Hawkins–Kennedy test

The Hawkins–Kennedy Test (Hawkins Test) is a test used in the evaluation of orthopedic shoulder injury. It was first described in the 1980s by American Drs. R. Hawkins and J. Kennedy, and a positive test is most likely indicative of damage to the tendon of the supraspinatus muscle.[1][2]


A positive Hawkins test is indicative of an impingement of all structures that are located between the greater tubercle of the humerus and the coracohumeral ligament. The impinged structures include the supraspinatus muscle, teres minor muscle, and the infraspinatus muscle. The Hawkins test is considered to be a highly sensitive test (92.1%)[3] and thus a negative Hawkins test suggests that injury is unlikely.


The patient is examined while sitting with their shoulder flexed to 90° and their elbow flexed to 90°. The examiner grasps and supports proximal to the wrist and elbow to ensure maximal relaxation, the examiner and the patient then quickly rotate the arm internally.[4][5] Pain located below the acromioclavicular joint with internal rotation is considered a positive test result.[6][7]


See also

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