March 20, 1905|
Mileston, Mississippi, U.S.
August 15, 1988 83) (aged|
Lexington, Mississippi, U.S.
Independent farmer |
Civil rights activist
Hartman Turnbow (March 20, 1905–August 15, 1988) was an American farmer and activist during the Civil Rights Movement. Turnbow was also the first African American to register to vote in the state in the 1960s, along with a group called the "First 14".
Turnbow was born on March 20, 1905 in Mileston, Mississippi. Turnbow was the grandson of a slave. He moved to Chicago, Illinois where he met and married his second wife Dee. They returned to Mississippi with their children, settling in Tchula, where he became an independent farmer and owned his land.
Civil Rights Movement
In April 1963, Turnbow, with a group of 13 other African Americans, including Hollis Watkins, Ozell Mitchell, and Alma Mitchell Carnegie, went down to the Holmes County courthouse to register to vote. They became known as the "First 14."
There they were approached by the deputy sheriff who, with his weapon drawn, said to the group "Alright. Who's first?" At that point, Turnbow stepped forward and told the deputy sheriff "Me, Hartman Turnbow. I came here to die to vote. I'm the first." Hartman became the first African American to successfully register to vote in Mississippi and the first African American to try to register to vote in the state in nearly a century.
Soon after, Turnbow was elected delegate of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party.
House fire and arrest
On the evening of May 7, 1963, Turnbow and his wife were taking their daughter to choir practice at around 7:00 pm. They returned home around 9:30 pm that evening, where his wife noticed a problem with one of the ventilation systems in their home. Then, around 3:00 on the morning of the 8th, Turnbow was awakened by his wife Dee who shouted to him that "...the house was on fire". Turnbow grabbed his rifle, went outside and began shooting at whites outside his home. The house had been sent ablaze by members of the Ku Klux Klan.
As an investigation unfolded, several "witnesses", all African Americans, told investigators that "no white man threw any fire bombs into [Turnbow's] living quarters but that [Turnbow] instigated this and had ... other Negroes throw fire bombs into his home and he did the shooting into his own living quarters." After the investigation concluded, it was concluded that Turnbow either set his house on fire or was involved with his house being set on fire. He was arrested by, at that time, Holmes County Sheriff Andrew P. Smith and charged with arson. He spent two days in jail before being released on bond.
Marriages and children
Turnbow was married two times and had six children, sons Jewross and Hartman, and daughters Mae Alice, Mae Bell, Mary and Christine.
Turnbow died on Friday August 15, 1988 at the Methodist Hospital of Middle Mississippi in Lexington at the age of 83. His funeral held on Wednesday, August 24 at 11:00 a.m. at Rock of Ages Church of God in Christ in Tchula. Elder Fred Wade officiated with interment in the Pinkston Cemetery north of Lexington.
Turnbow's courageous effort to register to vote succeeded and gave Black people in the South a voice regarding which politicians would represent them.
The unusual way that Turnbow spoke is now known as "Turnbowisms". Voting rights activist Sue (Lorenzi) Sojourner once said this about Turnbow's oration:
|“||His words flowed rapidly with lilting energy. They tumbled from his mouth, often indecipherable to my inexperienced ears.||”|
An example of the way Turnbow spoke can found in this excerpt as during Freedom Summer he tried to persuade more black Mississippians to vote:
Turnbow was the subject of a poem by Mike Kellin:
- My name is Hartman Turnbow
- And I belong to me
- I live in Mississippi down in Holmes County.
- There are bullet holes in my front door
- They set my house on fire,
- But I'm going to vote this fall
- Because it's freedom I desire.
- Last spring I went to register,
- To cast my one man vote.
- They called me boy,
- Said tip your hat, but that didn't get my goat;
- But come the next morning when the clock was striking 3:00
- I heard this noise, and I saw this fire,
- And I knew they'd come for me.
- My name is Hartman Turnbow
- Now, down in delta country,
- We got no running water,
- So my missus drew some buckets
- And she passed them to my daughter
- While I greeted my guests with buckshot
- Until the 4 of them drove away.
- Then I went to the sheriff as soon as it was day.
- He said, "boy, you're a liar".
- He said Hartman Turnbow had set my own house on fire.
- He threw me in the jailhouse,
- but he had to set me free.
- 'cause there is law in this here country, and that means liberty.
- My name is Hartman Turnbow,
- I still won't bow and shuffle when I come to town.
- My mind is set on voting,
- they ain't going to scare me down.
- I've been to Atlantic City as a Freedom Democrat.
- If they tip their hat to me, then I'll tip my hat.
- My name is Hartman Turnbow.
- "Hartman Turnbow (1905 - 1988)". www.ancientfaces.com. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- "Hartman Turnbow - Mississippi Civil Rights Project". mscivilrightsproject.org. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- Sherrill, Robert (September 14, 1980). "Looking At America". The New York Times. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- "Veterans of the Storm". www.crmvet.org. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- "》Turnbow, Hartman". zinnedproject.org. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- Weaver, Lamar; Jackson, Reuben (June 1, 2001). Bury My Heart in Birmingham, the Lamar Weaver Story:Warriors of the Civil Rights Movement. iUniverse. p. 12. ISBN 0595187498. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- Nash, Jere; Taggart, Andy (June 1, 2007). Mississippi Politics: The Struggle for Power, 1976-2008. University Press of Mississippi. p. 113. ISBN 1604733578. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- "Discussion on African-American voter registration (part 1)". Illinois State University. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- "Negroes and the Gun". Fordham University School of Law. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- Irons, Jenny (May 14, 2010). Reconstituting Whiteness: The Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission. Vanderbilt University Press. p. 108. ISBN 0826516874. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- "Find Hartman Turnbow Death Records". Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- The Holmes County Herald – Page 12 Lexington, MS August 25, 1988
- "Mississippi, Into the Storm." Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement
- "Hartman Turnbow," One Person, One Vote