Hassan Rouhani

"Rouhani" redirects here. For other persons with this surname, see Rouhani (surname).
"Rohani" redirects here. For the village in Iran, see Rohani, Iran.
Hassan Rouhani
7th President of Iran
Assumed office
3 August 2013
Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei
First Vice President Eshaq Jahangiri
Preceded by Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement
In office
3 August 2013  17 September 2016
Preceded by Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Succeeded by Nicolás Maduro
Chief Negotiator of Iran for Nuclear Issue
In office
6 October 2003  15 August 2005
President Mohammad Khatami
Deputy Hossein Mousavian
Preceded by Position created
Succeeded by Ali Larijani
Secretary of the Supreme National Security Council
In office
14 October 1989  15 August 2005
President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
Mohammad Khatami
Preceded by Position created
Succeeded by Ali Larijani
Member of the Assembly of Experts
Assumed office
19 February 2007
Constituency Tehran Province
Majority 2,238,166 (53.56%)
In office
18 February 2000  18 February 2007
Constituency Semnan Province
First Deputy Speaker of the Parliament
In office
2 June 1992  26 May 2000
Preceded by Hossein Hashemian
Succeeded by Behzad Nabavi
Member of the Parliament
In office
28 May 1984  27 May 2000
Constituency Tehran, Rey, Shemiranat and Eslamshahr
Majority 729,965 (58.3%; 2nd term)
In office
28 May 1980  27 May 1984
Constituency Semnan
Majority 19,017 (62.1%)
Personal details
Born Hassan Fereydoun
(1948-11-12) 12 November 1948
Sorkheh, Semnan Province, Iran
Political party Moderation and Development Party (1999–present)
Other political
Combatant Clergy Association (1988–present; inactive since 2009)[1]
Islamic Republican Party (1979–87)
Spouse(s) Sahebeh Arabi (1968–present)
Children 5
Alma mater Qom Seminary
University of Tehran
Glasgow Caledonian University
Religion Islam
Website Government website
Personal website (Persian)
Military service
Allegiance  Iran
Years of service 1971–72 (conscription)[2]
Unit Sepah Danesh of Neishabur (1971–72)[2]
Commands Commander-in-Chief of Air Defense (1985–91)[3]
Deputy to Second-in-Command of Iran's Joint Chiefs of Staff (1988–89)[3]
Battles/wars Iran–Iraq War
Awards Order of Nasr (1st Class)[4]
Order of Fath (2nd Class)[5][6]

Hassan Rouhani (Persian: حسن روحانی,  pronunciation ; born Hassan Fereydoun (Persian: حسن فریدون) on 12 November 1948)[7] is the seventh President of Iran and has been in office since 2013. He is also a lawyer,[8] academic and former diplomat. He has been a member of Iran's Assembly of Experts since 1999,[9] member of the Expediency Council since 1991,[10] member of the Supreme National Security Council since 1989.[3][11]

Rouhani was deputy speaker of the fourth and fifth terms of the Parliament of Iran (Majlis) and Secretary of the Supreme National Security Council from 1989 to 2005.[3] In the latter capacity, he was the country's top negotiator with the EU three, UK, France, and Germany, on nuclear technology in Iran, and has also served as a Shi'ite[12] ijtihadi cleric,[13] and economic trade negotiator.[14][15]:138 He has expressed official support for upholding the rights of ethnic and religious minorities.[16] In 2013, he appointed former industries minister Eshaq Jahangiri as his first vice-president.[17]

On 7 May 2013, Rouhani registered for the presidential election that was held on 14 June 2013.[18] He said that, if elected, he would prepare a "civil rights charter", restore the economy and improve rocky relations with Western nations.[19][20] Rouhani is frequently described as a moderate. He was elected as President of Iran on 15 June, defeating Tehran mayor Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf and four other candidates.[21][22][23] He took office on 3 August 2013.[24] In 2013, TIME magazine named him in its list of the 100 Most Influential People in the World. In domestic policy, he encourages personal freedom and free access to information, has improved women's rights by appointing female foreign ministry spokespeople, and has been described as a centrist and reformist who has improved Iran's diplomatic relations with other countries through exchanging conciliatory letters.[25][26][27]


His name is also spelled as Hasan Rouhani, Hassan Rohani, Hasan Rohani, Hassan Rowhani or Hasan Rowhani.

He was born Hassan Fereydoun (or Fereydun, in reference to a just king in Persian mythology, Persian: ‌حسن فریدون, Persian pronunciation: [hæˌsæn-e feɾejˈdun]) and later changed his last name to Rouhani, which means “spiritual” or “cleric” (Persian: روحانی, Standard Persian:  [roʊhɒːˈniː] , or [ruːhɒːˈniː],[28] Tehrani accent: [roːhɒːˈni]; also transliterated as Ruhani, Rowhani, and Rohani). It is not clear when he officially changed his last name. He was named as “Hassan Fereydoun Rouhani” (Persian: حسن فریدون روحانی) in a list of Majlis representatives on 5 July 1981,[29] while photos of his identification card (in Persian transliteration: shenasnameh) taken around his presidential campaign in 2013 only mention "Rouhani" as his last name.[7]

Early life and education

Hassan Rouhani as a teenager
Styles of
Hassan Rouhani
Reference style His Excellency Mr. Hassan Rouhani[30]
Spoken style President Hassan Rouhani
Religious style Hojjatoleslam val Moslemin Hassan Rouhani[31]
Alternative style Dr. Hassan Rouhani

Hassan Rouhani (born Hassan Fereydoun) was born on 12 November 1948[7] in Sorkheh, near Semnan, into a religious family.[32] His father, Haj Asadollah Fereydoun (died 2011),[33] had a spice shop in Sorkheh[34] and his mother lived in Semnan until her death in 2015 with her daughters and sons-in-law.[7][35] Asadollah Fereydoun is reported to have been politically active against Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, the Shah (king) of Iran, and arrested first in 1962, and then more than twenty times before the Iranian Revolution in 1979.[36]

Rouhani started religious studies in 1960, first at Semnan Seminary[8]:55 before moving on to the Qom Seminary in 1961.[8]:76 He attended classes taught by prominent scholars of that time including Mohammad Mohaghegh Damad, Morteza Haeri Yazdi, Mohammad-Reza Golpaygani, Soltani, Mohammad Fazel Lankarani, and Mohammad Shahabadi.[8]:81 In addition, he studied modern courses, and was admitted to the University of Tehran in 1969, and obtained a B.A. degree in Judicial Law in 1972.[3][8]:309–312 In 1973, Rouhani entered military service in the city of Nishapur.[37]

Rouhani continued his studies at Glasgow Caledonian University in Scotland, graduating in 1995 with an M.Phil. degree in Law with his thesis entitled "The Islamic legislative power with reference to the Iranian experience" and a Ph.D. degree in Constitutional Law in 1999 for a thesis titled "The Flexibility of Shariah (Islamic Law) with reference to the Iranian experience".[38][39] Rouhani's Caledonian research was initially supervised by Iranian lawyer and scholar Professor Sayed Hassan Amin and later by Islamic law scholar Dr Mahdi Zahraa.[40]

The website of the Center for Strategic Research, a think-tank headed by Rouhani, misattributed his PhD to Glasgow University rather than Glasgow Caledonian University and confusion ensued as a result on whether he was a graduate of either university, especially as he was known during his student years by his birth name "Hassan Fereydoun".[41] Glasgow Caledonian University carried out an internal investigation to confirm Rouhani's alumnus status and after confirming it, it published Rouhani’s theses abstracts and a video showing him being capped, as Scottish academic tradition provides, during the University's 1999 graduation ceremony.[42][43]

Analysis by three bloggers indicated that two passages in his PhD thesis[44] were taken from a 1991 book by Mohammad Hashim Kamali.[44][45][46] The University library confirmed that Rouhani had cited Kamali's work both in the main body of the thesis and in the bibliography and that his theses were under no academic investigation.

Political activities before the Iranian Revolution

Rouhani (first row, second from left) praying with the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and his followers in Neauphle-le-Château, France, 1978[8]:758

As a young cleric Hassan Rouhani started his political activities by following the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini during the beginning of the Iranian Islamist movement. In 1965, he began traveling throughout Iran making speeches against the government of the Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, the Shah (king) of Iran. During those years he was arrested many times and was banned from delivering public speeches.[8]:232

In November 1977, during a public ceremony held at Tehran's Ark Mosque to commemorate the death of Mostafa Khomeini (the elder son of the Ayatollah Khomeini), Rouhani used the title "Imam" for the Ayatollah Khomeini, the then exiled leader of the Islamist movement, for the first time.[8]:375[32] It has been suggested that the title has been used for Khomeini by others before, including by the Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr, although Rouhani was influential in publicizing the title.[47][48][49]

Since he was under surveillance by SAVAK (Iran's pre-revolution intelligence agency), the Ayatollah Mohammad Beheshti and the Ayatollah Morteza Motahhari advised him to leave the country.[8]:385

Outside Iran he made public speeches to Iranian students studying abroad and joined Khomeini upon arriving in France.[8]:410

Political career during the 1980s and 1990s

Early years of Islamic Republic

Following the 1979 Iranian Revolution in Iran, Rouhani, who had been engaged in revolutionary struggles for about two decades, did his best to stabilize the nascent Islamic Republic and as a first step, he started with organizing the disorderly Iranian army and military bases.[8]:515 He was elected to the Parliament of Iran (Majlis) in 1980.

Rouhani (right) and future president Mohammad Khatami (left), as members of the post-revolution Majlis (Parliament)

During five terms in the Majlis and for a total period of 20 years (from 1980 to 2000), he served in various capacities including deputy speaker of the Majlis (in 4th and 5th terms), as well as the head of defense committee (1st and 2nd terms), and foreign policy committee (4th and 5th terms).[32]

Among responsibilities shouldered by him in the post-revolution era was leadership of the supervisory council of the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) from 1980 to 1983.[3] In July 1983, while Rouhani was heading the council, the council members and Rouhani had conflicts[50] with Mohammad Hashemi Rafsanjani the then head of IRIB, which led to temporary replacement of Hashemi by first Rouhani and then immediately Mohammad Javad Larijani.[51] The conflict was resolved by the Ayatollah Khomeini intervening and insisting on Rafsanjani staying as the head of IRIB.[52]

Iran–Iraq war

Main article: Iran–Iraq war

During the Iran–Iraq war, Rouhani was a member of the Supreme Defense Council (1982–1988), member of the High Council for Supporting War and headed its Executive Committee (1986–1988), deputy commander of the war (1983–1985), commander of the Khatam-ol-Anbiya Operation Center (1985–1988), and commander of the Iran Air Defense Force (1986–1991).[3] He was appointed as Deputy to Second-in-Command of Iran's Joint Chiefs of Staff (1988–1989).[3]

When Robert C. McFarlane, Reagan' national security adviser, came to Tehran in May 1986, Rouhani was one of the three people who talked to McFarlane about buying weapons. Eventually, this weapons sale became known as the Iran-Contra affair.[53][54]

At the end of the war, Hassan Rouhani was awarded the second-grade Fath (Victory) Medal along with a group of commanders of the Iranian Army and the Revolutionary Guards. In another ceremony on the occasion of the liberation of Khoramshahr, he and a group of other officials and military commanders who were involved in the war with Iraq were awarded first-grade Nasr Medal by the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces Ayatollah Khamenei.

After the war

Rouhani was offered and turned down the post of the Minister of Intelligence of Iran in 1989.[55]

After the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran was amended and the Supreme National Security Council (SNSC) came into being up to the present time, he has been representative of the Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Khamenei, at the council.[3] Rouhani was the first secretary of the SNSC and kept the post for 16 years from 1989 to 2005. He was also national security advisor – to President Hashemi and President Khatami – for 13 years from 1989 to 1997 and from 2000 to 2005.[3] In 1991, Rouhani was appointed to the Expediency Council and has kept that post up to the present time. He heads the Political, Defense, and Security Committee of the Expediency Council.[3]

After Iran student protests, July 1999 he, as secretary of Supreme National Security Council, stated in a pro-government rally that "At dusk yesterday we received a decisive revolutionary order to crush mercilessly and monumentally any move of these opportunist elements wherever it may occur. From today our people shall witness how in the arena our law enforcement force . . . shall deal with these opportunists and riotous elements, if they simply dare to show their faces."[56] and led the crackdown.[57]

Rouhani after being elected as a member of the parliament

In the midterm elections for the third term of the Assembly of Experts which was held on 18 February 2000, Rouhani was elected to the Assembly of Experts from Semnan Province. He was elected as Tehran Province's representative to the Assembly's fourth term in 2006 and is still serving in that capacity. He was the head of the political and social committee of the assembly of experts (from 2001 to 2006), member of the presiding board, and head of Tehran office of the secretariat of the assembly (from 2006 to 2008). On 5 March 2013 he was elected as a member of the Assembly's "Commission for investigating ways of protecting and guarding Velayat-e Faqih".[58]

In addition to executive posts, Rouhani kept up his academic activities. From 1995 to 1999, he was a member of the board of trustees of Tehran Universities and North Region. Rouhani has been running the Center for Strategic Research since 1991. He is the managing editor of three academic and research quarterlies in Persian and English, which include Rahbord (Strategy), Foreign Relations, and the Iranian Review of Foreign Affairs.

Nuclear dossier

Nuclear talks in Tehran.
Iran-EU three's first meeting, Tehran, Iran, 21 October 2003

Rouhani was secretary of the Supreme National Security Council (SNSC) for 16 years. His leading role in the nuclear negotiations which brought him the nickname of "Diplomat Sheikh", first given to him by the nascent Sharq newspaper in November 2003 and was frequently repeated after that by domestic and foreign Persian-speaking media. His career at the Council began under President Hashemi Rafsanjani and continued under his successor, President Khatami. Heinonen former senior IAEA official, said that Rouhani used to boast of how he had used talks with Western powers to "buy time to advance Iran's programme."[59] His term as Iran's top nuclear negotiator, however, was limited to 678 days (from 6 October 2003 to 15 August 2005). That period began with international revelations about Iran's nuclear energy program and adoption of a strongly-worded resolution by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In June 2004, the board of governors of the IAEA issued a statement which was followed by a resolution in September of the same year, which focused on Iran's nuclear case with the goal of imposing difficult commitments on Iran. That development was concurrent with the victory of the United States in Iraq war and escalation of war rhetoric in the region. The international community was experiencing unprecedented tensions as a result of which Iran's nuclear advances were considered with high sensitivity.[15]:120–126

As tensions increased and in view of the existing differences between Iran's Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Atomic Energy Organization, a proposal was put forth by foreign minister, Kamal Kharazi, which was accepted by the president and other Iranian leaders. According to that proposal, a decision was made to establish a politically, legally, and technically efficient nuclear team with Hassan Rouhani in charge. The team was delegated with special powers in order to formulate a comprehensive plan for Iran's interactions with the IAEA and coordination among various concerned organizations inside the country. Therefore, on the order of President Mohammad Khatami with the confirmation of Ali Khamenei, Hassan Rouhani took charge of Iran's nuclear case on 6 October 2003.[15]:138–140 Subsequently, negotiations between Iran and three European states started at Saadabad in Tehran and continued in later months in Brussels, Geneva and Paris.

Rouhani visiting Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) field hospital after the 2003 Bam earthquake

Rouhani and his team, whose members had been introduced by Velayati and Kharazi as the best diplomats in the Iranian Foreign Ministry,[15]:109,141 based their efforts on dialogue and confidence building due to political and security conditions. As a first step, they prevented further escalation of accusations against Iran in order to prevent reporting Iran's nuclear case to the United Nations Security Council. Therefore, and for the purpose of confidence building, certain parts of Iran's nuclear activities were voluntarily suspended at several junctures.

In addition to building confidence, insisting on Iran's rights, reducing international pressures and the possibility of war, and preventing Iran's case from being reported to the UN Security Council, Iran succeeded in completing its nuclear fuel cycle and took groundbreaking steps.[15]:660–667 However, decisions made by the nuclear team under the leadership of Rouhani were criticized by certain circles in later years.[60][61]

Following the election of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad as president, Rouhani resigned his post as secretary of the Supreme National Security Council after 16 years on 15 August 2005,[15]:594,601 and was succeeded by Ali Larijani as the new secretary who also took charge of Iran's nuclear case. Larijani, likewise, could not get along with the policies of the new government and resigned his post on 20 October 2007, to be replaced by Saeed Jalili. Rouhani then was appointed by the Supreme Leader as his representative at the SNSC.[62]

2013 presidential campaign

Rouhani's supporters celebrate his presidential victory on the streets of Tehran
Rouhani during his victory speech, 15 June 2013

Our centrifuges are good to spin when our people's economy is also spinning in the right direction.

Rouhani during TV debate[63]

Rouhani was considered a leading candidate in the June election because of his centrist views yet close ties to Iran's ruling clerics and the Green Movement.[64] He announced his presidential candidacy on 11 March 2013 and registered as a presidential candidate on 7 May. Amid the run-up to the election, former presidents Mohammad Khatami and Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, together with reformists supported Rouhani on the presidential race after pro-reform candidate Mohammad Reza Aref dropped out of the presidential race after Khatami advised him to quit in favor of Rouhani.[65] On 10 June, Mehr news agency and Fars news agency, suggested that Rouhani might be disqualified prior to the election[66] and The Washington Post, in an editorial, claimed that Rouhani "will not be allowed to win".[67][68] On 15 June 2013, Interior Minister Mostafa Mohammad Najjar announced the results of the election, with a total number of 36,704,156 ballots cast; Rouhani won 18,613,329 votes, while his main rival Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf secured 6,077,292 votes.[69][70] Rouhani performed well with both the middle class and youth, even garnering majority support in religious cities such as Mashhad and Qom (an important seat of Shia Islam and the clergy, many of whom surprisingly do not support conservatives)[71] as well as small towns and villages.[21] Rouhani's electoral landslide victory was widely seen as the result of the Green Movement from the 2009 elections, with crowds chanting pro-reform slogans. Religious Iranians equally celebrated Rouhani's victory, demonstrating what analysts described as a thorough rejection of the policies of the conservative factions.[21]

Presidency (2013–present)

In his press conference one day after election day, Rouhani reiterated his promise to recalibrate Iran’s relations with the world. He promised greater openness and to repair the country’s international standing, offering greater nuclear transparency in order to restore international trust.[72] Revolutionary Guards Major General Mohammad Jafari criticised Rouhani's administration. "The military, systems and procedures governing the administrative system of the country are the same as before, [but it] has been slightly modified and unfortunately infected by Western doctrine, and a fundamental change must occur. The main threat to the revolution is in the political arena and the Guards cannot remain silent in the face of that." In June 2017, he will have the opportunity to be re-elected.[73]


Hassan Rouhani taking oath of office in the Iranian Parliament which Chief Justice Sadeq Larijani at his left

He was announced the winner on the day following the election. He received his presidential precept from his predecessor, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad on 3 August 2013 and entered Sa'dabad Palace in a private ceremony. His work as president officially began on the same day at 17:00 IRDT. He was inaugurated as the seventh president of Iran on 4 August in House of the Parliament.[74]


See also: Cabinet of Iran
Rouhani speaking after a cabinet meeting

Rouhani announced his cabinet on 4 August. He had a ten-day mandate for introducing his cabinet members to the parliament but he did not use this. Then, parliament voted on his cabinet, which was scheduled on 14–19 August. Between three reformist politicians (Mohammad Reza Aref, Eshaq Jahangiri or Mohammad Shariatmadari) that were likely for the vice presidency, Rouhani appointed Jahangiri for the position. There were also many candidates for ministry of foreign affairs: Ali Akbar Salehi, Kamal Kharazi, Sadegh Kharazi, Mohammad Javad Zarif and Mahmoud Vaezi but Zarif became Rouhani's final nominee.[75] Although several names were being circulated for the other ministerial posts before the final announcement, the office of president-elect denied these speculations. On 23 July 2013, it was reported that eight members of Rouhani's cabinet had been finalized: Jahangiri as first vice president, Zarif as foreign minister, Rahmani Fazli as interior minister, Tayebnia as finance minister, Dehghan as defense minister, Namdar Zanganeh as petroleum minister, Najafi as education minister, Chitchian as energy minister, Nematzadeh as industries minister, Hassan Hashemi as health minister and Akhondi as transportation minister.[76] This become official after Rouhani presented the list of his ministry nominates to the parliament on his inauguration day. He also appointed Mohammad Nahavandian as his chief of staff.

Rouhani with First Vice President, Eshaq Jahangiri, after a cabinet meeting

Domestic policy


The economic policy of Hassan Rouhani focuses on the long-term economic development of Iran. It deals with increasing the purchasing power of the public, economic growth, raising sufficient funds, implementation of the general policies of 44th Principle of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran and improving the business environment in the short term.[77] Rouhani believes that improving the economic conditions of the people should be accomplished by boosting the purchasing power of the people, reducing the wealth gap. He also thinks that equitable distribution of national wealth and economic growth lead to all mentioned economic goals. He states that if national wealth was not created, poverty would be distributed. National wealth creation causes an increase in real income per capita and equitable distribution of wealth. His plan is targeted to increase direct and indirect assistance to low-income groups.[78]

Rouhani is urgently going to regenerate the Management and Planning Organization of Iran. His economic policies also comprise optimal distribution of subsidies, control of liquidity and inflation, speeding economic growth and reducing import. He believes that inflation results in damaging effects on the economy of families and hopes to deflate that in Foresight and Hope Cabinet.[79]

Rouhani plans urgent economic priorities such as control of high inflation, increasing purchasing power and cutting down high unemployment.[80]

In 2014 it was announced that the Majlis, approved the proposed budget from (20 March 2014 to 20 March 2015). The numbers are not the most striking aspect of this budget. Rather, it is the punctuality of the administration's handing the budget to the Majlis on time that speaks volumes.[81]

Culture and media

Rouhani interview with CBS

According to a March 2014 report by Center for International Media Assistance, since Rouhani takeover in 2013, "Censorship of the Internet has only gotten worse, but it’s more and more clear that Rouhani does not have complete control over this process".[82]

Regarding internet censorship, he has stated: "Gone are the days when a wall could be built around the country. Today there are no more walls." He has also criticized Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting for showing trivial foreign news, while ignoring pressing national matters.[83] Rouhani also appeared to pledge his support for increasing Internet access and other political and social freedoms. In an interview, he said: "We want the people, in their private lives, to be completely free, and in today’s world having access to information and the right of free dialogue, and the right to think freely, is the right of all peoples, including the people of Iran."[84]

Human and women's rights

Rouhani has maintained a policy of not publicly addressing human rights issues, on which he may have "limited powers".[85]

President Rouhani during Iranian National Day of Armed Forces parade

Shirin Ebadi, 2003 Nobel Peace Prize winner, has criticized the human rights record of President Hassan Rouhani. Speaking to the AP news agency, Ebadi highlighted a rise in executions since Rouhani took office this year and accused the government of lying about the release of political prisoners. She also pointed to spreading support for a hunger strike by human rights lawyer Abdolfattah Soltani and three others in a Tehran prison to protest inadequate medical care. On 4 November, around 80 prisoners at another prison west of the capital joined the strike. Ebadi said Rohani may have a reputation as a moderate reformer but so far the new government was sending "bad signals" on human rights.[86][87][88]

Rouhani is a supporter of women's rights. In a speech after he was elected as the President of Iran, he said:

There must be equal opportunities for women. There is no difference between man and woman in their creation, in their humanity, in their pursuit of knowledge, in their understanding, in their intelligence, in their religious piety, in serving God and in serving people.[89]

Rouhani's government appointed Elham Aminzadeh, Shahindokht Molaverdi and Masoumeh Ebtekar as vice presidents; as well as Marzieh Afkham, the first female spokesperson for the foreign ministry. Rouhani has promised to set up a ministry for women. Many women's rights activists, however, are reluctant about a ministry for women; because they feel that this ministry may isolate women's issues. It has also been suggested that Rouhani will require a deputy minister position within each ministry to address gender issues and issues pertaining to women.[90]

In September 2013, eleven political prisoners were freed including noted human rights lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh and Mohsen Aminzadeh. The move came just days before his visit to the United States for the United Nations General Assembly.[91]

Critics say that little has changed in domestic policy since Rouhani took office. Iranian authorities have executed 599 people during Rouhani's first 14 months in power, compared with 596 during the last year in office of his predecessor, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. Iran has the highest number of executions anywhere in the world, apart from China.[92]

Foreign policy

Rouhani meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin in Tehran during the Third GECF summit, 22 November 2015.
Rouhani designated Mohammad Javad Zarif (left), an experienced Iranian diplomat, as foreign minister.

Rouhani's foreign policy has been contained by the conservatism of Iranian Principlists, which fear change, while also realizing it is necessary. Furthermore, Iran’s foreign policy, which was deadlocked by the efforts of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, needs new predecessor by cautious and decisive efforts of Rouhani. The main task of Rouhani is only to develop dialogues between Iran and Political rivals including P5+1. This course can help lift sanctions that damaged the Iranian economy.[93]

In March 2015 Rouhani sent a letter to President Obama and the heads of the other five countries negotiating with Iran, explaining Iran's stance. He announced it on his Twitter account. The US National Security Council confirmed that the letter had been passed on to the U.S. negotiating team, but its contents were not released. Rouhani also spoke by phone with the leaders of all the nations involved in the negotiations, except for the United States.[94]

Nuclear talks

Rouhani speaking after JCPA agreement, 1 May 2015

United Kingdom

Rouhani met with British Prime Minister David Cameron, marking the first time since the 1979 Islamic revolution that the leaders of Iran and the United Kingdom have met.[95] On 20 February 2014 the Iranian Embassy in London was restored and the two countries agreed to restart diplomatic relations.[96] On 23 August 2015 the embassy was officially reopened.[97]

United States

Rouhani's visit to New York City in September 2013 was hailed as major progress in Iran's relations with the United States. He previously said that his government is ready to hold talks with the United States after thirty-two years. Rouhani denied reports that during his trip he had refused a meeting with U.S. President Barack Obama,[98] and felt more time was needed to coordinate such a meeting.[98] On 27 September 2013, a day after the two countries foreign ministers met during the P5+1 and Iran talks, Rouhani had a phone call with President Obama that marked two countries' highest political exchange since 1979.[98][99][100] However, due to this phone call Rouhani was protested by conservatives who chanted "death to America" when he returned to Tehran.[98]


It is generally assumed that he will follow the ruling establishment in completely supporting Bashar al-Assad, Syria’s contentious president, in the Syrian civil war, as well as "strengthening the Shia crescent" that runs from southern Lebanon, through Syria, Iraq and into Iran.[101] In his first press conference after winning the presidential election, Rouhani said that "the ultimate responsibility to resolve the Syrian civil war should be in the hands of the Syrian people."[102]


Rouhani in press conference with Iraqi President Fuad Masum, Saadabad Palace, 13 May 2015

Rouhani has termed Iran-Iraq relations "brotherly" and signed several agreements with Iraq.[103] Right after Northern Iraq offensive (June 2014), Iran was the first country to send support for Iraq[104] and is a "key player" in Military intervention against the ISIL.[105]

Saudi Arabia

Rouhani meets Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi in Saadabad Palace, 23 May 2016

On Iran's relationship to Saudi Arabia, Rouhani wrote that during the Khatami administration, he, as the secretary-general of the National Security Council at that time, reached "a comprehensive and strategic agreement" with the Saudis, but that this agreement was not upheld during the Ahmadinejad's government. Specifically, while discussing the episode, he stated:

there was a consensus [during Khatami's administration] that we should have good relations with Saudi Arabia. No one within the nezaam [regime] was opposed to it. I went to Saudi Arabia for the first time in 1998. At that time Saudi Arabia had accused us of involvement in the Khobar Towers bombing. I went to Saudi Arabia as the secretary-general of the SNSC. From their side, [Minister of Interior] Nayef bin Abdulaziz took part in the negotiations. The negotiations began at 10 p.m. and lasted until 5 a.m. the next morning. We finally agreed on a security agreement. I returned to Saudi Arabia in [early] 2005, and had extensive discussions about the region, mutual problems between us, and the nuclear issue. We agreed with Nayef to form four committees. They were supposed to convene every few months and pursue the issues. After I left [the post of] secretary-general, none of the committees were formed and there were no meetings.[106]
Hassan Rouhani, Sterateji-ye Amniat-e Melli Jomhouri-ye Eslami-ye Iran (National Security Strategy of the Islamic Republic of Iran)

Rouhani has criticized Saudi Arabian-led military intervention in Yemen, saying: "Don't bomb children, elderly men and women in Yemen. Attacking the oppressed will bring disgrace."[107]

Israel and Palestine

Rouhani in meeting with Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif is also pictured

Rouhani describes Israel as "an occupier and usurper government" that "does injustice to the people of the region, and has brought instability to the region, with its warmongering policies." When asked to clarify his opinion about the Holocaust, Rouhani replied: "... in general, I can tell you that any crime that happens in history against humanity, including the crime the Nazis created towards the Jews as well as non-Jews is reprehensible and condemnable. Whatever criminality they committed against the Jews, we condemn".[108] In an interview with CNN, it was claimed by the CNN translator that Rouhani had acknowledged the existence of the Holocaust, however CNN's statements were accused by Iranian state media as a fabrication created by a deliberate mistranslation by CNN.[109] Other sources, such as the Wall Street Journal, argued that their independent translators corroborated Iranian media's position, and described CNN's translation as highly inaccurate, having added to their translation many words (such as 'holocaust') that he had not said.[110]

Public image and perception

According to a poll conducted in March 2016 by Information and Public Opinion Solutions LLC (iPOS) among Iranian citizens, Rouhani has 75% approval and 12% disapproval ratings and thus a +54% net popularity, making him the second most popular politician in Iran, after Mohammad Javad Zarif with +69% net popularity. Rouhani surpasses Hassan Khomeini (+52%), Mohammad Khatami (+43%) and Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (+38%) who take next places. The firm states with 95% confidence that the margin of sampling error is ±3 percentage points.[111]

Rouhani during a visit of Semnan

Job approval

Rouhani began his presidency in November 2013 with approval and dissapproval ratings near 58% and 27% respectively,[112] according to Information and Public Opinion Solutions LLC (iPOS) which is assessing it on a quarterly basis. It gradually fell down to 48% and he recorded a 33% dissapproval rating in May 2015.[112] His job approval boosted after Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, according to the survey conducted by IranPoll.com for the University of Maryland’s Center for International and Security Studies (CISSM), standing on 88% with a large majority (61%) expressing a “very favorable view” of him (up from 51% in July 2014) and a ±3.2 margin of sampling error. The poll also indicated Rouhani has a “tough challenge” in maintaining the support due to the fact that people have high economic expectations from the deal, and it could become his Achilles' heel.[113] iPOS has recorded a 54% approval and 24% dissaproval, days after the deal in August 2015.[112] The trend has continued until February 2016, with 67% and 18% approval and dissaproval ratings, marking the highest level since he took office.[114]

Political positions

Rouhani is considered to be a moderate and pragmatic politician.[21] In 2000, Washington Institute for Near East Policy described him as "power-hungry".[115] He was elected as president with heavy reformist support, and he pledged to follow through with reformist demands and to bridge divides between reformists and conservatives.[116]

Electoral history

Rouhani casting his vote in the 2016 elections.
Year Election Votes % Rank Notes
1980Parliament19,01762.1 Won
1984Parliament729,965 58.317th Won
1988ParliamentDecrease 412,895 Decrease 42.1 Won
1992ParliamentIncrease 432,767 Increase 47 Won
1996ParliamentIncrease 465,440 Decrease 32.5 Won
2000ParliamentIncrease 498,916 Decrease 17.0240th Lost
Assembly of Experts mid-term1st Won
2006Assembly of Experts844,1907th Won
2013President18,613,32950.881st Won
2016Assembly of Experts Increase 2,238,166Increase 49.723rd Won

Personal life

Rouhani married his cousin, Sahebeh Erabi (Rouhani)[117] who is six years younger, when he was around 20 years old[35][118] and has five children.[119] Rouhani's wife changed her last name from "Arabi" (Persian: عربی) to "Rouhani" some time after marriage.[34] Born in 1954, she is not politically active.[117] The Guardian and the Financial Times reported that Rouhani also had a fifth child, a son who has died in unknown circumstances.[120][121] Based on a comment by Alireza Nourizadeh, some sources reported that he committed suicide "in protest of his father's close connection with Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei".[122][123] This claim, apparently originating from Nourizadeh's report in the Saudi-owned newspaper Asharq Al-Awsat, included the following text it alleged came from the son's suicide note: "I hate your government, your lies, your corruption, your religion, your double standard and your hypocrisy...I was forced to lie to my friends each day, telling them that my father isn't part of all of this. Telling them my father loves this nation, whereas I believe this to be untrue. It makes me sick seeing you, my father, kiss the hand of Khamenei."[124][125]

Rouhani has three sisters and a brother.[35] Rouhani's brother, Hossein Fereydoun, is also a diplomat and politician, a former governor, ambassador,[126] and former Vice Minister of Intelligence.[127] He was Rouhani's representative to IRIB in arrangements for presidential debates.[128] Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, in a memoir dated 15 May 1982, mentions Hossein Fereydoun as the then governor of Karaj.[129] Rafsanjani later briefly mentions Fereydoon in a memoir dated 31 March 1984: "In Karaj, something has happened about Mr. Ferydoon Rouhani".[130]


Having the rank of research professor at Iran's Center for Strategic Research, he has written many books and articles in Persian, English and Arabic, including the following:[3]

in Persian
in English
in Arabic


  1. "روحانی، بهانه انشعاب جامعه روحانیت؟" [Rouhani: Excuse for Split in Combatant Clergy Association?]. Shargh (in Persian). Alef. 18 June 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2016.
  2. 1 2 "خاطره سربازی روحانی در نیشابور". mashreghnews.ir.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 "Hassan Rouhani's Résumé". CSR. 11 April 2013.
  4. "پایگاه اطلاع رسانی دفتر مقام معظم رهبری". leader.ir.
  5. Poursafa, Mahdi (20 January 2014). گزارش فارس از تاریخچۀ نشان‌های نظامی ایران، از «اقدس» تا «فتح»؛ مدال‌هایی که بر سینۀ سرداران ایرانی نشسته‌است [From "Aghdas" to "Fath": Medals resting on the chest of Iranian Serdars]. Fars News (in Persian). Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  6. "پایگاه اطلاع رسانی دفتر مقام معظم رهبری". leader.ir.
  7. 1 2 3 4 نکته‌هایی جالب در شناسنامۀ روحانی + عکس [Interesting points in Rouhani's ID + photo]. Shoma News (in Persian). Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Rouhani, Hassan (2008). Memoirs of Hassan Rouhani; Vol. 1: The Islamic Revolution (in Persian). Tehran, Iran: Center for Strategic Research. ISBN 978-600-5914-80-1.
  9. "Members of Assembly of Experts". Assembly of Experts. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
  10. "Two new members appointed to the Expediency Discernment Council". The Office of the Supreme Leader. 8 May 1991.
  11. "Hassan Rouhani appointed as the Supreme Leader's representative to the SNSC". The Office of the Supreme Leader. 13 November 1989.
  12. Hassan Rouhani wins Iran presidential election BBC, 15 June 2013
  13. Iran’s Presidential Election Heats up as Reformist Rowhani Enters Race, Farhang Jahanpour, Informed Comment, 12 April 2013, Juan Cole
  14. Elham Pourmohammadi (15 March 2014). "Rouhani moots regional trade bloc to boost growth, stability". Times of Oman. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Rouhani, Hassan (2011). National Security and Nuclear Diplomacy (in Persian). Tehran, Iran: Center for Strategic Research. ISBN 978-600-290-007-4.
  16. "Rouhani's Election: A Victory for the Green Movement?". Fair Observer°. 26 June 2013. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
  17. "Rohani appoints Jahangiri as Iran's first vice president". PressTV. 5 August 2013. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
  18. "Iran's former nuclear negotiator registers for presidential campaign". People's Daily. 7 May 2013.
  19. "Former nuclear negotiator joins Iran's presidential race". Reuters. 11 April 2013.
  20. "Expediency Council member Rohani to run for president". Press TV. 11 April 2013.
  21. 1 2 3 4 Fassihi, Farnaz. "Moderate cleric Hassan Rohani wins Iran Vote". Wall Street Journal.
  22. "Hassan Rouhani wins Iran presidential election". BBC News. 15 June 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  23. Farnaz Fassihi (15 June 2013). "Moderate Candidate Wins Iran's Presidential Vote". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
  24. "Hassan Rouhani takes over as Iran president". BBC News. 3 August 2013. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
  25. Iran opens doors to tourists retrieved 21 December 2013
  26. Hassan Rouhani sets out his vision for a new and free Iran retrieved 21 December 2013
  27. The Middle East and South Asia 2013 - Page 71, Malcolm Russell - 2013
  28. Sadri Afshar, G. H.; Hakami, Nasrin; Hakami, Nastaran, eds. (2002). فَرهَنگِ مُعاصِرِ فارسی [Farhang Moaser Contemporary Persian Dictionary] (in Persian) (4th ed.). Tehran: Farhang Moaser Publishers. p. 679. ISBN 964-5545-68-4.
  29. مجلس شورای اسلامی، دورۀ ۱، جلسۀ ۱۷۴ (in Persian). 5 July 1981.
  30. Readout of Secretary-General's meeting with His Excellency Mr. Hassan Rouhani, President of the Islamic Republic of Iran, United Nations, 23 September 2014, retrieved 3 October 2014
  31. IRGC expresses its full readiness to cooperate with Rouhani, Iran Daily Brief, 17 June 2013, retrieved 3 October 2014
  32. 1 2 3 "Q&A - Former Iran Nuclear Negotiator: Bush Negotiation Bid Was Rebuffed". PBS. 12 May 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
  33. مراسم ختم پدرِ حسن روحانی برگزار شد. ISNA (in Persian). 5 October 2011.
  34. 1 2 یک روز در زادگاه و خانۀ پدریِ حسن روحانی/تصاویر. Mehr Magazine (in Persian). 17 July 2013.
  35. 1 2 3 مادر دکتر حسن‌ روحانی از فرزندش می‌گوید/ عکس [The mother of Dr Hassan Rouhani talks about his child/Photo]. Mehr Magazine (in Persian). 19 June 2013.
  36. حاج اسدالله فریدون، پدر دکتر روحانی به دیار باقی شتافت. Aftab News (in Persian). 2 October 2011.
  37. "مشرق نیور". GCU. 17 June 2013.
  38. "GCU congratulates alumnus Hassan Rouhani on his election as the next President of Iran". GCU University News and Events. 19 June 2013.
  39. "alumnus Hassan Feridon". GCU lost alumni database. 18 June 2013.
  40. "GCU Alumnus to be next President of Iran". GCU. 17 June 2013.
  41. "Website Sheds Light On Iran Elections Process, Players". Rferl.org. 10 June 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  42. "Hassan Rouhani PhD & MPhil | Library Matters". Caledonianblogs.net. 19 June 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  43. Dr Hassan Rouhani of Iran receiving his doctorate in 1999 on YouTube
  44. 1 2 Adkins, Stephen. "Did Hassan Rouhani- The Incoming Iranian President Plagiarize his PhD Thesis?". University Herald.
  45. "Did Iran's New President Plagiarize in His Ph.D. Thesis Abstract?|War of Ideas". Ideas.foreignpolicy.com. 25 June 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  46. کشفِ "دزدیِ علمی" در "خلاصۀ" تز روحانی (in Persian). Khodnevis. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  47. استفاده از لفظ "امام" برای رهبر كبير انقلاب: ساواک قبل از حسن روحاني. Tabnak (in Persian). 23 October 2007.
  48. آیت‌الله خمینی چگونه به امام خمینی ملقب شد؟ [How was Ayatollah Khomeini named Imam Khomeini?]. Jamaran (in Persian). 4 February 2012.
  49. Rahim Nikbakht (4 June 2013). عنوان "امام" برای امام خمینی برای بار اول توسط ساواک به‌کار رفته‌است [The title "Imam" for Imam Khomeini was first used by SAVAK] (in Persian). The Majlis Library, Museum, and Archive.
  50. Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (22 July 1983). پیام رئیس‌جمهور کرۀ جنوبی به هاشمی/ گزارش دکتر روحانی از اختلافش با محمد هاشمی. آرامش و چالش (in Persian).
  51. Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (21 July 1983). نظر هاشمی دربارۀ بازجویی سپاه از نمایندگان اقلیت مجلس/ عصبانیت امام از پخش خبر استعفای محمد هاشمی. آرامش و چالش (in Persian).
  52. Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (23 July 1983). "جزوۀ اِخوان‌المسلمین برای هاشمی/ سرپرستی جواد لاریجانی بر صداوسیما چگونه لغو شد؟". آرامش و چالش.
  53. "The IRGC Strategic Brain Trust; Part 1: Ghasem Soleimani and Ahmad Vahidi". PBS. August 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  54. "Whebn Rouhani met Ollie North". Foreignpolicy.com. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  55. Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (8 August 1989). گلایۀ هاشمی از اظهارنظر خودسرانۀ معاون وزیر خارجه/ نمودار سازمانیِ محمد هاشمی برای نهاد ریاست‌جمهوری. بازسازی و سازندگی (in Persian). دکتر [حسن] روحانی آمد. مشکلات وزارت اطلاعات را گفت و اظهار عدم تمایل برای این سمت کرد؛ اصرار نکردم.
  56. Tait, Robert (14 June 2013). "Iran election: reports of late surge for more moderate candidate Hassan Rowhani". The Telegraph. London.
  57. "Behind Iran's 'Moderate' New Leader". The Wall Street Journal. 16 June 2013.
  58. اعضاى كمیسیون بررسى راه‌هاى پاسدارى و حراست از ولایت فقیه (in Persian). The Secretariat of the Assembly of Experts. 5 March 2013.
  59. The Geneva deal and Iran’s Nuclear Ambitions, fathomjournal, 30 January 2014
  60. "Former Chief Nuclear Negotiator Criticizes Ahmadinejad". Iran Pulse. 15 October 2012. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
  61. "Iran's Former Nuclear Negotiator Slams Ahmadinejad, Calls Him 'Demagogue'". Fox News. 5 June 2009. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
  62. Frederic Wehrey; Jerrold D. Green; Brian Nichiporuk; Alireza Nader; Lydia Hansell; Rasool Nafisi; S. R. Bohandy (2009). "The Rise of the Pasdaran" (PDF). RAND Corporation. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  63. Board, Editorial (12 June 2013). "Iran votes Friday on a president, but the ballot is quite limited". The Washington Post.
  64. "Presidential candidate Rouhani says will form inclusive administration". Press TV. 4 June 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  65. Torbati, Yeganeh (11 June 2013). "Khatami, reformists back Rohani in Iran presidential vote". Reuters. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  66. "Iranian presidential candidate Rouhani might get disqualified prior to elections". Trend. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
  67. "Blog: Peace in our Time". American Thinker. 22 November 2006. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
  68. Board, Editorial (13 June 2013). "Iran votes Friday on a president, but the ballot is quite limited". The Washington Post. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
  69. "Hassan Rouhani leads Iran presidential election vote count". BBC News. 15 June 2013.
  70. "Rouhani Wins Iran's Presidential Election". Fars News Agency. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  71. "Iran's Qom: Mystery and Surprise At the Hawza". Al-Monitor. 3 February 2009. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  72. Solana, Javier (20 June 2013). "The Iranian Message". Project Syndicate. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
  73. Iranian general criticises Rouhani government Al Jazeera. 11 December 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
  74. "Iranian President Rouhani takes oath of office before parliament". Reuters. 4 August 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
  75. رونمایی از کابینۀ احتمالی دولت یازدهم. Bolanda News (in Persian).
  76. "هشت نفر از اعضای کابینۀ روحانی نهایی شدند +اسامی Iran Elections". Iranelect.ir. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  77. "Improvement of people's livelihood". Rouhani[Persian Language]. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  78. "The main topics of Rouhani economic programs". Raja News. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
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  80. "Hassan Rouhani's election as Iranian president to soften dialogue between Iran and West". Penza News. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  81. Amir Hossein Mahdavi Ali Reza Eshraghi (18 February 2014). "Rouhani takes on privatization in budget". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
  82. http://cima.ned.org/sites/default/files/CIMA-Iran.pdf
  83. "Iran's new president: Smoother operator". Economist.com. 3 August 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  84. "Iran president blames Israel for 'instability,' calls for peace - World News". NBC News. 19 September 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
  85. Saeed Kamali Dehghan. "It is time Rouhani broke his silence on human rights abuses in Iran". the Guardian.
  86. "Ebadi Slams Rohani's Rights Record". Newsbcc.com. 6 November 2013. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
  87. Ebadi Criticizes Rohani's Rights Record Radio Free Europe.
  88. Ebadi Criticizes Rohani's Rights Record Humanitarian News
  89. "مشروح/ در مراسم تودیع و معارفۀ وزرای کشور روحانی: معجزه‌گر نیستم/ به استفاده از یک جناح در کابینه اعتقاد ندارم". Fars News. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
  90. "Breaking Through the Iron Ceiling: Iran's New Government and the Hopes of the Iranian Women's Movements". AWID. 13 September 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
  91. Rana Rahimpour (18 September 2013). "Iran: Nasrin Sotoudeh 'among freed political prisoners'". BBC. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
  92. "Iran's president attacks Cameron's 'unacceptable' remarks as woman faces execution". The Telegraph. 30 September 2014. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  93. Malashenko, Alexey (27 June 2013). "How Much Can Iran's Foreign Policy Change After Rowhani's Victory?". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 7 November 2013.
  94. Carol Morello (26 March 2015). "Final make-or-break moment for Iran nuclear talks". Washington Post.
  95. "Leaders of UK and Iran meet for first time since 1979 Islamic revolution". The Guardian. 24 September 2014. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  96. "Britain Iran resume Diplomatic Ties as Iranian Embassy restored in London". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
  97. "British embassy in Tehran reopens four years after closure". BBC News. Retrieved 10 September 2015.
  98. 1 2 3 4 Marcus George (28 September 2013). "Iranians cheer, protest over Rouhani's historic phone call with Obama". Reuters. Dubai. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
  99. Obama speaks with Iranian President Rouhani NBC News 27 September 2013
  100. Obama talks to Rouhani: First direct conversation between American and Iranian presidents in 30 years National Post 27 September 2013
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  102. "Iran's Rohani hopes all will seize chance of friendly ties". Reuters. 17 June 2013.
  103. "President Rouhani: Iran to Stand beside Iraq in War on Terrorism". Fars News Agency. 18 December 2014. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  104. Gomes Guimarães, Bruno; Scalabrin Müller, Marcelo (9 December 2014). "Iran Joins ISIS Fight". The Diplomat. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  105. "Could Iran's elite military force defeat ISIL?". Al Jazeera. 18 March 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  106. "Former Iran Nuclear Negotiator: Bush Negotiation Bid Was Rebuffed". PBS. 12 May 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  107. "Iran's Rouhani criticises Saudis over Yemen strikes". Al Jazeera. 19 April 2015.
  108. Iranian president Hassan Rouhani recognises 'reprehensible' Holocaust Saeed Kamali Dehghan, The Guardian, 25 September 2013
  109. Iran news agency slams CNN for ‘fabricating’ Rouhani’s Holocaust remarks Russia Today 26 September 2013
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  111. "ظریف محبوب‌ترین چهره سیاسی ایران". Information and Public Opinion Solutions LLC (in Persian). 24 May 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
  112. 1 2 3 "Poll: Rouhani Approval Rating Improves". The Iran Primer. United States Institute of Peace. 2 September 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
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  116. Torbati, Yeganeh (29 June 2013). "Iran's Rouhai hints will balance hardliner, reformist demands". Reuters.
  117. 1 2 "همسران رؤسای جمهور ایران چه کسانی هستند؟". Khabar Online. 13 July 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  118. پاسخ سیاستمداران ایرانی به يك سؤال خصوصي؛ همسر خود را چگونه انتخاب كرديد؟ [Iranian politicians answer a personal question; how did you choose your spouse?] (in Persian). Young Journalists Club. 28 September 2012.
  119. کاندیداها و فرزندانشان +تصاویر [Candidates and their children+Images]. Mashregh News (in Persian). 24 May 2013.
  120. "Hassan Rouhani, 'ultimate insider' who holds key to a more moderate Iran". The Guardian. 20 June 2013. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
  121. "Hassan Rohani: Iran's president-elect". Financial Times. 21 June 2013. Retrieved 29 August 2013.
  122. "Son's suicide is Rohani's dark secret". Ynet news. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
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  124. Avni, Benny (20 June 2013). "Damning Suicide Note to Iran's New Prez". New York Post. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  125. Blum, Ruthie (1 March 2016). "No New Dawn in Iran". Algemeiner.com. Algemeiner Journal. Archived from the original on 28 May 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  126. کارنامۀ نامزدهای ریاست‌جمهوری، حسن فریدون روحانی [The score card of presidential candidates, Hassan Feridon Rouhani] (in Persian). Enghelabe-Eslami.com. May 2013.
  127. در خانۀ هاشمی رفسنجانی چه می‌گذرد؟ داستان تكان‌دهندۀ دكتر هوشنگ بوذری در گفت‌وگو با شهروند (in Persian). 11 June 2005.
  128. زمان مناظره‌های اقتصادی [The timing of economical debates] (in Persian). 30 May 2013.
  129. Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (15 May 1982). شنبه ۲۵ اردیبهشت ۱۳۶۱. پس از بحران (in Persian).
  130. Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (31 March 1984). تأکید هاشمی برای عدالت و قانون در انتخابات/ گلایۀ همسر شهید مطهری از صداوسیما. به‌سوی سرنوشت (in Persian).
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