HAL Tejas

Role Multirole fighter
National origin India
Manufacturer Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL)
Design group Aeronautical Development Agency
First flight 4 January 2001
Introduction 17 January 2015[1]
Status In service[2]
Primary users Indian Air Force
Indian Navy
Produced 2001–present
Number built 16 (including prototypes as of November 2014)[3]
Program cost 7,399.69 crore (US$1 billion) (LCA total in 2015)[4]
Unit cost
160 crore (US$24 million) for Mark I[5][6]
275 crore (US$41 million) - 300 crore (US$45 million) for Mark IA[5][7]

The HAL Tejas is an Indian single-seat, single-jet engine, multi-role light fighter designed by the Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) for the Indian Air Force and Navy. The aircraft has a tail-less compound delta-wing configuration, which gives it high maneuverability.[8] It came from the Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) programme, which began in the 1980s to replace India's ageing MiG-21 fighters. LCA was officially named "Tejas" in 2003, meaning "Radiant" in Sanskrit by the then Prime Minister Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee.[9]

Tejas has a pure double delta wing configuration (wing root leading edge sweep 50°, outer wing leading edge sweep 62.5° and trailing edge forward sweep 4°), with no tailplanes or canard, and a single dorsal fin. It integrates technologies such as relaxed static stability, fly-by-wire flight control system, multi-mode radar, integrated digital avionics system, composite material structures, and a flat rated engine. It is the smallest and lightest in its class of contemporary supersonic combat aircraft.[10][11]

The Tejas is the second supersonic fighter developed by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) after the HAL HF-24 Marut. As of 2016 the Tejas MK1 was in production for the Indian Air Force (IAF) and the naval version was undergoing flight tests for Indian Navy (IN). The projected requirement for IAF is 200 single-seat fighters and 20 twin-seat trainers, while the IN expects to operate 40 single-seat fighters. The first Tejas IAF unit, No. 45 Squadron IAF Flying Daggers was formed on 1 July 2016 with two aircraft. Initially being stationed at Bangalore, the first squadron will be placed at its home base at Sulur, Tamil Nadu.[12]



HAL Tejas at Aero India 2007

In 1969, the Indian government accepted the recommendation by its Aeronautics Committee that Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) should design and develop a fighter aircraft around a proven engine. Based on a 'Tactical Air Support Aircraft' ASR markedly similar to that for the Marut,[13] HAL completed design studies in 1975, but the project fell through due to inability to procure the selected "proven engine" from a foreign manufacturer and the IAF's requirement for an air superiority fighter with secondary air support and interdiction capability remained unfulfilled.[14]

In 1983, IAF realised the need for an Indian combat aircraft for two primary purposes. The principal and most obvious goal was to replace India's ageing MiG-21 fighters, which had been the mainstay of the IAF since the 1970s. The "Long Term Re-Equipment Plan 1981" noted that the MiG-21s would be approaching the end of their service lives by the mid-1990s, and that by 1995, the IAF would lack 40% of the aircraft needed to fill its projected force structure requirements.[15] The LCA programme's other main objective was an across-the-board advancement of India's domestic aerospace industry.[16] The value of the aerospace "self-reliance" initiative is not simply the aircraft's production, but also the building of a local industry capable of creating state-of-the-art products with commercial spin-offs for a global market.[17]

In 1984, the Indian government chose to establish the Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) to manage the LCA programme. While the Tejas is often described as a product of Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), responsibility for its development belongs to ADA, a national consortium of over 100 defence laboratories, industrial organisations, and academic institutions with HAL being the principal contractor.[18] The government's "self-reliance" goals for the LCA include the three most sophisticated and challenging systems: the fly-by-wire (FBW) flight control system (FCS), multi-mode pulse-doppler radar, and afterburning turbofan engine.[19]

The IAF's Air Staff Requirement for the LCA were not finalised until October 1985. This delay rendered moot the original schedule which called for first flight in April 1990 and service entry in 1995; however, it also gave the ADA time to better marshal national R&D and industrial resources, recruit personnel, create infrastructure, and to gain a clearer perspective of which advanced technologies could be developed locally and which would need to be imported.[14][20] Out of a total of 35 major avionics components and line-replaceable units (LRUs), only three involve foreign systems.[21] These are the multi-function displays (MFDs) by Sextant (France) and Elbit (Israel),[22] the helmet-mounted display and sight (HMDS) cueing system by Elbit,[22] and the laser pod supplied by Rafael (Israel).[23] Production aircraft are expected to have MFDs from Indian suppliers. A few important items of equipment (such as the Martin-Baker ejection seat) have been imported.[21] As a consequence of the embargo imposed on India after its nuclear weapons tests in May 1998, many items originally planned to be imported were instead developed locally; these sanctions contributed to the prolonged delays suffered by the LCA.[21]

LCA program

Tejas parked next to F-16 Fighting Falcon (centre) and Eurofighter Typhoon (top) at 2009 Aero India

In 1990, the design was finalised as a small tailless delta winged machine with relaxed static stability (RSS) and control-configuration for enhanced manoeuvrability.[10][24][25] A review committee was formed in May 1989, which reported that infrastructure, facilities and technologies in India had advanced sufficiently in most areas and that the project could be undertaken.[25] In October 1987, project definition commenced with France's Dassault Aviation in a reviewing/advisory role; this phase, costing 560 crore (US$83 million), was completed in September 1988.[15][20] A two-stage full-scale engineering development (FSED) process was opted for.[15][25]

Phase 1 commenced in April 1993,[15] and focused on "proof of concept" and comprised the design development and testing (DDT) of two technology demonstrator aircraft which were named as TD-1 and TD-2. This would be followed by the production of two prototype vehicles (PV-1 and PV-2), TD-1 finally flew on 4 January 2001.[25] FSED Programme Phase-I was successfully completed in March 2004 and cost ₹2,188 crore.[15]

The relaxed static stability (RSS) was an ambitious requirement. In 1988, Dassault had offered an analogue flight control system (FCS), but the ADA recognised that digital FCSs would supplant it.[19] First flying in 1974, the General Dynamics F-16 was the first production aircraft designed to be slightly aerodynamically unstable to improve manoeuvrability.[26] Many aircraft have positive static stability to induce them to return to a straight, level flight attitude when the controls are released, maneuverability is reduced as the inherent stability has to be overcome. Aircraft with negative stability are designed to deviate from controlled flight and thus be more manoeuvrable.[27][28]

In 1992, the LCA National Control Law (CLAW) team was set up by the National Aeronautics Laboratory to develop India's own state of the art fly-by-wire FCS for the Tejas.[29][30] In 1998, Lockheed Martin's involvement was terminated due to a US embargo in response to India's second nuclear tests in May of that year.[31][32]

Another critical technology is the Multi-Mode Radar (MMR). The Ericsson/Ferranti PS-05/A I/J-band multi-function radar was initially intended to be used,[33] as used on Saab's JAS 39 Gripen. However, after examining other radars in the early 1990s,[34] the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) became confident that local development was possible. HAL's Hyderabad division and the LRDE were selected to jointly lead the MMR programme, and work commenced in 1997.[36] The DRDO's Centre for Airborne System (CABS) is responsible for the MMR's test programme. Between 1996 and 1997, CABS converted the surviving HAL/HS-748M Airborne Surveillance Post (ASP) into a testbed for the LCA's avionics and radar.[37]

The NAL's CLAW team completed integration of the flight control laws by themselves, with the FCS software performing flawlessly for over 50 hours of pilot testing on TD-1, resulting in the aircraft being cleared for flight in January 2001. The automatic flight control system (AFCS) has been praised by all test pilots, one of whom remarked that he found the LCA easier to take off in than in a Mirage 2000.[38]

Phase 2 commenced in November 2001,[15] and consisted of the manufacturing of three more prototype vehicles (PV-3, PV-4 and PV-5), leading to the development of the final variant that would join the air force and the navy and 8 Limited Series Production (LSP) aircraft, and establishment of infrastructure for producing 8 aircraft per year.[25] The phase cost ₹3,301.78 crore, and an additional amount of ₹2,475.78 crore was given for induction into Indian Air Force by obtaining IOC and FOC. The total cost for development of Tejas (including PDP, Phase 1 and Phase 2) was ₹7,965.56 crore as of August 2013.[15]

By mid-2002, the MMR had reported suffered major delays and cost escalations. By early 2005, only the air-to-air look-up and look-down modes — two basic modes — were confirmed to have been successfully tested. In May 2006, it was revealed that the performance of several modes being tested "fell short of expectations."[39] As a result, the ADA was reduced to running weaponisation tests with a weapon delivery pod, which is not a primary sensor, leaving critical tests on hold. According to test reports, there was a serious compatibility issue between the radar and the LRDE's advanced signal processor module (SPM). Acquisition of an "off-the-shelf" foreign radar is an interim option being considered.[36][40][41]

Of the five critical technologies the ADA identified at the programme's onset as required to design and build a new fighter, two have been entirely successful: the development and manufacture of carbon-fibre composite (CFC) structures and skins, and a modern glass cockpit. ADA has a profitable commercial spin-off in its Autolay integrated automated software for designing 3-D laminated composite elements (which has been licensed to both Airbus and Infosys).[19] By 2008, 70% of the LCA's components were being manufactured in India, the dependence on imported components was stated to be progressively reduced over time. Successes have often been overshadowed by problems encountered with the other three key technology initiatives however.[42]

Kota Harinarayana was the original Programme Director and Chief Designer of the Tejas Programme.[43][44]

Prototypes and testing

Tejas trainer under construction
Tejas Trainer at 62nd Republic Day of India Parade, New Delhi

In March 2005, the IAF placed an order for 20 aircraft, with a similar purchase of another 20 aircraft to follow. All 40 were to be equipped with the F404-GE-IN20 engine.[45][46] In December 2006, a 14-member "LCA Induction Team" was formed at Bangalore to prepare the Tejas for service and assist with its induction into service.[47]

On 25 April 2007, the first Limited Series Production (LSP-1) Tejas performed its maiden flight, achieving a speed of Mach 1.1 (837.3 mph; 1,347.5 km/h).[20] The Tejas completed 1,000 test flights and over 530 hours of flight testing by 22 January 2009.[20][48] In 2009, a Tejas achieved a speed of over 1,350 kilometres per hour (840 mph) during sea level flight trials at INS Hansa, Goa.[20][49]

On 16 June 2008, LSP-2 made its first flight.[20] In November 2009, the trainer variant prototype took to the skies.[50] On 23 April 2010, LSP-3 flew with a hybrid version of the Elta EL/M-2032 multi-mode radar;[20][51] in June 2010, LSP-4 took its first flight in an IAF Initial Operating Clearance (IOC) configuration.[20][52] By June 2010, the Tejas had completed the second phase of hot weather trials in an IOC configuration with the weapon system and sensors integrated.[53] Sea trials were also being carried out.[54] On 19 November 2010, LSP-5 with IOC standard equipment took to skies.[55]

In December 2009, the government sanctioned ₹8,000 crore to begin production of the fighter for the Indian Air Force and Indian Navy. The Indian Navy has a requirement for 50 Tejas aircraft and the first prototype, NP-1 was rolled out in July 2010.[56] IAF ordered 20 additional Tejas fighters after the defence acquisition council cleared the plan.[57] In December 2014 the LCA Navy successfully conducted ski-jump trials at SBTF Goa. The navy variant has a special flight control law mode which allows hands-free take-off relieving the pilot workload, as the aircraft leaps from the ramp and automatically puts the aircraft in an ascending trajectory.[58][59]

In November 2010, it was reported that the Tejas Mk1 reportedly fell short of the relaxed Air Staff Requirements stipulated for limited series production (LSP) aircraft. The areas that did not meet requirements were power to weight ratio, sustained turning rate, maximum speeds at low altitudes, AoA range, and weapon delivery profiles; the extent of the deficiencies was classified.[60]

On 9 March 2012, LSP-7 took to its maiden flight from HAL airport.[20] The Naval LCA made its first flight, almost two years after being rolled out, on 27 April 2012.[61]

In September 2011, weapon tests, including bombing runs, begun at Pokhran range, to be followed by missile tests at Goa.[62] On 27 June 2012, three Tejas (LSP 2, 3 and 5) aircraft completed precision bombing runs in the desert of Rajasthan, having deployed laser-guided 1,000 lb bombs and unguided bombs.[63] The Tejas had completed 1,941 flights by July 2012.[64]

In the later half of 2012, the Tejas was grounded for over three months due to a serious safety issue with the pilot's helmets, which extended above the ejection seats, potentially prevented smooth ejection by striking the canopy before the latter was blown off. Flight tests resumed in November 2012 after the ejection systems were modified in response.[65] LSP 8 had a successful maiden test flight on 31 March 2013,[66] and the programme had completed 2,418 test flights by 27 November 2013.[64][67] On 31 March 2013, LSP-8 took to its maiden flight from HAL airport.[20] On 8 November 2014, PV-6(KH-T2010), a trainer variant, completed its first test flight.[68]

Operational clearance

HAL Tejas at Aero India 2015

On 10 January 2011, IOC, allowing IAF pilots to fly the Tejas, was awarded by Defence Minister A K Antony to Chief of Air Staff Air Chief Marshal P V Naik. The IAF plans to raise the first squadron in Bangalore to iron out issues with ADA and HAL, and eventually base these fighters at Sulur Air Force Station, Coimbatore in the southern state of Tamil Nadu.[46][69] In October 2011, Tejas' Final Operational Clearance (FOC) was reportedly delayed from December 2012 until mid-2013 or later.[70][71] In mid-2012, some sources claimed that the aircraft would not reach FOC and become fully combat capable until 2015.[72]

HAL was instructed by the Indian government to strictly adhere to deadlines to ensure Initial Operational Clearance-II by the end of 2013 and Final Operational Clearance (FOC) by the end of 2014.[73] On 20 December 2013, the IOC-II was issued, after which the aircraft was cleared to be flown by regular IAF pilots and begin induction into squadron service. The first squadron of 18 to 20 Tejas will be based at Sulur Air Force Station, Coimbatore in the state of Tamil Nadu,[74] and it will work to achieve FOC by December 2014.[75] To fulfill the IOC-II standard, the aircraft was certified to carry close to three tons of weapons which include laser-guided 500 kg bombs and short-range R-73 missiles,[76][77] reach top speeds of 1,350 km per hour, withstand turns up to 7 g, reach angle of attack of 24 degrees (from 17 degrees initially), and have an operational radius of 400–500 km.[78][79]

To obtain FOC, the fighter will have to be certified for six more criteria. Integration of Derby and Python BVR missiles weighing 150 kg, with a range of 70 km, as well as a Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-23 gun will be undertaken. An air-to-air refuelling probe supplied by Cobham will be added. The angle of attack will be increased from 24 to 28 degrees,[78] the braking system will be enhanced, and the existing nose cone radome made of composites will be replaced by a quartz model in a bid to increase the current radar range of 45–50 km to more than 80 km. These modifications are expected to be completed within 15 months of IOC-II.[75][80] In order to expand the flight envelope to meet service requirements, the programme enlisted assistance from EADS.[81]

The Final Operational Clearance (FOC) campaign began in December 2013, with three aircraft from Tejas flight-line successfully completing advanced weapon trials. The campaign was held in Jamnagar. New weapons were integrated on the aircraft.[82] As part of the FOC, the aircraft is being readied for all-weather trials in Bangalore and in Gwalior. Tejas took its maiden flight in January 2001, and by December 2013, it had completed 2,587 sorties covering over 1,750 hours.[82] In July 2014, the FOC was pushed back as six or more aircraft were needed for testing and only one had been produced then.[83] Tejas received IOC-II clearance on 17 January 2015 and the FOC was expected by year's end for induction in the Indian Air Force,[84] but has been further pushed down to end of 2016.[85]

In May 2015, the Mark I aircraft was criticized by the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) for not meeting IAF requirements, such as a lack of a two-seat trainer, electronic warfare capabilities, the Radar Warning Receiver/Counter Measure Dispensing System, weight increases, reduced internal fuel capacity, non-compliance of fuel system protection, forward-facing pilot protection, and reduced speed. Most of these issues are expected to be rectified in the future Mark II version.[86]

In October 2015, IAF Air Chief Marshal Arup Raha confirmed that the air force had ordered 120 (six squadrons) of Tejas Mark 1A, triple the 40 aircraft it had previously committed to buying. NDTV reported that IAF agreed to accept 40 aircraft even though the CAG had found serious operational shortfalls, including engine thrust, weight and pilot protection in front against 7.62 mm rifle calibre ammunition. The IAF agreed to accept the flawed Tejas to keep the programme alive; the DRDO and HAL promised an improved Tejas Mark 1A version; changes to the ballast and landing gear will reduce its weight by 1,000 kg and the delivery will begin by 2016.[87][88] Tejas Mark 1A shall also have electronic warfare equipment, better air to air capability, aerial refueling and improved ease of maintenance.[89]

In February 2016, LSP-7 test-fired the BVRAAM Derby missile on a BNG (Ballistic Non Guided) mode in Jamnagar as part of its scheduled weapon trials. These weapon trials are part of the Final Operational Clearance (FOC) mandate. It was the 169th flight of LSP-7 and was piloted by Group Capt Rangachari of National Flight Test Centre. The aircraft is also scheduled to fire a Close Combat Missile (CCM) Python-5 missile as part of the FOC trails. The LSP-7 along with LSP-4 were part of Indian flying assets at the just-concluded Bahrain International Air Show (BIAS-2016).[90]

On 26 February 2016, Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar said in the Lok Sabha that the Indian Air Force will accept three to four Tejas this year and stand up a total of eight squadrons in eight years. He also said, "We are also in the process of approving the second line of manufacturing to the HAL so that they can produce 16 aircraft per year."[91]

On 7 November 2016 Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar has approved procurement of 83 LCA- Tejas for IAF.

The decision to procure the LCA will reduce the dependence on imports. The 83 LCAs will be procured from the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) and would make for the Mark 1A version of the plane. The project cost is expected to be over Rs 48,000 crore, sources in the defence ministry said. The IAF has already placed orders for 20 LCA Mark 1 aircraft which would be more of technology demonstrators but the IAF was more interested in having the LCA Mark 2, which would be a more capable and upgraded version of the indigenous plane in the making for the last over two decades. The HAL would first deliver the Mark 1 aircraft to the IAF and then would produce the Mark 1A in the interim till the time it is ready with the Mark 2 version. The project would give a strong push to the indigenous fighter aircraft industry as this would be the first major bulk production order for the plane.



The Tejas is a single-engine multirole fighter which features a tailless, compound delta wing and is designed with "relaxed static stability" for enhanced manoeuvrability. Originally intended to serve as an air superiority aircraft with a secondary ground-attack role, its flexibility permits a variety of guided air-to-surface and anti-shipping weapons to be integrated for multirole and multimission capabilities.[92] The tailless, compound-delta planform is designed to be small and lightweight.[93] This platform also minimises the control surfaces needed (no tailplanes or foreplanes, just a single vertical tailfin), permits carriage of a wider range of external stores, and confers better close-combat, high-speed, and high-alpha performance characteristics than comparable cruciform-wing designs. Extensive wind tunnel testing on scale models and complex computational fluid dynamics analyses have optimised the aerodynamic configuration for minimum supersonic drag, a low wing-loading, and high rates of roll and pitch.[92]

PV-3 in Indian Air Force grey camouflage pattern

Materials include aluminium-lithium, superplastically formed titanium, and carbon-fibre composites (CFC). Tejas employs CFC materials for up to 45 per cent of its airframe, including in the fuselage (doors and skins), wings (skin, spars and ribs), elevons, tailfin, rudder, air brakes and landing gear doors.[94] The wing and fin of the compound-delta aircraft are of carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer, and were designed to provide a minimum weight structure and to serve as integral fuel tanks.[95][96] Although two-seat variants are planned, the examples built to date are crewed by a single pilot on a Martin-Baker zero-zero ejection seat; a locally developed ejection seat is planned for future installation.[97] Tejas requires a very short runway and "rockets off the runway and into the air in a mere 500 metres".[94]

The maximum payload capability of Tejas is 4,000 kg (8,818 lb).[98] All weapons are carried on one or more of seven hardpoints with total capacity of greater than 4,000 kg: three stations under each wing and one on the under-fuselage centreline. An eighth offset station beneath the port-side intake trunk can carry a variety of pods like FLIR, IRST, laser rangefinder/designator, as can the centreline under-fuselage station and inboard pairs of wing stations.[31][99][100] Auxiliary fuel tanks of 800 and 1,200 litres can be carried under the fuselage to extend range. An aerial refuelling probe on the starboard side of the forward fuselage can further extend range and endurance.[101] RAFAEL's Derby fire-and-forget missile will serve as the Tejas' initial medium range air-air armament.[23] The Brahmos NG supersonic cruise missile is being developed for the Tejas.[102] The long range Nirbhay cruise missile is being considered for use on the Tejas, but will require extensive modifications, including being shortened by 25%, to fit the aircraft.[103]

Stealth features have been designed into Tejas.[104] Being small provides an inherent degree of visual stealth, the airframe's high usage of composites (which do not reflect radar waves), a Y-duct inlet which shields the engine compressor face from probing radar waves, and the application of radar-absorbent material (RAM) coatings are intended to minimise its susceptibility to detection and tracking.[105]


Composites in the LCA

The LCA is constructed of aluminium-lithium alloys, carbon-fibre composites (C-FC), and titanium alloy steels. The Tejas employs C-FC materials for up to 45% of its airframe by weight, including in the fuselage (doors and skins), wings (skin, spars and ribs), elevons, tailfin, rudder, air brakes and landing gear doors. Composite materials are used to make an aircraft both lighter and stronger at the same time compared to an all-metal design, and the LCA's percentage employment of C-FCs is one of the highest among contemporary aircraft of its class.[106] Apart from making the plane much lighter, there are also fewer joints or rivets, which increases the aircraft's reliability and lowers its susceptibility to structural fatigue cracks.[107] The tailfin is a monolithic honeycomb structure piece, reducing the manufacturing cost by 80% compared to the "subtractive" or "deductive" method, involving the carving out of a block of titanium alloy by a computerised numerically controlled machine. No other manufacturer is known to have made fins out of a single piece.[108]

The use of composites resulted in a 40% reduction in the total number of parts, including half the number of fasteners required, compared to a metallic frame design. The composite design also helped to avoid about 2,000 holes being drilled into the airframe. Overall, the aircraft's weight is lowered by 21%. While each of these factors can reduce production costs, an additional benefit — and significant cost savings — is realised in the shorter time required to assemble the aircraft — seven months for the LCA as opposed to 11 months using an all-metal airframe.[109] The wing-shielded, side-mounted bifurcated, fixed-geometry Y-duct air intakes with splitter plates,[99] can ensure buzz-free air supply into the engine compressor for thrust generation.[110]

A Tejas at Aero-India 2009

The airframe of the naval variant will be modified with a nose droop to provide improved view during landing approach, and wing leading edge vortex controllers (LEVCON) to increase lift during approach.[14] The LEVCONs are control surfaces that extend from the wing-root leading edge and thus afford better low-speed handling for the LCA, which would otherwise be slightly hampered due to the increased drag that results from its delta-wing design. As an added benefit, the LEVCONs will also increase controllability at high angles of attack (AoA).[111] The naval Tejas will also have a strengthened spine, a longer and stronger undercarriage, and powered nose wheel steering for deck manoeuvrability.[23][112] The Tejas trainer variant will have "aerodynamic commonality" with the two-seat naval aircraft design.[113]


The Tejas has a night vision goggles (NVG)-compatible "glass cockpit", dominated by an CSIR-CSIO domestically-developed head-up display (HUD), three 5 in x 5 in multi-function displays, two Smart Standby Display Units (SSDU), and a "get-you-home" panel providing the pilot with essential flight information in case of an emergency. The displays provide information on key flight systems and controls on a need-to-know basis, along with basic flight and tactical data. The pilot interacts with onboard systems through a multifunctional keyboard and several selection panels.[94] The CSIO-developed HUD, Elbit-furnished DASH helmet-mounted display and sight (HMDS),[22] and hands-on-throttle-and-stick (HOTAS) controls reduce pilot workload and increase situation awareness by allowing access to navigation and weapon-aiming information with minimal need to spend time "head down" in the cockpit.[99][105]

The first 20 production Tejas Mk1 equipped with hybrid version of the EL/M-2032 radar. It features look-up/look-down/shoot-down modes, low/medium/high pulse repetition frequencies (PRF), platform motion compensation, doppler beam-sharpening, moving target indication(MTI), Doppler filtering, constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection, range-Doppler ambiguity resolution, scan conversion, and online diagnostics to identify faulty processor modules.[105] The Tejas Mark IA will equipped with an improved version of the EL/M-2052 AESA radar being developed jointly by Elta and HAL.[114] The Mark 2 will feature an indigenously-developed AESA fire control radar named Uttam.

The Tejas is equipped with both GPS and a ring laser gyroscope based inertial navigation system; for flying in poor conditions, an Instrument Landing System (ILS) and a ground proximity warning system based on the Terrain Referenced Navigation (TRN) system is also employed.[100][115][116] The LCA also has secure and jam-resistant communication systems such as the IFF transponder/interrogator, VHF/UHF radios, and air-to-air/air-to-ground datalinks. The ADA Systems Directorate's Integrated Digital Avionics Suite (IDAS) integrates the flight controls, environmental controls, aircraft utilities systems management, stores management system (SMS), etc. on three 1553B buses by a centralised 32-bit, high-throughput mission computer.[99]

The electronic warfare suite is designed to enhance combat survivability during deep penetration. The EW suite is developed by the Defence Avionics Research Establishment (DARE) with support from the Defence Electronics Research Laboratory (DLRL). This EW suite, known as Mayavi, includes a radar warning receiver (RWR), Missile Approach Warning (MAW) and a Laser warning receiver (LWR) system, Infrared & Ultraviolet Missile warning sensors, self-protection jammer, chaff, jaff and flares dispenser, an electronic countermeasures (ECM) suite and a towed radar decoy (TRD). In the interim, the Indian Ministry of Defence has revealed that an unspecified number of EW suites had been purchased from Israel's Elisra for the LCA prototypes.[115][116][117]

Tejas is also to be equippable with an Infra-red search and track (IRST) sensor, which can detect and track thermal energy emissions.[94][118] This system shall be pod-based, additional sensor pods are to include a Drop tanks for ferry flight/extended range/loitering time,FLIR targeting pod, ECM pods, Flares/Infrared decoys dispenser pod and chaff pod, EO/IR sensor pod, LITENING targeting pods Forward looking infrared (FLIR)sensor, and a laser designator/laser rangefinder, which can be used in various capacities, including reconnaissance, training, or attack.[31][99][100]

Flight controls

A Tejas conducting an inverted pass

Since the Tejas is a relaxed static stability design, it is equipped with a quadruplex digital fly-by-wire flight control system to ease pilot handling.[119] The Tejas aerodynamic configuration is based on a pure delta-wing layout with shoulder-mounted wings. Its control surfaces are all hydraulically actuated. The wing's outer leading edge incorporates three-section slats, while the inboard sections have additional slats to generate vortex lift over the inner wing and high-energy air-flow along the tail fin to enhance high-AoA stability and prevent departure from controlled flight. The wing trailing edge is occupied by two-segment elevons to provide pitch and roll control. The only empennage-mounted control surfaces are the single-piece rudder and two airbrakes located in the upper rear part of the fuselage, one each on either side of the fin.[120]

The digital FBW system of the Tejas employs a powerful digital flight control computer (DFCC) made by Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) comprising four computing channels, each with its own independent power supply and all housed in a single LRU. The DFCC receives signals from a variety of sensors and pilot control stick inputs, and processes these through the appropriate channels to excite and control the elevons, rudder and leading edge slat hydraulic actuators. The DFCC channels are built around 32-bit microprocessors and use a subset of the Ada programming language for software implementation. The computer interfaces with pilot display elements like the MFDs through MIL-STD-1553B multiplex avionics data buses and RS-422 serial links.[94][121][122] The aircraft features in-flight refuelling capability via retractable probes on the aircraft's starboard side, and an on-board oxygen-generating system for longer missions.


A General Electric F404-IN20 engine during ground testing

Early on, it was decided to equip prototype aircraft with the General Electric F404-GE-F2J3 afterburning turbofan engine while a program to develop a domestic powerplant led by the Gas Turbine Research Establishment was launched.[123] In 1998, after Indian nuclear tests, US sanctions blocked sales of the F404, leading to a greater emphasis on the domestic Kaveri. In 2004, General Electric was awarded a US$105 million contract for 17 uprated F404-GE-IN20 engines to power the eight pre-production LSP aircraft and two naval prototypes,[124] deliveries began in 2006.[125] In 2007, a follow-on order for 24 F404-IN20 engines to power the first operational Tejas squadron was issued.[124]

Cost overruns and delays were encountered in the Kaveri's development.[126] In mid-2004, the Kaveri failed high-altitude tests in Russia, ruling out it powering the first production Tejas aircraft.[125][N 1] In February 2006, the ADA awarded a contract to French engine company Snecma for technical assistance on the Kaveri.[127] Using Snecma's new core, an uprated derivative of the Dassault Rafale's M88-2 engine, providing 83–85 kilonewtons (kN) of maximum thrust was being considered by DRDO. The IAF objected that since Snecma already developed the core of the engine, the DRDO will not be participating in any joint development but merely providing Snecma with an 'Indian-made' stamp.[128] In November 2014, the DRDO was submitting documents to cancel development of Kaveri.[23]

In 2008, it was announced that an in-production powerplant would have to be selected; this was required to be in the 95 to 100 kilonewton (kN) (21,000–23,000 lbf) range to execute combat manoeuvres with optimal weapons load.[129][130] After evaluation and acceptance of technical offers for both the Eurojet EJ200 and the General Electric F414, the commercial quotes were compared in detail and GE's F414 was declared as the lowest bidder. The deal covered the purchase of 99 GE F414 engines, an initial batch will be supplied directly by GE and the remainder to be manufactured in India under a technology transfer arrangement.[131][132] According to the IAF, adopting the new powerplant required a three-to-four years of redesign work.[133]

Operational history

The Tejas made its public debut on 21 January 2016, when two aircraft flew in the Bahrain International Air Show. The aircraft demonstrated various aerobatic manoeuvres, including an 8 g pull up, vertical loop, slow fly past and barrel roll.[134][135][136]

The formation of the first Tejas-equipped squadron started in July 2011. The Tejas entered service with No. 45 Squadron IAF (Flying Daggers) based at the Yelahanka Air Base at Bangalore on 1 July 2016 before being moved to Sulur Air Force Station in Coimbatore.[137] The squadron will initially consist of four aircraft SP-3 to SP-6. The IAF's Aircraft & Systems Testing Establishment will receive four aircraft already built, the SP-1 and 2 and LSP-7 and 8.[138]

Potential operators

Sri Lanka and Egypt have expressed interest in acquiring the Tejas.[139]


Tejas trainer variant
Tejas naval variant
Naval LCA during flight testing


Aircraft already built and projected models to be built. Model designations, tail numbers and dates of first flight are shown.

Technology Demonstrators (TD)
Prototype Vehicles (PV)
Naval Prototypes (NP)
Limited Series Production (LSP) aircraft

Currently, 8 LSP series aircraft plus 40 aircraft are on order.

Planned production variants

In August 2015, the Indian defense minister stated the first flight is likely to be 2019 with an entry into service in 2022.[159] In October 2015, media reports suggested the government has decided to order the modified Tejas Mk 1A instead of the Tejas Mk 2.[160]



Specifications (HAL Tejas Mk.1)

Weapon stations on Tejas
Tejas carrying Astra missile, R-73 missile and drop tank

Data from tejas.gov.in,[168] DRDO Techfocus,[169] Aero India 2011[170]

General characteristics




See also

Related lists



  1. Since India does not possess suitable aircraft, the high-altitude testing of the Kaveri is contracted to Russia, which uses a Tu-16 bomber for the purpose. Another Kaveri engine was delivered to Russia for further flight testing from June to September 2006, but on an Il-76 testbed instead of a Tu-16.


  1. PTI (17 January 2015). "After 32 years, India finally gets LCA Tejas aircraft". Economic Times. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
  2. "Tejas: IAF inducts HAL's 'Made in India' Light Combat Aircraft – 10 special facts about the LCA". financialexpress.com. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  3. "Final Version of Tejas PV6, 2-Seater Trainer Takes to Sky in Maiden Flight". The Economic Times, 9 November 2014.
  4. "EXCLUSIVE: With only two planes and issues unresolved, IAF to bring LCA Tejas home". India Today. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  5. 1 2 "World's smallest combat jet's Mark-II avatar to be longer". Times of India. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
  6. Majumdar, Bappa. "India's light combat aircraft to phase out Russian jets." Reuters, 28 April 2009. Retrieved 29 May 2012. Archived 31 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  7. "Indian Air Force to launch first squadron of Tejas fighter jets in Bengaluru". Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  8. "Light Combat Aircraft (LCA)". defencejournal.com.
  9. "LCA first prototype vehicle to fly next month". 21 August 2003. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  10. 1 2 "Light Combat Aircraft (LCA)". defencejournal.com. Archived from the original on 1 July 2014. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
  11. "Republic Day Parade 2014 – A Curtain Raiser". Press Information Bureau. 25 January 2014. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
  12. "Tejas: IAF inducts HAL's 'Made in India' Light Combat Aircraft – 10 special facts about the LCA". The Financial Express. 2016-07-01. Retrieved 2016-07-01.
  13. Chatterjee, K. "Hindustan Fighter HF-24 Marut; Part I: Building India's Jet Fighter." bharat-rakshak.com. Retrieved 23 August 2006. Archived 28 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  14. 1 2 3 "The Light Combat Aircraft Story by Air Marshal MSD Wollen". Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013. First published in Indian Aviation, Opening Show report, Aero India 2001.
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Tejas Light Combat Aircraft (LCA)." Global Security, 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2012. Archived 10 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  16. Iyer, Sukumar R. "LCA: Impact on Indian Defense." Bharat Rakshak Monitor, March–April 2001. Retrieved 30 May 2012. Archived 11 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  17. "Remembrance of Aeronautical Matters Past." Vayu Aerospace & Defence Review, 2004. Retrieved 7 March 2009.
  18. "Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) Test-Flown Successfully." DRDO, January 2001. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
  19. 1 2 3 Reddy, C. Manmohan. "LCA economics." The Hindu, 16 September 2002. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
  20. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "LCA Tejas History". Tejas.gov.in. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  21. 1 2 3 "Tejas LCA exports likely after operational induction." Domain-b.com. Retrieved 16 January 2013. Archived 19 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  22. 1 2 3 "Light Combat Aircraft-Tejas Testing". Frontier India. 24 August 2007. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
  23. 1 2 3 4 "LCA Tejas: An Indian Fighter – With Foreign Help". Defense Industry Daily. 13 August 2013. Archived from the original on 11 September 2013. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  24. "India's Light Combat Aircraft" (PDF). employmentnews.gov.in. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 July 2014. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
  25. 1 2 3 4 5 "LCA Tejas History: Genesis". tejas.gov.in. Archived from the original on 1 July 2014. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
  26. Frawley 2002, p. 114.
  27. Hoh and Mitchell 1983, pp. 11ff.
  28. Aronstein and Piccirillo 1996, p. 21.
  29. "ADFCS-II". transport-research.info. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved July 6, 2014.
  30. "20th Anniversary Celebrations of the National Control Law Team". nal.res.in. 10 June 2012. Archived from the original on 1 July 2014.
  31. 1 2 3 "Tejas LCA: Light Multi-Role Fighter". aerospaceweb.org. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
  32. "Tejas / Light Combat Aircraft (LCA)". fighter-planes.com. Archived from the original on 6 July 2014. Retrieved July 6, 2014.
  33. Taylor et al. 2005 p. 104.
  34. The Westinghouse — now Northrop Grumman AN/APG-66, which is carried on the F-16, was among the radars evaluated by the ADA in 1992.[35]
  35. Sharma, Ravi. "The LCA puzzle." Frontline, 16–29 July 2005. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
  36. 1 2 Aroor, Shiv. "Indigenous' aircraft needs foreign lift, for its radar."The Sunday Express, 8 April 2006. Retrieved 30 May 2012. Archived 8 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
  37. "India's flying Testbeds". B Harry. acig.org. 12 September 2005. Archived from the original on 1 July 2014. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
  38. "Interview with Mr. Shyam Shetty, head of the National Control Law team: NAL and LCA-1: Flight Control Laws." National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL) Information Pasteboard, 25 June – 1 July 2001.
  39. Mudur, Nirad. "Glitches in LCA radar." Vijay Times, 1 May 2006. Retrieved 30 May 2012. Archived 2 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  40. "AESA Programme For Tejas Scans For Development Partner". indian-military.org. Archived from the original on 13 March 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  41. Sharma, Ravi. "LCA to be fitted with Israeli multi-mode radar." The Hindu, (Chennai, India), 3 October 2008. Retrieved 30 May 2012. Archived 9 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  42. "Indigenous production of LCA soon." The Hindu, (Chennai, India), 4 August 2008. Retrieved 29 May 2012. Archived 9 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  43. "Zephyr 2009 - Celebrating the Spirit of Aviation - Aerospace Engineering, IIT Bombay". aero.iitb.ac.in. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
  44. "Times of India: HAL Tejas supersonic fighter jets inducted into Indian Air Force".
  45. 1 2 3 Sharma, Ravi. "IAF insists on changes to Tejas." The Hindu, 5 December 2008. Retrieved 30 May 2012. Archived 6 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  46. 1 2 "Light combat aircraft flies with near-full gear." Daily News and Analysis, 23 April 2010. Retrieved 30 May 2012. Archived 3 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  47. Ravi Sharma (3 December 2006). "IAF team to oversee LCA induction and operation". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 6 July 2014. Retrieved July 6, 2014.
  48. "HAL Tejas". India TV News. 8 October 2013.
  49. "Fighter aircraft Tejas clocks fastest speed during testing." The Indian Express, 8 December 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2011. Archived 15 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  50. "Tejas Trainer makes successful maiden flight" (PDF). Aeronautical Development Agency. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2014. Retrieved July 6, 2014.
  51. 1 2 "LCA Set To Fly With Israeli Radar". 22 April 2010. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  52. 1 2 "First flight of Tejas aircraft LSP-4." The Times of India, 2 June 2010. Archived 8 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
  53. "Light combat aircraft Tejas undergoes second phase of hot weather trails." Daily News and Analysis. Retrieved 30 May 2012. Archived 3 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  54. "Indian LCA Undergoing Sea Trials". Aviation Week & Space Technology. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  55. "Tejas debut flight operational configuration." Deccan Herald, 19 November 2010. Retrieved 15 February 2011. Archived 20 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  56. 1 2 Krishnan M., Anantha. "Indian Navy fastens its seatbelt for Light Combat Aircraft Tejas." Daily News and Analysis, 23 June 2010. Retrieved 30 May 2012. Archived 26 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  57. "Air force to get 20 more Tejas fighter aircraft, says Antony". livemint.com. 7 July 2010. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  58. "LCA Navy all set for ski-jump trials at SBTF Goa". 8 Dec 2014.
  59. "Print Release".
  60. "LCA Tejas". sawfnews.com. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  61. 1 2 3 4 Kumar, Chethan. "LCA naval variant's first flight on Friday." Deccan Herald, 25 April 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2012. Archived 2 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  62. Anandan, S. "Key Tejas weapon trials begin in Jaisalmer." The Hindu (Kochi, India), 20 September 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2012. Archived 1 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  63. "LCA Completes Successful Bombing Runs", Defence news, IN, retrieved 17 September 2012
  64. 1 2 "Flight Test News". Aeronautical Development Agency. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  65. Shukla, Ajai. "After three months on ground, combat aircraft Tejas resumes test flight." Business Standard, 27 November 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2012. Archived 3 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  66. 1 2 "Tejas LSP-8 makes its maiden flight." The New Indian Express, 1 April 2013. Retrieved 1 April 2013. Archived 23 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  67. "India's Light Combat Aircraft Tejas Completes 2,400 Sorties". 12 December 2013. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013.
  68. 1 2 "HAL successfully tested LCA Tejas PV-6". defenceradar.com. 8 November 2014.
  69. Prasad, K. V. "Tejas gets Initial Operational Clearance." The Hindu, (Chennai, India), 10 January 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2012. Archived 2 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  70. Pandit, Rajat. "Tejas won't become fully operational before 2013." The Times of India, 5 October 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2012. Archived 5 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  71. Rajat, Pandit. "UPA's major goof up: Tejas inducted." The Economic Times, 24 May 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
  72. "Rs 25k cr Tejas won’t be ready before 2015." The Times of India, 22 July 2012. Archived 22 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  73. "LCA Project". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 5 August 2013. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved July 6, 2014.
  74. "Air Chief NAK Browne reviews proposed first base for Tejas LCA". The Economic Times. 18 December 2013. Archived from the original on 6 July 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
  75. 1 2 "Tejas LCA sprints towards IAF's frontline squadron". Business Standard. 9 December 2013. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
  76. "30 years in the making, Tejas aircraft finally gets initial operational clearance". The Times of India. 20 December 2013. Archived from the original on 21 December 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  77. "Tejas Fires Missile, Clears Final Test; Big Step in Bangalore on December 20". The New Indian Express. 8 December 2013. Archived from the original on 23 December 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  78. 1 2 "Tejas all set to get certification for IAF induction". The Hindu. 19 December 2013. Archived from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  79. "Key test for indigenous light combat aircraft Tejas today". The Times of India. 20 December 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  80. "Tejas Needs to Cross 6 Milestones in 15 Months". The New Indian Express. 19 December 2013. Archived from the original on 23 December 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
  81. "Failure of Indian LCA Tejas". Daily Mail. 1 December 2010. Archived from the original on 2 June 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  82. 1 2 3 "Advanced Weapon Trials of Tejas Fighter Completed". New Indian Express. 29 May 2014. Archived from the original on 30 June 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  83. RAGHUVANSHI, VIVEK (20 July 2014). "India's 20-Year Late LCA Faces Fresh Delays". defensenews.com. Gannett Government Media. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
  84. "Indian Air Force finally gets Tejas, the 'Made in India' Light Combat Aircraft, after a wait of 32 years". Retrieved 6 February 2015.
  85. Gady, Franz-Stefan (24 July 2015). "Surprise: India's New Fighter Jet Faces More Delays". thediplomat.com. The Diplomat. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  86. "Government Auditor Faults Tejas Light Combat Aircraft Project, Says it Fails to Meet Air Force's Needs". NDTV.com. 8 May 2015. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
  87. Sen, Sudhi Ranjan (30 September 2015). "Despite Flaws, India to Induct Tejas Mark 1-A Fighter Aircraft". ndtv.com. NDTV Convergence Limited.
  88. Franz, Stefan Gady (6 October 2015). "India's Air Force Will Field 42 Combat Squadrons by 2027". Diplomat.
  89. Shukla, Ajai (5 October 2015). "Indian Air Force chief expects full strength of 42 squadrons by 2027".
  90. "Tejas fires Derby missile in Jamnagar". www.oneindia.com. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  91. "IAF to induct 8 squadrons 'Tejas' in 8 years: Manohar Parrikar". The Economic Times. 26 February 2016. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
  92. 1 2 "LCA Tejas Technology – Compound Delta Wing". Tejas.gov.in. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  93. "LCA and its Features". ada.gov.in. Archived from the original on 9 July 2010. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  94. 1 2 3 4 5 "LCA Tejas – The sky is not the limit" (PDF). Aeromag Asia. VII (1): 12–13. January–February 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
  95. "Military Aircraft Directory Part 2". Flightglobal. 11 August 1999. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  96. "Structure – Carbon Fibre Composite Wings". DRDO. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  97. Harry, B. "Report from DEFEXPO-2004." ACIG.org. Retrieved: 30 May 2012. Archived 29 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  98. "'LCA Tejas on a par with contemporaries'". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 2016-07-02.
  99. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Tejas Light Combat Supersonic Fighter, India". Airforce-Technology.com. Archived from the original on 16 May 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
  100. 1 2 3 "Tejas given Initial Operational Clearance." Facenfacts.com, 10 January 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2013. Archived 4 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  101. 1 2 "Tejas, India".naval-technology.com. Retrieved 24 July 2012. Archived 21 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  102. "Government open to making BrahMos-NG". sundayguardianlive.com. 21 May 2016. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  103. TASS (2015-02-12). "India begins development of the Nirbhay subsonic cruise missile for the Su-30MKI". Retrieved 2016-07-02.
  104. "Advantage India: Why DRDO claims that LCA Tejas is the 'best in its class'". The Economic Times. 20 December 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  105. 1 2 3 "Tejas LCA exports likely after operational induction news". Domain-b. 10 January 2011. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
  106. Harry, B. "Radiance of the Tejas (2 Parts)." Vayu Aerospace & Defence Review, Vol. I, February 2005; Vol. II, April 2005. Archived 14 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  107. "LCA Tejas Technology – Composite Materials". Tejas.gov.in. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  108. "Dreams lighten in LCA.". Prakash, Sqn. Ldr. B.G. 16 February 2001. Archived from the original on 4 March 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  109. "Aircraft: LCA.". Space Transport. 19 August 2002. Archived from the original on 27 October 2009. Retrieved July 6, 2014.
  110. "FLOW CONTROL IN Y-SHAPED AIR-INTAKES USING VORTEX GENERATORS" (PDF). Proceedings of the 37th National & 4th International Conference on Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power. 18 December 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 July 2014. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
  111. Jebakumar, S.K. (March 2009). "Aircraft Performance Improvements – A Practical Approach" (PDF). DRDO Science Spectrum: 4–11. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  112. Wollen, M. S. D., Air Marshal (Retd.) "The Light Combat Aircraft Story." Bharat Rakshak Monitor, March–April 2001. Retrieved 30 May 2012. Archived 11 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  113. "KH T 2009."Aeronautical Development Agency. Retrieved 24 September 2006. Archived 14 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  114. 1 2 Ajai Shukla (25 October 2015). "Cutting-edge Israeli radar wins air force approval for Tejas fighter". business-standard.com. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  115. 1 2 "India orders over one hundred SIGMA 95 navigation systems from Sagem". Sagem. 19 February 2008. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
  116. 1 2 Sharma, Rikeesh (January–March 2013). "Transformation of Indian Naval Aviation Post New Inductions" (PDF). Journal of Defence Studies, Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses. 7 (1): 42. ISSN 0976-1004. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
  117. Raghuvanshi, Vivek. "India, Israel Propose Joint Electronic Warfare Venture." Rantburg, 24 July 2006. Retrieved 30 May 2012. Archived 2 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  118. "EL/M-2032." Deagel.com. Retrieved 29 May 2012. Archived 12 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  119. Iype, George. rediff.com "Will the LCA fly?" Rediff.com, 5 December 2000. Retrieved 30 May 2012. Archived 8 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  120. "Aircraft digital flight-control: Airplane cockpit control". aviationonline.info. 28 December 2013. Archived from the original on 1 July 2014. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
  121. "LCA Tejas Technology – Fly by wire". Tejas.gov.in. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  122. "Indigenous development of LRUs". ADA. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
  123. "Tejas – India's Light Combat Aircraft". Indiatimes. India Times. 25 July 2013. Archived from the original on 6 July 2014. Retrieved July 6, 2014.
  124. 1 2 "F404-GE-IN20 Engines Ordered for India Light Combat Aircraft". GE Aviation. 7 February 2007. Archived from the original on 6 July 2014.
  125. 1 2 "Fraud of Light Combat Aircraft – Tejas & Kaveris". Brig. (retd.) GB Reddi. manamlagaru.com. 23 January 2013. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved July 6, 2014.
  126. Gunston, Bill (Ed.) (June 15, 2006). "GTRE Kaveri" in Jane's Aero-Engines, Issue 14. Coulsdon, Surrey, UK: Jane's Information Group Limited. ISBN 0-7106-1405-5.
  127. Jackson, et al. 2005, p. 195.
  128. "Air Force says DRDO stalling Tejas fighter engine". Business Standard. June 28, 2010. Retrieved July 6, 2014.
  129. Sharma, Ravi. "Kaveri engine programme delinked from the Tejas." The Hindu, (Chennai, India), 27 September 2008. Retrieved 29 May 2012. Archived 3 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  130. Raghuvanshi, Vivek. "Eurojet Bolsters Engine Offer for India's LCA."Defense News, 4 January 2010. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
  131. Shukla, Ajai. "American engine to power LCA." Bharat-Rakshak.com, 1 October 2010. Retrieved 30 May 2012. Archived 11 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  132. "India picks GE's F414 for Tejas MkII fighter." Flight International, 1 October 2010. Retrieved 30 May 2012. Archived 9 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  133. "Defence Ministry plans to revive Tejas." Hindustan Times. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
  134. "Watch: Proud moments for India as LCA Tejas zooms across Bahrain skies". Zee News. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
  135. "Tejas is a pilot's delight". Bharat Shakti. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
  136. "Live: Watch induction of first squadron of 'Made in India' Tejas into IAF | Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis". 2016-07-01. Retrieved 2016-07-01.
  137. "IAF begins establishing first LCA squadron." Deccan Herald. Retrieved 30 May 2012. Archived 20 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  138. "Squadron Formation Still a Distant Dream for Air Force". The New Indian Express. 20 December 2013. Archived from the original on 23 December 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  139. Press Trust of India (18 April 2016). "Sri Lanka, Egypt Indicate Interest In Indigenous Tejas Combat Aircraft". NDTV.com. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  140. "PIBNaval Version of Light Combat Aircraft Rolls out a Defining and Memorable Occasion for the Nation -Antony." pib.nic.in. Retrieved: 30 May 2012. Archived 12 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  141. "Maiden flight by 2nd prototype of LCA Tejas' naval variant". The Economic Times. 7 February 2015. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
  142. 1 2 "India flies another Tejas". Aviation Week & Space Technology. 19 June 2008. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  143. Shukla, Ajai. "Tejas boosts test programme." Business Standard. Retrieved 22 November 2011. Archived 4 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  144. "India To Fly Tejas LSP-5 Soon". Aviation Week & Space Technology. 1 November 2010. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  145. "Union Performance Defense Design Manufacture Light Combat Aircraft"
  146. "Tejas LSP-7 & 8 in air by end of this year : ADA". idrw.org. 15 June 2011. Archived from the original on 5 September 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  147. "HAL, DRDO test first LCA Tejas aircraft built for IAF". timesofindia-economictimes. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
  148. Our Defence Correspondent. "Tejas SP-2 takes to skies; HAL says plans on track". Mathrubhumi. Retrieved 25 March 2016.
  149. "Despite Flaws, India to Induct Tejas Mark 1-A Fighter Aircraft". NDTV. 29 September 2015. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  150. "HAL developing LCA-1P with AESA Radar " "www.indiastrategic.in", 5 September 2015.
  151. "Parrikar cuts Gordian knot to boost Tejas line". Business Standard. 2 October 2015. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  152. Business Standard. "Naval Tejas successfully tested in Goa, will fly off aircraft carrier next year". business-standard.com. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  153. "India test flies naval variant of Light Combat Aircraft: IANS." ibnlive.in.com, 28 April 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2012. Archived 13 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  154. 1 2 Shetty, Vinayak. "Tejas Mk-2 will incorporate 5 gen fighter elements." Security Magazine, October 2010. Retrieved 30 May 2012. Archived 10 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  155. 1 2 "Engines History." LCA Tejas. Retrieved 29 May 2012. Archived 7 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  156. 1 2 "AESA Radar under project 'UTTAM' being tested on LCA Tejas". January 14, 2015.
  157. 1 2 "Saurav Jha's Blog : The Radiance of Tejas: A bright prospect for 'Make in India'". ibnlive.in.com.
  158. 1 2 Sudhi Ranjan Sen (4 October 2014). "For Tejas, a Long Way to Go Before it Protects the Indian Skies". NDTV.com. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
  159. 1 2 Tejas Mk. II maiden flight likely in 2019: defence minister
  160. "IAF to induct 120 home-grown Tejas jets instead of 40 planned earlier". intoday.in. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  161. economic times.com. 7 November 2016 http://m.economictimes.com/news/defence/MOD-clears-defence-deals-worth-over-Rs-82000-crore-procurement-of-83-Tejas-jets-and-464-tanks/articleshow/55295197.cms. Retrieved 07 Novemver 2016. Check date values in: |access-date= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  162. "Tejas handed over to IAF."frontierindia.net. Retrieved: 30 May 2012.
  163. "IAF to induct six squadrons of Tejas, says Defence Minister Antony". India Today. 20 December 2013. Archived from the original on 30 June 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  164. IAF will buy 14 Tejas squadrons, lowering costs |Business Standard . Retrieved 11 February 2014 Archived 30 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  165. Sudhi Ranjan Sen (29 September 2015). "Despite Flaws, India to Induct Tejas Mark 1-A Fighter Aircraft". NDTV.com. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
  166. "33 years on, Tejas squadron hits runway - TOI Mobile - The Times of India Mobile Site". timesofindia.com. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  167. Shukla, Ajai. "Navy places 900-cr order for 6 Tejas LCA". news.rediff.com, 21 September 2009. Retrieved 29 May 2012. Archived 11 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  168. 1 2 3 4 "Leading particulars and performance." tejas.gov.in. Retrieved 10 December 2012. Archived 17 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  169. "DRDO TechFocus." DRDO, February 2011. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  170. "HAL Tejas spec board image." blogspot.com. Retrieved 30 May 2012. Archived 8 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  171. 1 2 "LCA". hal-india.com. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  172. "LCA Tejas Specifications – Powerplant". tejas.gov.in. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  173. "Tejas Light Combat Aircraft sheet" (PDF). Tejas.gov.in. p. 6. Retrieved 13 December 2015.
  174. Ajai Shukla (28 December 2013). "The Tejas fighter's role in war". business-standard.com. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
  175. "LCA Tejas Gets Initial Operational Clearance for Induction into IAF". pib.nic.in. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  176. LCA Tejas Gets Initial Operational Clearance for Induction into IAF IOC of LCA a Major Milestone in Self-Reliance: Antony Flight Safety Record of Tejas is Unprecdented in Aviation History: ACM Browne, Press Information Bureau, Government of India, 20 December 2013, retrieved 25 December 2014
  177. "Tejas - Leading Particulars and Performance". Tejas official web site: tejas.gov.in. Aeronautical Development Agency, DRDO. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  178. "Tejas - The Indian Light Combat Aircraft IOC Brochure" (PDF). HAL. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
  179. "Derby Missiles Selected to Arm India's Tejas Fighters." defense-update.com. Retrieved 15 February 2011. Archived 9 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  180. "Captive flight trials of anti-radiation missile soon". THE HINDU. 17 February 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
  181. 1 2 Harry, B. "Aero India 2003 – Part 1." Acig.org. Retrieved: 30 May 2012. Archived 31 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  182. "Israeli Rafael To Deliver Litening Targeting Pods For HAL Tejas LCA Fighter Jet Programme". india-defence.com. 5 June 2007. Archived from the original on 21 March 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  183. "Litening pod tested on LCA Tejas." Frontier India– News, Analysis, Opinion. Retrieved: 30 May 2012.
  184. "LCA Tejas finally gets Radar!". Defence Aviation. 30 April 2010. Retrieved 1 March 2016.


  • Jackson, Paul, Kenneth Munson and Lindsay Peacock, eds. "ADA Tejas." Jane's All The World's Aircraft 2005–06. Coulsdon, Surrey, UK: Jane's Information Group Limited, 2005. ISBN 978-0-7106-2684-4.
  • Taylor, John W. R., Kenneth Munson and Michael J. H. Taylor, eds. "HAL Light Combat Aircraft." Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1989–1990. Coulsdon, Surrey, UK: Jane's Information Group Limited, 2005. ISBN 978-0-7106-0896-3.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to HAL Tejas.

Features and analysis:



This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 12/3/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.