- 1921 added: elections (from the Ministry of Health)
- 1922 removed: relations with Irish Free State (to Colonial Office)
- 1923 removed: Order of the British Empire (to Treasury)
- 1925 removed: registration of trade unions (to Ministry of Labour)
- 1931 removed: county councils (to Ministry of Health)
- 1933 added: poisons
- 1934 removed: metropolitan boroughs (to Ministry of Health)
- 1935 added: Civil Defence Service
- 1937 removed: road accident returns (to Ministry of Transport)
- 1938 added: fire services
- 1938 removed: Imperial Service Order and medal (to Treasury)
- 1940 removed: factory inspections (to Ministry of Labour)
- 1945 removed: workmen's compensation scheme (to Ministry of National Insurance)
- 1947 added: infant and child care (from Ministry of Health)
- 1947 removed: regulation of advertisements (to Ministry of Town and Country Planning)
- 1947 removed: burial fees (to Ministry of Health)
- 1947 removed: registration of building societies (to Treasury)
- 1948 removed: Broadmoor hospital (to Lunacy Board of Control)
- 1949 added: Civil Defence Corps
- 1950 removed: structural precautions for civil defence (to Ministry of Works)
- 1950 removed: minor judicial appointments (to Lord Chancellor)
- 1953 removed: slaughterhouses (to Ministry of Housing and Local Government)
- 1954 removed: markets (to Ministry of Housing and Local Government)
- 1956 removed: railway accidents (to Ministry of Transport and Civil Aviation)
- 1969 removed: reservoirs (to Ministry of Housing and Local Government)
- 1971 removed: child care in England (to Department of Health and Social Security)
- 1971 removed: child care in Wales (to Welsh Office)
- 1972 removed: Northern Ireland (to Northern Ireland Office)
- 1973 removed: adoption (to Department of Health and Social Security)
- 1992 removed: broadcasting and sport (to the new Department of National Heritage – later the Department for Culture, Media and Sport)
- 2007 removed: criminal justice, prisons & probation and legal affairs (to new Ministry of Justice)
- 2007 added: counter-terrorism strategy (from the Cabinet Office)
- 2016 added: fire and rescue services (from the Department for Communities and Local Government)
The Home Office retains a variety of functions that have not found a home elsewhere, and sit oddly with the main law-and-order focus of the department, such as regulation of British Summer Time.
On 7 April 2012, hacktivist group Anonymous temporarily took down the UK Home Office website. The group took responsibility for the attack, which was part of ongoing Anonymous activity in protest against the deportation of hackers as part of Operation TrialAtHome. One Anonymous source claimed in their tweet it was also launched in retaliation for "draconian surveillance proposals".
On 18 July 2012, the Public and Commercial Services Union announced that thousands of Home Office employees would go on strike over jobs, pay and other issues. However, the PCSU called off the strike before it was planned it claimed the department had, subsequent to the threat of actions, announced 1,100 new border jobs.
From 1978 to 2004, the Home Office was located at 50 Queen Anne's Gate, a Brutalist office block in Westminster designed by Sir Basil Spence, close to St. James's Park tube station. Many functions, however, were devolved to offices in other parts of London and the country, notably the headquarters of the Immigration and Nationality Directorate in Croydon.
In 2005, the Home Office moved to a new main office designed by Sir Terry Farrell at 2 Marsham Street, Westminster, SW1P 4DF, on the site of the demolished Marsham Towers building of the Department of the Environment.
For external shots of its fictional Home Office, the TV series Spooks uses an aerial shot of the Government Offices Great George Street instead, serving as stand-in to match the distinctly less modern appearance of the fictitious accommodation interiors the series uses.
To meet the UK's 5-year science and technology strategy, the Home Office sponsors research in police sciences including:
- Biometrics – including face and voice recognition
- Cell type analysis – to determine the origin of cells (e.g. hair, skin)
- Chemistry – new techniques to recover latent fingerprints
- DNA – identifying offender characteristics from DNA
- Improved Profiling – of illicit drugs to help identify their source
- Raman Spectroscopy – to provide more sensitive drugs and explosives detectors (e.g. roadside drug detection)
- Terahertz imaging methods and technologies – e.g. image analysis and new cameras, to detect crime, enhance images and support anti-terrorism
Most front-line law and order policy areas, such as policing and criminal justice, are devolved in Scotland and Northern Ireland but the following reserved and excepted matters are handled by Westminster.
- The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971
- Extradition legislation, but the Scottish Ministers (through the Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service) have executive responsibility for all aspects of mutual legal assistance
- Most aspects of Firearms legislation, but Scottish Ministers have some executive responsibilities for the licensing of firearms. Further powers are transferred under the Scotland Act 2012
- Immigration and nationality
- Scientific procedures on live animals
The Scottish Government Justice and Communities Directorates are responsible for devolved justice and home affairs policy.
The Home Office's main counterparts in Northern Ireland are:
- Department of Justice (policing, public order and community safety)
- Northern Ireland Office (national security in Northern Ireland)
Under the Welsh devolution settlement, specific policy areas are transferred to the National Assembly for Wales rather than reserved to Westminster.
- Home Office Large Major Enquiry System
- John Gieve
- Law enforcement in the United Kingdom
- List of permanent under secretaries of state of the Home Office
- Ministry of Home Security
- UK Immigration Service
- Budget 2011 (PDF). London: HM Treasury. 2011. p. 48. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- Department of the Official Report (Hansard), House of Commons, Westminster (9 June 2008). "Hansard – Oral Questions to the Home Department – 9 June 2008". Publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 2010-06-19.
- "Departments, agencies and public bodies", gov.uk. Retrieved 28 May 2014
- "Where have NPIA products and services moved to?". National Policing Improvement Agency. 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Our ministers". GOV.UK. Home Office. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
- "Business Plan". Home Office. Home Office. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- "Business Plan:Home Office". Home Office. 10 Downing Street. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- "Changes to Home Office responsibilities". Casbah.ac.uk. Retrieved 2010-06-19.
- "Anonymous takes down the UK Home Office website".
- "Home Office staff vote to strike over jobs and pay". Bbc.co.uk. 2012-07-18. Retrieved 2013-07-28.
- New Home Office building Archived 26 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Police Science and Technology Strategy: 2004 – 2009" (PDF). homeoffice.gov.uk. Retrieved 27 September 2010.
- "Scotland Act 1998, Schedule 5, Part I". Opsi.gov.uk. Retrieved 2010-06-19.
- "Northern Ireland Act 1998, Schedule 2". Opsi.gov.uk. 4 November 1950. Retrieved 2010-06-19.
- Northern Ireland Assembly Information Office. "''Policing and Justice'' motion, Northern ireland Assembly, 12 April 2010". Niassembly.gov.uk. Retrieved 2010-06-19.
- "About the NIO". Nio.gov.uk. 12 April 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-19.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Home Office.|
- Official website
- Records created or inherited by the Home Office, Ministry of Home Security, and related bodies—gives a history of responsibilities of the Home Office, including which functions were merged into or transferred away from the Home Office