Hassanal Bolkiah

His Majesty
Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Wad'daulah
حج حسن البلقیة معز الدین وعدالله(Jawi)

Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah at the 9th BIMP-EAGA Summit
Sultan and Yang di-Pertuan of Brunei
Assumed office
4 October 1967
Preceded by Omar Ali Saifuddien III
Prime Minister of Brunei Darussalam
Assumed office
1 January 1984
Monarch himself
Deputy Al-Muhtadee Billah
Preceded by post created, formerly known as Chief Minister
Minister of Defence and Commander in Chief of Royal Brunei Armed Forces
Assumed office
7 September 1986
Monarch himself
Preceded by Omar Ali Saifuddien III
Minister of Finance
Assumed office
1 January 1984
Monarch himself
Preceded by post created
Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade of Brunei
Assumed office
22 October 2015
Monarch himself
Preceded by Mohamed Bolkiah
Chancellor of University of Brunei Darussalam
Assumed office
Monarch himself
Preceded by post created
Chancellor of Sultan Sharif Ali Islamic University
Assumed office
Monarch himself
Preceded by post created
Chancellor of University of Technology Brunei
Assumed office
Monarch himself
Preceded by post created
Personal details
Born Hassanal Bolkiah Muiz'zaddin Wad'daulah
(1946-07-15) 15 July 1946
Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei
Spouse(s) Queen Consort Saleha (1965–present)
Hajah Mariam (1982–2003)
Azrinaz Mazhar (2005–2010)
Children Rashidah Bolkiah
Muta-Wakillah Bolkiah
Al-Muhtadee Billah (first in line of succession)
Majeedah Bolkiah
Abdul Malik
Abdul Azim
Aziemah Bolkiah
Fadzillah Bolkiah
Abdul Mateen
Abdul Wakeel
Ameerah Bolkiah
Mother Pengiran Anak Damit
Father Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien the Third
Alma mater Royal Military Academy, Sandshurst, United Kingdom
Religion Sunni Islam

Hassanal Bolkiah, GCB GCMG (full name: Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Haji Omar Ali Saifuddien Sa'adul Khairi Waddien; born 15 July 1946) is the 29th and current Sultan and Yang Di-Pertuan of Brunei. He is also the first and incumbent Prime Minister of Brunei. The eldest son of Sir Muda Omar Ali Saifuddien III and Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak (Queen) Damit, he succeeded to the throne as the Sultan of Brunei, following the abdication of his father on 4 October 1967.

The Sultan has been ranked among the wealthiest individuals in the world; Forbes estimated the Sultan's total peak net worth at US$20 billion in 2008.

Early years and education

The Sultan was born on 15 July 1946 in Brunei Town (now called Bandar Seri Begawan) as Pengiran Muda (Crown Prince) Hassanal Bolkiah. The Sultan received high school education at Victoria Institution in Kuala Lumpur, after which he attended the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in the United Kingdom, graduating in 1967.[1]

Ascension to the throne

He became the Sultan of Brunei Darussalam on 5 October 1967, after his father abdicated. His coronation was held on 1 August 1968, and made him the Yang di-Pertuan (Head of State) of Brunei. Like his father, he has been knighted by Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, of which Brunei was a protectorate until 1984.

Political role as Sultan

Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah with the former President of the People's Republic of China, Hu Jintao.

Under Brunei's 1959 constitution, the Sultan is the head of state with full executive authority, including emergency powers since 1962. On 9 March 2006, the Sultan was reported to have amended Brunei's constitution to make himself infallible under Bruneian law.[2] Bolkiah, as Prime Minister, is also the head of government. In addition, he holds the portfolios both of Minister of Defense and Minister of Finance. As Minister of Defense he is therefore the Supreme Commander of the Royal Brunei Armed Forces, as well as an Honorary General in the British and Indonesian armed forces and an Honorary Admiral of the Fleet in the Royal Navy. He appointed himself as Inspector General of Police (IGP) of the Royal Brunei Police Force.

Bolkiah addressed the United Nations General Assembly on Brunei Darussalam's admission to the United Nations in September 1984. In 1991, he introduced a conservative ideology to Brunei called Melayu Islam Beraja (Malay Islamic Monarchy, MIB), which presents the monarchy as the defender of the faith.[3] He has recently favoured Brunei government democratisation and declared himself Prime Minister and President. In 2004, the Legislative Council, which had been dissolved since 1962, was reopened.[4]

His designated successor is his eldest son, Prince Al-Muhtadee Billah.

The Sultan's official residence is the Istana Nurul Iman, with 1,788 rooms, 257 bathrooms, and a floor area of 2,152,782 square feet (200,000 m2; 20 ha). The Istana also houses several offices of government, including that of the Office of the Sultan and Yang Di-Pertuan, the Office of the Grand Chamberlain, as well as the offices within the Prime Minister's Department. Parts of the Ministry of Defence and Ministry of Finance are also located at the palace. The Crown Prince, who is the Senior Minister, works from offices at the Istana. Hyatt Borneo Management Services and HM The Sultan's flight maintain offices there.

Brunei during Hassanal Bolkiah's sultanate

Development of education system

The University of Brunei Darussalam and Sultan Sharif Ali Islamic University (UNISSA) were established. Technical and vocational institutions were also built, such as the Brunei Technological University (UTB), Sultan Saiful Rijal Technical College, and vocational schools.

The religious Institute Tahfiz Al-Quran Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah was established. Scholarships for study in the country and abroad were provided.

Defence and security developments

The Royal Brunei Armed Forces were expanded with the establishment of three major branches of the Royal Brunei Land Forces, Royal Brunei Navy and Royal Brunei Air Force.

Health, welfare and community services

Medicines and medical treatment are free of charge to children, policemen and members of the Royal Brunei Armed Forces in hospitals and government clinics, and subject to a small charge for others.

There is one doctor per 949 patients. The life expectancy of the people and the country's population is 74.2 years for men and 77.3 years for women.

Other facilities offered include various National Housing Plan Scheme (RPN), Land Allocation Scheme, the additional monthly pension on the elderly, subsistence allowances for widows and people with disabilities.

Hassanal Bolkiah established the Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Foundation (YSHHB).

In January 2013, the Royal College of General Practitioners created the honour of ‘Companion of the College’ to mark its 60th anniversary. The Sultan became the first recipient of this award in recognition of the work he has done to promote healthcare in Brunei and abroad. An auditorium in the College's headquarters at 30 Euston Square, London - where the Sultan was inaugurated - was also named in his honour.[5]

Foreign affairs

Brunei Darussalam is a member of various international and regional organisations such as ASEAN, Commonwealth, the Organisation of the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). Hassanal Bolkiah was chairman of Summit APEC Leaders in 2000 when Brunei Darussalam hosted the summit. Hassanal Bolkiah was also the chairman of ASEAN Summit in 2013 when Brunei Darussalam hosted the summit.

Membership of international organisations

Hassanal Bolkiah attended various meetings of international organisations.

Brunei Darussalam:


Religious affairs

Hassanal Bolkiah is Head of Religion, and Islam is the official religion of the country. Mosques, prayer halls and stations were built across the country. The Sultan decreed that Islamic celebrations such as Early Years Celebration Prophet's birthday, Isra and Miraj and Nuzul Al Quran are celebrated on a large scale. He often attends mosques and surau throughout the country for the obligatory Friday prayers.

In 2014, Hassanal Bolkiah has also advocated Islamic Penal Code, which include adultery is to be punished with death by stoning given there is only enough evidences pointing to the action (i.e. with 4 trusted, impartial, and truthful witnesses in attendance). Without 4 qualified witnesses, there will be no stoning.

Hassanal Bolkiah also banned public celebrations of Christmas in 2015, including wearing hats or clothes that resemble Santa Claus. The ban only affects local Muslims.[6] Christians are still allowed to celebrate Christmas. In fact according to Bruneian Bishop Cornelius Sim, on 25 December 2015, there were around estimated 4,000 out of 18,000 Bruneian Catholics (mainly Chinese and expats living in the country) attending the mass on Christmas Eve and Christmas Day. While there was no absolute ban on celebrations, there was a ban affecting Christmas decorations in public places, especially shopping malls but not affecting small stores and private residences including churches.[7]


There have been national economic development plans; oil and gas remain the main source of national income. Steps are being made to establish a petrochemical industry.

In the Islamic banking sector, Brunei Islamic Trust Fund (TAIB) was established on 29 September 1991, while in 2006, the Islamic Bank of Brunei (IBB) and the Islamic Development Bank of Brunei (IDBB) consolidated into Bank Islam Brunei Darussalam (BIBD) with total assets of US$5 billion.

Marriage and family

The Sultan married his first cousin and first wife, Pengiran Anak Saleha or Princess Saleha, later became the Raja Isteri or Queen. His former second wife, Aisha Mariam (the former Pengiran Isteri), was a former flight attendant for the national carrier, Royal Brunei Airlines. He divorced her in 2003, stripping her of all her royal titles. In August 2005, her place was taken by a former Malaysian TV3 presenter, Azrinaz Mazhar Hakim, who is 33 years younger than the Sultan. They divorced in 2010, and as with Aisha Mariam, the Sultan stripped her of all titles, honours, and monthly allowance. The divorce was announced on Radio Television Brunei by the Grand Chamberlain.[8]

Prince Al-Muhtadee Billah is the current Pengiran Muda Mahkota ("Crown Prince") and the Sultan's heir, as the eldest son of the Sultan and Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha. As of 2012, Hassanal Bolkiah has five sons and seven daughters with his three wives.

Saleha, the Queen Consort of Brunei.


Name Birth Marriage
Date | Spouse
Their Children
Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak (Queen Consort) Hajah Saleha
Pengiran Anak Puteri (Princess) Hajah Rashidah Sa'adatul Bolkiah 26 July 1969 Pengiran Maharaja Setia Laila di-Raja Sahibul Irshad Pengiran Anak Haji ‘Abdu’l Rahim bin Al Marhum Pengiran Indera Mahkota Pengiran Anak Dr. Kemaluddin Al-Haj Pengiran Anak Raheemah Sanaul Bolkiah
Pengiran Anak Hariisah Widadul Bolqiah
Pengiran Anak 'Abdul Raqiib
Pengiran Anak 'Abdul Haseeb
Pengiran Anak Raqeeqah Raayatul Bolqiah
Pengiran Anak Puteri (Princess) Hajah Muta-Wakkilah Hayatul Bolkiah 12 October 1971
Haji Al-Muhtadee Pengiran Muda Mahkota Pengiran Muda (Crown Prince) Al-Muhtadee Billah 17 February 1974 Paduka Seri Pengiran Anak Isteri Pengiran Anak Sarah binti Pengiran Haji Salleh Ab-Rahaman Pengiran Muda Abdul Muntaqim
(b. 17 March 2007 )
Pengiran Anak Muneerah Madhul Bolkiah
(b. 2 January 2011)
Pengiran Muda Muhammad Aiman
(b.6 June 2016)
Pengiran Anak Puteri (Princess) Hajah Majeedah Nuurul Bolkiah 16 March 1976 Y.A.M. Pengiran Anak Khairul Khalil bin Pengiran Syed Haji Jaafari Pengiran Anak 'Abdul Hafeez
(b. 18 March 2008)
Pengiran Anak Raihaanah Hanaa-Ul Bolqiah
(b. 6 January 2010)
Pengiran Anak Puteri (Princess) Hajah Hafizah Sururul Bolkiah 12 March 1980 Y.A.M. Pengiran Anak Haji Mohammad Ruzaini bin Pengiran Dr. Haji Mohammad Yakub Pengiran Anak Muhammad Za'eem
(b. 3 August 2013)
Pengiran Muda (Prince) Abdul Malik 30 June 1983 Y.A.M Pengiran Anak Isteri Pengiran Rabiatul Adawiyah Binti Pengiran Haji Bolkiah Y.A.M Pengiran Anak Muhee'ah Raayatul Bolqiah
(b. 2 March 2016)
Hajah Mariam (1982-2003) Divorced[8]
Pengiran Muda (Prince) Haji Abdul Azim 29 July 1982
Pengiran Anak Puteri (Princess) Azemah Ni'matul Bolkiah 26 September 1984
Pengiran Anak Puteri (Princess) Fadzillah Lubabul Bolkiah 23 August 1985
Pengiran Muda (Prince) Abdul Mateen 10 August 1991
Azrinaz Mazhar (2005-2010) Divorced
Pengiran Muda (Prince) Abdul Wakeel 1 June 2006
Pengiran Anak Puteri (Princess) Ameerah Wardatul Bolkiah 28 January 2008

He also has 11 grandchildren.[9][10]

Titles, styles and honours

Styles of
The Sultan of Brunei
Reference style His Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Kebawah Duli Tuan Patik

In Malay the Sultan's full title is Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Haji Omar 'Ali Saifuddien Sa'adul Khairi Waddien, Sultan dan Yang di-Pertuan Negara Brunei Darussalam.[11]

Academic honours

The Sultan received an honorary doctorate at the Moscow State University for International Relations (MGIMO), 2005.[12] He has also been awarded an Honorary Doctor of Law degree from the University of Oxford, England, and an Honorary Doctor of Letters degree from the University of Aberdeen, Scotland. He received an Honorary Doctorate from the Chulalongkorn University of Thailand. In 2003, he received an Honorary Doctorate Degree in Humanities and Culture from Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM), Yogyakarta, Indonesia.[13] On 27 January 2005, he was awarded an Honorary Doctor of Laws by the National University of Singapore.[14] On 14 April 2011, he was conferred the Honorary Doctorate of Law by King's College London.[15] The scroll for the honorary doctorate was presented by Lord Duoro, the chairman of the Council of King's College London. He was awarded with an honorary doctorate in philosophy and humanities on 21 April 2011 from Universitas Indonesia, one of the oldest universities in Asia having been established 160 years ago.[16]

Military honours

The Sultan holds an honorary commission in the Royal Air Force of the United Kingdom as an Air Marshal.[17] He is also an Honorary Admiral of the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom,[18] a title given to him by Queen Elizabeth II when he took the salute at the passing out parade of the 2001 summer term at Britannia Royal Naval College, Dartmouth, the Royal Navy's officer-training school in the United Kingdom. He has an English residence at Binfield Manor in Berkshire.

In April 2008, he was made an honorary member of the Indonesian Satgas Atbara Special Operations Unit. He holds the rank of Honorary Colonel of Pakistan's Special Service Group (SSG), awarded to him during his visit to the Pakistan Army's SSG headquarters at Cherat.[19] He possesses red beret and paratrooper wings of the Black Hawk paratroopers, presented to him by the Indian Army during his state visit to India.

Other honours

In January 2013, the Royal College of General Practitioners inaugurated the Sultan as the first Companion of the College for services to healthcare in Brunei and abroad.[5]


AMADEO crisis

He had open disagreements with his brother, Jefri Bolkiah, who owned a network of companies and investment vehicles under the name "Amadeo" run by his son, Prince Hakim, which was used to buy the luxury goods company Asprey and build an amusement park and other projects in Brunei.[20] In July 1998 the Amadeo group collapsed under US$10 billion in debt.[21] Between 1983 and mid-1998 some US$40 billion of what were called "special transfers" were made from the accounts of the Brunei Investment Agency (BIA).[22] An independent investigation was undertaken into the circumstances of these special transfers, concluding that in round figures, US$14.8 billion were paid to the accounts of Prince Jefri apart from the US$8 billion to accounts of the Sultan and US$3.8 billion for Government purposes. The destination, purpose and recipients of the remaining transfers were not established.[22] Due to the secretive nature of the state and the blurred lines as to where the royal family's finances and the state finances began and ended, establishing the true course of events is very difficult.[20]

Prince Jefri was accused of misappropriating state funds to pay for his own personal investments, bought through BIA and Amadeo companies and removed from his position as head of BIA.[23][24] In February 2000 the Bruneian government attempted to obtain a freezing order on Prince Jefri's overseas assets, which led to him countersuing in New York.[23] Following protracted negotiations a settlement agreement was signed by the Prince in May 2000,[22] the terms of which were never made public.[21] However, Prince Jefri claimed assurances were made to him by the Sultan with regards to keeping certain properties to maintain his lifestyle, which BIA denied.[21][22] In accordance with the settlement agreement signed in 2000, the prince began to return his assets to the state, including more than 500 properties, both in Brunei and abroad, about 2500 cars, 100 paintings, five boats, and nine aircraft.[21] In 2001 ten thousand lots of Prince Jefri's possessions went to auction.[25]

However, the BIA alleged that the Prince failed to uphold the agreement by failing to disclose all his accounts, and allowing money to be taken from frozen accounts,[26] and restarted legal proceedings to gain full control of the Prince's assets. After a number of appeals,[27] this finally reached the Privy Council in London, which can serve as Brunei's highest court of appeal as a result of Brunei's former protectorate status.[28] The Privy Council rejected Prince Jefri's evidence, describing his contention that the agreement allowed for him to retain a number of properties as "simply incredible",[29] and ruled in favour of the Government of Brunei and the BIA; consequently the Prince's appeal was dismissed and he was ordered to return the rest of his assets to Brunei.[22] The decision of the Privy Council did not end the litigation between Prince Jefri and the BIA. The BIA re-opened proceedings in Malaysia and the Cayman Islands, resulting in the BIA gaining control over the Hotel Bel-Air in Los Angeles and The New York Palace Hotel in Manhattan.[30]

The BIA also re-opened collateral litigation in the High Court of England and Wales. After winning before the Privy Council, the BIA asked the court to determine whether Prince Jefri should be held in contempt of court for allegedly making misstatements in his listing of assets. The contempt proceeding was scheduled for a hearing in June 2008, but the Prince did not attend, instead going to Paris.[26][31] Judge Peter Smith did not rule on whether Prince Jefri was in contempt, but did issue a warrant for his arrest.[32] As of November 2010, the warrant still appears to be in place, meaning the Prince will be arrested if he enters the UK.[33]

As of October 2009, Prince Jefri appears to have been allowed back to Brunei. He is not back in any official government role but retains all his royal titles and decorations and remains in the royal protocol order. He is seen at major national functions like the national teachers day celebrations, the Sultan's birthday and at the National Day Celebrations. His most recent appearance was at The Legco (Legislative Council) opening ceremony in March 2012.[34]


The Sultan is passionate about cars. The royal family always maintains a collection of over 100 cars and the palace has the underground garage to accommodate them. Apart from this he once owned one of the largest private car collections in the world with about 2500 cars which his brother Jefri Bolkiah bought for himself, the Sultan and other members of the royal family to entertain their car passion. The car collection and Prince Jefri's other indulgences blew through billions and ultimately landed him in trouble and the royal family in financial crisis resulting the car collection to be left abandoned and most of the non garaged cars were beyond saving and rest were auctioned.[35]

The Sultan's involvement in sports includes playing polo, golf, and badminton. He also enjoys race car driving, piloting helicopters, and aircraft. On international trips, he pilots his own Boeing 747-400.[36] He is also very fond of gold and has a Rolls-Royce coated with 24k gold.

He often enjoys fine cigars, and has a notable favourite, the Gurkha Centurian, that was commissioned specifically for him.[37]

His primary residence, the 1,800-room palace Istana Nurul Iman, is considered the world's largest private residence.[38][39]


Personal emblem of the Sultan of Brunei

The Sultan is the Prime Minister, Minister of Defence, Minister of Finance, Head of Islam (Caliph), Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Head of Customs, Supreme Commander of the Royal Brunei Armed Forces and the Inspector General of the Royal Brunei Police Force.

Honorary awards

He has been awarded :[40]

Brunei honorary awards

N.B. * decoration founded by the sultan on 1 August 1968 ; ** = decoration founded by the sultan on 15 August 1982

Malaysia honorary awards

 Malaysia :

 Johor :

 Kelantan :

 Negeri Sembilan :

 Pahang :

 Perak :

 Perlis :

 Selangor :

 Terengganu :

 Sarawak : DUBS of Sarawak (9 March 1989)

Foreign honorary awards


See also


  1. Leifer, Michael (2013-05-13). Dictionary of the Modern Politics of Southeast Asia. Routledge. p. 76.
  2. Sultan of Brunei Declares Himself Infallible, Hello, 9 March 2006.
  3. "Country profile: Brunei". BBC News. 21 January 2010. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
  4. "Sultan of Brunei reopens parliament". BBC News. 25 September 2004. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
  5. 1 2 RCGP inaugurates Companion of the College award
  6. "Brunei did not ban Christian frim celebrating Christmas". TheMalayOnline. 25 December 2015. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
  7. "Thousands celebrating Christmas in Brunei". The Brunei Times. 25 December 2015. Retrieved 25 December 2015.
  8. 1 2 Brunei's sultan divorces Malaysian wife of 5 years
  9. Royal Family of Brunei Birthday and Anniversary wishes – The Royal Forums
  10. Princess Hafizah gives birth to a boy – The Brunei Times
  11. "Prime Minister". Prime Minister's Office of Brunei. Retrieved 24 April 2011.
  12. "H. Bolkiah, Sultan of Brunei". Klosi News. 21 February 2010. Retrieved 29 November 2010.
  13. http://www.rtb.gov.bn/NewsUpdate/2003/April03/100403/main1.htm
  14. http://newshub.nus.edu.sg/pressrel/0501/050127.htm
  15. "Honorary doctorate for Sultan". The Brunei Times. 15 April 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
  16. "Indonesia varsity to confer honorary doctorate on HM". The Brunei Times. 17 April 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
  17. The Air Force List, 2006. HMSO ISBN 0-11-773038-6
  18. Navy List
  19. Sultan of Brunei made honorary colonel, Dawn, 20 May 2004.
  20. 1 2 Landler, Mark (27 August 1998). "The Royal Treatment; Ruling Family Feuds as Oil Income Drops in Brunei". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 October 2010.
  21. 1 2 3 4 "A Scandal's Sting Eases in Brunei". BW Online. 17 November 2000. Retrieved 15 October 2010.
  22. 1 2 3 4 5 "His Royal Highness Prince Jefri Bolkiah and others v. The State of Brunei Darussalam and Brunei Investment Agency Privy Council Appeal No 69 of 2006, Judgment of the Lords of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council" (RTF). 8 November 2007. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
  23. 1 2 Temko, Ned (29 July 2007). "Battle royal for riches of the Sultan". The Observer. Retrieved 15 October 2010.
  24. Mitton, Roger (10 March 2000). "'Everyone Was Shocked'". Asiaweek. 26 (9). Retrieved 15 October 2010.
  25. Stephen, Ignatius; Spillius, Alex (12 August 2001). "Prince Jefri's shame goes under the hammer". The Telegraph. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
  26. 1 2 Alderson, Andrew (14 June 2008). "Prince Jefri blames brother Sultan of Brunei for family feud". The Telegraph. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  27. Pierce, Andrew (7 March 2006). "Sultan's brother told to repay billions". London: The Times. Retrieved 22 October 2010.
  28. "Brunei Darussalam country brief". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Australian Government. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
  29. Bolkiah & Ors v. The State of Brunei Darussalam & Anor (Brunei Darussalam) [2007] UKPC 63 (8 November 2007), Privy Council (on appeal from The Court of Appeal of Brunei Darussalam) Retrieved 9 November 2010.
  30. Walsh, Dominic (28 July 2008). "New York Palace joins Dorchester stable". London: The Times. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
  31. "Arrest warrant for Brunei prince". BBC News. 12 June 2008. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
  32. "Transcript of proceedings of 11 June 2008, Brunei v. Bolkiah, High Court of Justice, Chancery Division, Claim No. HC00007888" (PDF). thomsonreuters.com.
  33. Hosenball, Mark (4 November 2010). "The fresh Prince of Brunei". reuters.com. Retrieved 9 November 2010.
  34. Kay, Richard (28 September 2009). "Sultan of Brunei buries the hatchet with his playboy brother". Mail Online. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
  35. http://www.gizmodo.com.au/2011/03/the-sultan-of-bruneis-rotting-supercar-collection/
  36. http://www.cigar.com/cigars/viewcigar.asp?brand=398
  37. Meet the world's other 25 royal families
  38. The Sultan of Brunei Intends to Stone Adulterers (Wait, What Century Is This?) by Charlie Campbell 7 March 2014 Time magazine
  39. 1 2 3 4 5 Royal Ark, Brunei genealogy details - p.13
  40. "Senarai Penuh Penerima Darjah Kebesaran, Bintang dan Pingat Persekutuan Tahun 1980" (PDF).
  41. Sultan of Brunei
  42. Noblesse et Royautés (French), State visit of Netherlands in Brunei, Photo

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