Graduate unemployment

Graduate unemployment, or educated unemployment, is unemployment among people with an academic degree.


Research[1] undertaken proved that unemployment and underemployment of graduates are devastating phenomena in their lives. A high incidence of either are indicators of institutional ineffectiveness and inefficiency. Since the beginning of the economic recession in the US economy in 2007, an increasing number of graduates have been unable to find permanent positions in their chosen field. According to statistics, the unemployment rate for recent college graduates has been higher than all college graduates in the past decade, implying that it has been more difficult for graduates to find a job in recent years.[2][3] One year after graduation, the unemployment rate of 2007–2008 bachelor's degree recipients was 9%.[4] Underemployment among graduates is high. Educated unemployment or underemployment is due to a mismatch between the aspirations of graduates and employment opportunities available to them.

Aggravating factors for unemployment are the rapidly increasing quantity of international graduates competing for an inadequate number of suitable jobs, schools not keeping their curriculums relevant to the job market, the growing pressure on schools to increase access to education (which usually requires a reduction in educational quality), and students being constantly told that an academic degree is the only route to a secure future.[5]

Investment risk

College and Universities cost thousands of dollars a semester, not including study materials, books, room, and board. Tuition has gone up 1,120 percent in the last thirty years.[6] Students have been given the impression that employers are looking for people who, through tests and grades, have demonstrated that they are high achievers. In many recent surveys, that has been proved otherwise. Employers are looking for people who have learned how to learn, and have gained substantial communication skills as well as critical thinking abilities.[7] Graduates are not meeting employers needs. Students are also struggling to pay off their student loans. Without the desired, and needed jobs, graduates are accumulating debt and struggling to pay back their loans. 15 percent of the student borrowers default within the first three years of repayment.[8] Many resort to returning to live with their parents and having to work multiple part-time jobs. Loans average about twenty to thirty thousand dollars.[9] Higher education becomes an investment in which students are expecting to find a job with enough income to pay off the loans in a timely manner.

Graduate unemployment by geography

United States

In June 2013, 11.8 million persons were unemployed, putting the unemployment rate at 7.6 percent. The state of the economy is a large contributor to these numbers. In June, 2001 the unemployment rate was 4.6% [10] After 9/11/2001, the unemployment rate skyrocketed to 5.7% in November 2001[11] and rose drastically in 2009 to 10% in October.[12] In September, 2015, unemployment is reported by the Labor Department to be at 5.1%.[12] However, some economists dispute that as accurate and claim that unemployment is much higher due to the number of people who have stopped looking for jobs.[13]


  1. Bai, Limin (March 2006). "Graduate Unemployment: Dilemmas and Challenges in China's Move to Mass Higher Education". The China Quarterly. 185 (1): 128–144. JSTOR 20192579. (registration required (help)).
  2. College graduates are those aged 22 to 65 with a bachelor's degree or higher; recent college graduates are those aged 22 to 27 with a bachelor's degree or higher.
  3. Abel, Jaison R; Deitz, Richard; Su, Yaqin (2014). "Are Recent College Graduates". Current Issues in Economics and Finance. 20 (1).
  4. "XJTLU Library Home Page".
  5. Coates, Ken; Morrison, Bill (2016), Dream Factories: Why Universities Won't Solve the Youth Jobs Crisis, Toronto: Dundurn Press, p. 232, ISBN 978-1459733770
  6. Watson, Bruce. "The high cost of higher education explained in one simple graphic". Retrieved 28 July 2013.
  7. Sternberg, Robert J. "Giving employers what they don't really want". Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
  8. Lanza, Allesandra. "Get the facts about struggling student loan borrowers". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
  9. Ludden, Jennifer (May 10, 2012). "College grads struggle to gain financial footing". NPR. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
  10. "Unemployment rate of 4.7 percent lowest since July 2001 - Feb. 3, 2006". Retrieved 2015-10-19.
  11. "U.S. unemployment highest in six years - Dec. 7, 2001". Retrieved 2015-10-19.
  12. 1 2 "Bureau of Labor Statistics Data". Retrieved 2015-10-19.
  13. {{Cite web|title = Why The 'Real' Unemployment Rate Is Higher Than You Think The lack of jobs available, and skills desired by employers, are beginning to prove to be another major cause for graduate unemployment in the U.S. Graduates are completing school with a degree and a head full of knowledge, but still lack work experience to impress white-collar employers.<ref>{{cite web|last=Lawrence|first=John|title=Today’s college graduates: In debt and unable to find a job|url=|accessdate=28 July 2013}}</ref>

    Educational attainment in the United States, Age 25 and Over (2009)

    Education Percentage
    High school graduate 86.68%
    Some college 55.60%
    Associates and/or bachelor's degree 38.54%
    Master's degree 7.62%
    Doctorate or professional degree 2.94%<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Education in the United States 美国教育(1)_频载酒_新浪博客|}}</ref>

    College major by underemployment rate

    College majors ranked in ascending order by the percentage of college graduates with degrees in those fields who are also employed in jobs that do not require a college degree. Data is from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, the United States Census Bureau, and the American Community Survey. Note: The unemployment and underemployment rates are for recent college graduates (between the ages 22 and 27).<ref>{{citation|url=|title=Outcomes by Major|work=The Labor Market for Recent College Graduates|publisher=[[Federal Reserve Bank of New York]]|date=January 29, 2016|accessdate=June 24, 2016}}</ref>
    Rank College Major Unemployment
    Median Wage
    Early Career
    Median Wage
    Share with
    Graduate Degree
    1 Nursing 2.0% 13.4% $48,000 $65,000 26.5%
    2 Special education 2.4% 14.9% $33,000 $43,000 61.3%
    3 Chemical engineering 5.2% 17.0% $70,000 $94,000 49.8%
    4 Computer engineering 4.6% 19.1% $60,000 $100,000 37.8%
    5 Civil engineering 2.8% 19.8% $50,000 $86,000 37.3%
    6 Pharmacy 4.1% 20.3% $42,000 $110,000 54.4%
    7 Electrical engineering 4.4% 20.6% $61,000 $95,000 44.1%
    8 Mechanical engineering 3.6% 20.7% $60,000 $91,000 40.7%
    9 Aerospace engineering 2.4% 20.8% $60,000 $90,000 49.3%
    10 Primary education 3.0% 21.3% $32,000 $42,000 46.2%
    11 Miscellaneous education 1.0% 22.8% $34,000 $43,000 52.9%
    12 General education 4.3% 22.9% $33,500 $44,000 47.6%
    13 Computer science 3.6% 24.6% $54,000 $86,000 32.2%
    14 Industrial engineering 6.2% 25.6% $60,000 $81,000 41.3%
    15 Early childhood education 3.8% 26.2% $30,000 $40,000 38.6%
    16 Mathematics 5.9% 26.3% $42,000 $77,000 51.0%
    17 Secondary education 2.6% 26.7% $34,000 $47,700 48.3%
    18 Accounting 4.0% 26.8% $45,000 $68,000 27.1%
    19 General engineering 3.6% 27.6% $55,000 $80,000 35.4%
    20 Miscellaneous engineering 3.1% 29.9% $52,000 $83,000 44.4%
    21 Biochemistry 4.2% 32.2% $35,200 $75,000 74.1%
    22 Chemistry 4.7% 32.6% $39,000 $69,000 65.3%
    23 Treatment therapy 2.3% 32.8% $35,000 $66,000 42.6%
    24 Miscellaneous physical sciences 5.5% 33.1% $38,000 $70,000 54.0%
    25 Physics 6.2% 34.2% $50,000 $80,000 70.0%
    26 Construction services 1.8% 35.4% $50,000 $80,000 10.6%
    27 Social services 4.6% 35.7% $30,000 $40,000 47.6%
    28 Finance 3.7% 36.8% $47,000 $80,000 29.8%
    29 Architecture 6.8% 37.1% $40,000 $68,000 36.1%
    30 Business analytics 3.7% 38.8% $50,000 $83,000 23.1%
    31 Commercial art/Graphic design 5.8% 41.7% $35,000 $52,000 10.1%
    32 Earth science 7.9% 41.8% $30,300 $63,000 45.8%
    33 Economics 5.1% 42.9% $48,000 $80,000 40.6%
    34 Engineering technologies 4.5% 43.7% $42,000 $75,000 22.1%
    35 Journalism 3.4% 43.7% $35,000 $64,000 24.3%
    36 Biology 5.1% 44.8% $31,500 $60,000 63.7%
    Overall 5.0% 45.1% $38,000 $62,000 37.3%
    37 Information systems and management 6.7% 45.3% $43,000 $70,000 23.2%
    38 Advertising/Public relations 4.9% 46.1% $40,000 $61,000 16.3%
    39 Family and consumer sciences 4.3% 46.2% $28,400 $48,000 30.0%
    40 Miscellaneous biological sciences 5.9% 46.4% $35,000 $57,000 61.1%
    41 Health services 3.8% 47.2% $33,000 $54,000 53.0%
    42 International affairs 6.8% 47.4% $40,000 $70,000 42.8%
    43 Geography 8.8% 48.1% $34,500 $60,000 30.6%
    44 Political science 7.2% 49.7% $38,000 $70,000 51.9%
    45 General social sciences 6.4% 50.4% $33,000 $50,000 37.9%
    46 Theology/Religion 6.8% 50.8% $28,600 $45,000 43.6%
    47 Interdisciplinary studies 5.9% 50.9% $35,000 $60,000 36.9%
    48 Psychology 5.9% 51.3% $30,000 $52,000 49.9%
    49 English language 7.5% 51.7% $32,200 $55,000 46.5%
    50 Philosophy 5.0% 51.7% $35,000 $60,000 56.0%
    51 Foreign language 5.7% 51.8% $33,000 $51,000 49.8%
    52 Environmental studies 8.5% 53.7% $30,000 $60,000 30.4%
    53 Agriculture 1.8% 54.2% $36,000 $55,000 22.1%
    54 Nutrition sciences 5.5% 54.4% $36,000 $50,000 42.7%
    55 Marketing 4.6% 56.1% $40,000 $70,000 16.7%
    56 Mass media 8.6% 56.5% $31,200 $56,000 19.0%
    57 Sociology 6.5% 56.5% $33,000 $54,000 35.9%
    58 History 5.9% 56.6% $35,000 $60,000 48.4%
    59 Ethnic studies 7.3% 57.1% $32,000 $60,000 50.3%
    60 Communications 5.4% 58.1% $36,000 $62,000 22.7%
    61 General business 4.9% 58.2% $40,000 $67,000 23.9%
    62 Liberal arts 5.8% 58.3% $32,000 $56,000 28.4%
    63 Animal and plant sciences 2.8% 58.7% $32,000 $52,000 35.1%
    64 Art history 7.8% 58.9% $32,000 $53,000 42.6%
    65 Anthropology 8.8% 59.1% $30,000 $50,000 47.7%
    66 Medical technicians 6.7% 59.6% $44,000 $60,000 23.9%
    67 Business management 4.8% 61.4% $38,000 $61,000 22.1%
    68 Miscellaneous technologies 5.4% 62.0% $33,000 $70,000 17.4%
    69 Fine arts 7.6% 62.3% $29,000 $50,000 22.5%
    70 Leisure/Hospitality 5.0% 62.6% $32,000 $52,000 29.4%
    71 Public policy/Pre-law 6.3% 63.1% $32,000 $60,000 42.8%
    72 Performing arts 6.8% 66.5% $30,000 $47,000 38.5%
    73 Criminal justice 5.5% 74.4% $33,000 $60,000 21.8%


    The markets for China's graduates share much in common with those of other countries. China's recent upsurge in graduate unemployment relates to a number of things. One important aspect is its education policy-making and economic development as well as reforms in the economy and in its higher education. Recently the annual growth in the numbers of new graduates was estimated at 7,270,000 for 2014. It has been stated that the rate of young unemployed graduates should logically bring about a withdrawal from higher education.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=2014高校毕业生人数_中国高校毕业生增长趋势_2014大学毕业生人数―就业频道―中国教育在线|}}</ref> At 8% annual growth, the Chinese labor market will generate about eight million jobs, but these are mainly in manufacturing and require low-level qualifications.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=National Bureau of Statistics of China|}}</ref> This rising enrollment made employment an issue and a serious challenge for China. Including the graduates who are not employed last year, the number of unemployed graduates may reach 8,100,000. However, in the first half of 2014, there were 67,000 Chinese private businesses failing. These businesses employed 34.2 percent of the graduates in 2011.<ref></ref> In 2013, it was estimated that at least 600,000 graduates from the prior year had yet to find employment. This is in addition to the approximately 7 million students who were leaving their universities with the desire to enter the workforce immediately.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Youth Unemployment in China: A Crisis in the Making?|author=Guest Post|work=The Blaze}}</ref> In the study 2010 Chinese College Students Employment Report it named 15 professions that had the highest unemployment percentages in China. The survey said that, between 2007–2009, for three consecutive years, law majors had one of the highest unemployment rates for a bachelor's degree. Another field of high unemployment for the last three consecutive years was in the fields of computer science and technology. In many of China's universities, professions majoring in English have had a high level of unemployment<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=中国大学失业率最高15个专业|}}</ref> This tendency was still occurring during 2010 to 2013.

    Historical sketch

    Education policy-making
    From 1900 to 1911, China abolished the civil service examination system and established a modern schooling system based on Western models.
    • In 1922 China adopted the American model, and this dominated the Chinese higher education system until 1949.
    • In 1952 all of the higher education institutions were brought under the jurisdiction of the communist government, and the Soviet model was adopted to restructure China's higher education system in order to serve the manpower needs for building a socialist China.
    • In 1958 China made its first attempt to expand the higher education sector by establishing more than 23,500 after-hours part work, part study colleges, in order to make an ambitious economic growth plan possible - the so-called Great Leap Forward for Socialist Construction.
    • After 1978, with the end of the Cultural Revolution of 1966–76, China restored its higher education system and started educational reforms along with the move to a market-oriented socialist economy.<ref>Limin Bai, [] "Graduate Unemployment: Dilemmas and Challenges in China's Move to Mass Higher Education", ''The China Quarterly'', 2006.</ref> n 1985 the central government announced its reform plan, and embarked upon a decentralization process which gave local government and higher education institutions more autonomy.<ref>Zheng Xiaochun, A Look Back on the Reform of Higher Education and Future Prospects, Research on Higher Education, 1998.</ref>
    • In 1993 the government launched further reform measures to increase accessibility to higher education, and a "user-pay" system was implemented along with fundamental changes in the job assignment system.
    • From 1993 to 1998, higher education developed on the basis of numbers being controlled and limited, and quality being improved. The unduly low proportion of students in the tertiary sector brought out the negative impact on Chinese economic growth.
    • In 1998, the Declaration of the World Conference on Higher Education organized by UNESCO in Paris made the Chinese government aware that a rapid increase in the enrollment figures in higher education would be a way to respond to the needs of opening up and meeting the requirements of economic and social development.<ref>World Bank, ''The Reform of Higher Education in China'', China Financial & Economic, Beijing, 1998.</ref>
    • In 1999 the government decided to accelerate the pace of expansion, and enrollments in higher education institutions increased dramatically and continuously. The enrollment number in 1999 was 1,678,000 which increased 47% by 1998. In 2004 the number is 4,473,400 with the rate of 17.05%<ref name="TCQ"/> Student numbers climbed from 7.23 million in 2000 to 9.31 million in 2001 and 11.46 million in 2002. The figure in 2004 indicated almost four times as many enrollments as in 1998.<ref>Department of Planning and Development of the Chinese Ministry of Education, Statistical Report on Education in China, Beijing, February 2003.</ref> And according to Limin Bai ,the establishment of the elite universities project called "211", using large amounts of government funding, made it difficult for non-elite colleges to survive. This caused an increase in tuition fees and affected the quality of higher education, which in turn influenced the employment of graduates.<ref>Limin Bai,[] Graduate Unemployment:Dilemmas and Challenges in China's Move to Mass Higher Education, The China Quarterly,2006.</ref>
    Economic development
    Since 1978, the government has been reforming its economy from a Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more market-oriented economy to increase productivity, living standards, and technological quality without exacerbating inflation, unemployment, and budget deficits.<ref>[,,contentMDK:20634060~pagePK:64165401~piPK:64165026~theSitePK:469382,00.html Fighting Poverty: Findings and Lessons from China’s Success] (World Bank). Retrieved August 10, 2006.</ref> China’s economy regained momentum in the early 1990s. The Asian Financial Crisis of 1998–99 influenced the economy by slowing growth and as a consequence experts submitted proposals to state organs to stimulate economic recovery. This involved increasing student numbers and intensifying the modification of education as a way of stimulating internal consumption.
    The unemployment rate of graduates
    In 2008,the unemployment rate of graduates was more than 30%.<ref name="">{{cite web|url=|title=CHINA: Graduate unemployment on the rise - University World News|}}</ref> In this year the unemployment rate of graduates from top universities was 10%.<ref>{{cite web|url=>|title=Universities must better prepare young people for labour market - University World News|}}</ref> In 2009, the employment rate of graduates who had bachelor's degree was in the 88% range.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=• China: employment rate of university graduates 2014 - Statistic|work=Statista}}</ref> In 2010, the employment rate of college graduates rose 3.2% in 2009 reaching 91.2%.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Graduates: Aim lower to shoot higher in job-hunting|}}</ref> in 2012, Prime Minister Zhu warned that increased foreign competition brought by China's entry into the World Trade Organisation could lead to a doubling of the official urban unemployment rate over the next few years from 3.5% to 7%, or around 30 million people.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=BBC News - BUSINESS - China's unemployment challenge|}}</ref> In 2013, data released by the Chinese government indicated that the rate of graduate unemployment was 33.6%.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=2013 graduate students' employment rate at 67.4% - CCTV News - English|author=Zhang Jingya|}}</ref> In 2014, based on official Chinese date, roughly 15% of the new grads are unemployed six months after graduation. However, Cheng, a professor of political science states the authentic unemployment is a actually 2.3 million which means the rate is around 30%.<ref name="">{{cite web|url=|title=What do you do with millions of extra graduates?|work=BBC News}}</ref> China's higher education system prior to the 1999 expansion was not prepared for large-scale growth as it was basically characterized as "education for examinations," and the reforms in the 1990s did not change this feature. The lack of diversity in curricula at different levels and in different divisions of higher education determined that graduates lacked the specialty and the flexibility to respond to market demand. Moreover, before the 1999 expansion, a national job market had not yet been established. With a focus on immediate economic growth, the policy makers appear to have made the 1999 expansion decision without a big picture of the future structure of China's market-oriented economy, and without knowing in which economic sectors manpower needs would increase.
    Regional disparities
    China has had a long history of regional disparities, and disparities between urban and rural areas. Disparities in economic development are paralleled by disparities in higher education: top universities, for instance, are all located in those regions such as Shanghai, Beijing and Shenzhen. Such disparities in education are reflected in both quality and quantity.<ref name="TCQ"/> In addition, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Institute of Sociology and Social Sciences Documentation Publishing House jointly published the social blue book 2014 Chinese Social Situation Analysis and Prediction,<ref>Li Peilin, Chen Guangjin, Zhang Yi, Society of China analysis and forecast (2014), Blue book of China's society, Beijing, December 2013.</ref> which released a set of employment survey reports based on 1678 graduates from 12 universities.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=社科院:农村家庭本科生失业率达30%|}}</ref> As is shown in the blue book, two months after graduation, the unemployment rate of undergraduates from rural families is higher than undergraduates from urban families, which is 30.5%.
    Measures taken by the government to solve the problem
    The Chinese government has taken some measures to try to solve the crisis and it hopes injecting huge investments into the economy will create jobs and relieve much of the pressure. But some experts predict that building infrastructure will only provide manual jobs for ordinary workers and will not benefit college graduates. Another measure is to boost postgraduate enrollments. The Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China plans to expand enrollments of masters students by 5% and doctoral students by 1.7%. Given the decline in jobs, many graduates will choose to study further and this year almost 1.25 million first degree-holders will be taking the postgraduate entrance examinations. Yet expanding postgraduate enrollments cannot solve the problem of graduate unemployment as it can only offer some relief or postpone the current employment pressure. Indeed, in recent years, employment of master's degree graduates has become problematic. Diverting graduates to rural areas is a third measure. But a vast gap exists between urban and rural areas in terms of developmental level, opportunities, and living conditions. Thus, most graduates prefer to work in cities. To encourage them to go to the countryside, the government has come up with policies such as preferential treatment when graduates (after two years service) apply to become government officials, or extra points are added to their scores in examinations for graduate study. But these policies are not attractive given the low salaries graduates earn in country areas. The Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China has recently been calling for the whole society, including overseas Chinese, to contribute ideas to improve education overall. Promoting creative and vocational education has been raised as a way of providing new graduates with creative education and job skills to meet the needs of the market and to face the challenges of a changing world in the decades to come. Perhaps this approach constitutes a more fundamental strategy that will eventually solve the graduate employment problem, although the impact is likely to take many years to become apparent.<ref name=""/> China's education department has already stated clearly that it wants to turn 600 universities into polytechnics, in order to give students more technical and employment-related curriculum, instead of only providing academic and theoretical subjects.<ref name=""/>
    Criticism of graduate unemployment
    The employment situation for new college graduates is different from the working population in general. The graduate unemployment crisis in China represents a wasteful investment of scarce resources. Large sums of money have consequently been invested in educating unemployed graduates which could otherwise have been invested in job-creating productive programmes. With a flood of new graduates, individuals are having a tough time finding jobs in an increasingly competitive labor market. Furthermore, it produces permanent scars on youth. Farlie and Kletzer (1999) estimated that being unemployed while young results in lower future earnings by a magnitude of 8.4% and 13.0% for males and females, respectively. Meanwhile, graduates have some negative expectations under the pressure of seeking jobs. Nanjing Normal University has surveyed students who expected to graduate in 2006 about "College Student's Attitudes about Job Seeking and Career". 44.21% prefer to get an employment contract first, then consider pursuing a new job position which is what they really desire to be employed for an average of 2 years.<ref>{{cite web|last1=Salik|first1=Madiha|last2=Zhiyong|first2=Zhu|last3=Guoyuan|first3=Sang|last4=Jiayong|first4=Li|title=Making People Employable: Reforming Higher Education in China|url=|website=|publisher=Institute for International and Comparative Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, CHINA.|accessdate=7 March 2015}}</ref> This phenomenon not only causes underemployment and high turnover in the job market, but also, graduates will have lower levels of job satisfaction, work commitment, job involvement and internal work motivation. Obviously, these of problems will bring more risks for employers as well. Another widespread criticism is that, since the acceleration of enrollment starting from 1999, many schools, which were originally vocational ones, have been turned into universities. This has resulted in the number of university increasing greatly, which also means an increase in graduates with university degrees. But the truth is that the quality of these students' education is often even lower than vocational school graduates. The reason is that vocational school graduates have technical abilities which university graduates often lack. It's quite common that universities often put more emphasis on academic research rather than teaching practical skills required for jobs, which employers often value. What is more, some employers only pay attention to graduates from prestigious universities, which result in the decrease of competences of normal college graduates. In order to solve this, it is said that the Chinese government is considering restoring these so-called Sanben universities to what they originally were.
    Responses to criticism
    Graduate unemployment will be more likely to promote postgraduate school education. Half of graduates would like to consider attending postgraduate schools to enhance their ability to seek expert jobs. Government interventions are designed to alleviate graduate unemployment by encouraging young job seekers to "Go west, go down to where motherland and people are in greatest need."<ref></ref> The China Youth Daily has reported that some graduates have worked for years in villages of Hainan, China’s most southerly province. In 2003, the Communist Youth League recruited over 50,000 graduates to provide volunteer service in education, health care, agriculture, and cultural development in western provinces. As well as receiving a stipend, a State Council circular issued in 2005 promised the graduate volunteers preferential policies in civil service tests and graduate school entrance exams. Moreover, graduates had an opportunity to be self-employed as the Chinese government launched policies which were formulated to encourage college graduates to carve out their own future.<ref>Zhang Linbin, "Globalization and Its Effects on Youth Employment in China", Ministry of Labor and Social Security of People's Republic of China</ref> However, many college graduates remain underemployed or unemployed even after completing their advanced degree.


    According to a survey of more than 30,000 graduates from 10 European countries about 3–4 years after graduation, only a minority of 10–20% of graduates face substantial problems in the labor market or end up in positions not commensurate with their level of education. There is a clear North-South differential in Europe with respect to transition and objective employment measures, while the pattern is more differentiated with respect to the perceived utilisation of knowledge, the self-rated adequacy of position and the job satisfaction.<ref>Teichler, U.(2002). Graduate Employment and Work in Europe: Diverse Situations and Common Perceptions, Tertiary Education and Management</ref> Among OECD nations in 2013, the worst unemployment rates for graduates were in by Greece, Spain and Portugal.<ref>"Unemployment rates by education level" (Press release). OECD. 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2015.

30. International Labour Office (2012)"Long-term consequences of the youth jobs crisis",Global Employment Trends for Youth 2012, pp. 19–20.

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