List of governors of Penang
Until the 18th century, the island of Penang was part of the Sultanate of Kedah. In 1786, the island was ceded by the Sultan of Kedah to the East India Company, Francis Light representing the company. Light renamed the island "Prince of Wales Island." In 1790, after suffering a military defeat at the hands of Light, Sultan Abdullah formally handed over the island to the British. Light was appointed Superintendent of Prince of Wales Island. From 1800 to 1805, the island was led by a Lieutenant Governor.
In 1805, Prince of Wales Island became a Residency, led by a Governor. In 1826, the island, along with Malacca and Singapore, were consolidated into the Straits Settlements. Thereafter, Penang was administered by a British Resident Councillor subordinate to the Governor of the Straits Settlements.
Penang was occupied by the Japanese from 1941 to 1945. After the surrender of the Japanese, the British returned and briefly imposed military rule on Malaya before forming the Malayan Union in 1946. During the Malayan Union and the pre-independence Federation of Malaya period, Penang was administered by British Resident Commissioners.
Since independence, the head of state of Penang, the Yang di-Pertua Negeri (also known as Governor), has been appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King of Malaysia) on the advice of the Prime Minister. The Yang di-Pertua Negeri retains only ceremonial functions, including opening and dissolving the State Assembly, conferring state awards and appointing the Chief Minister after elections. The Chief Minister is the head of the executive branch of the state government.
Superintendents of Prince of Wales Island
|#||Superintendent||Took office||Left office||Notes|
|1||Captain Francis Light||11 August 1786||21 October 1794||Died in office. "The inscription to his memory at St. George's Church by a contemporary Penang Resident – Robert Scott – adds to the favourable impression made by the public records a warm testimony to his worth:- "In Memory of Francis light Esq. who first established this Island as an English Settlement, and was many years Governor. "|
|Philip Manington||21 October 1794||14 May 1795||Acting|
|2||Major Forbes Ross MacDonald||14 May 1795||May 1799|
|John Beanland||31 January 1796||3 April 1796||Acting for MacDonald|
|George Caunter||May 1799||20 April 1800||Acting|
Lieutenant Governors of Prince of Wales Island
|#||Lieutenenat Governor||Took office||Left office||Notes|
|1||Sir George Alexander William Leith||20 April 1800||1804|
|2||Sir Robert Townsend Farquhar||1804||1805|
Governors of Prince of Wales Island
|5 December 1804||Philip Dundas||8 April 1807||Died in office|
|8 April 1807||Henry Shepherd Pearson||2 March 1808||Acting|
|2 March 1808||Norman Macalister||March 1810|
|24 Mar.1810||Charles Andrew Bruce||December 1810||Died in office.|
|December 1810||William Edward Phillips||1811||Acting.|
|1811||William Petrie||1812||Acting while Seton in Java|
|29 January 1812||William Petrie||27 October 1816||Died in office|
|27 October 1816||William Edward Phillips||18 March 1817||Acting|
|18 March 1817||John Alexander Bannerman||8 August 1819||Died in office|
|1 March 1820||William Edward Phillips||Aug. 1824.|
|4 February 1824||Robert Fullerton.||12 November 1829||Governor of the Straits Settlements (1826–1830)|
Occurrences For April 1807
4 April. Mr. W. C. Clubley, appointed deputy secretary.
Fort Cornwallis 10 April. The whole of the troops at the presidency to parade this afternoon, at half past four o'clock, in front of the Government-house, to attend the remains of the honourable Philip Dundas, late Governor &c., &c., &c., of this island, to the place of interment, with all military honours due to his high rank and station.
Lieutenant-colonel Basset to command.
Three rounds of light cartridges per man to be served to the 20th regiment, which corps only is to fire over the grave, on account of the narrowness of the ground.
Forty-five minute guns, corresponding with the years of age of the deceased, to be held in readiness to be fired during the funeral procession, and to be commenced by signal from the Government-house.
The Bengal artillery to furnish the carrying party.
The garrison colours to be hoisted at half mast at sun-rise, and continue until sun-set.
(signed) JOHN DRUMMOND, Town Major.
13 April. A salute of 19 guns to be fired, on H. S. Pearson Esq. taking his seat as governor of this island.
Also a salute of 11 guns on W. E. Phillips, Esq. taking his seat as member of council.
By order of the honourable the governor and council.
(signed) Thomas Raffles, Secretary to government.
Resident Councillors of Prince of Wales Island
|Portrait||Name||Period in office||Notes|
|Robert Ibbetson||1826–1 May 1830|
Residents and Governors of the Residency of Prince of Wales Island, Singapore and Malacca (at George Town & Singapore)
|Portrait||Name||Period in office||Notes|
|Robert Fullerton (Resident)||1 May 1830 – 12 November 1830|
|Robert Ibbetson (Initially Resident)||12 November 1830 – 7 December 1833|
|[Kenneth Murchison]||7 December 1833 – 18 November 1836|
|Sir Samuel George Bonham, Bt||18 November 1836–January 1843|
Deputy Residents and Resident Councillors, Prince of Wales Island
|Portrait||Name||Period in office||Notes|
|Robert Ibbetson (Deputy Resident)||1 May 1830 – 12 November 1830|
|Kenneth Murchison (Initially Deputy Resident)||12 November 1830 – 7 December 1833|
|James William Salmond||22 September 1834–1836|
|Captain James Low (acting)||1838|
|Edmund Augustus Blundell||1849–1855|
In 1851 the Straits Settlements, while still remaining a Residency, was transferred from the authority of the Governor of the Presidency of Bengal and put under direct control of the Governor-general of India. The powers previously invested in the Governor of Bengal were now vested in the Governor of the Straits Settlements.
- 1851–1855: Edmund Augustus Blundell was Resident Councillor of Prince of Wales Isle / Penang until 1855.
- 18XX-1860: William Thomas Lewis, Asst. Resident Councillor of Prince of Wales' Isle was transferred to Resident Councillor of Malacca in 1854 upon the demise of Captain Hay Ferrier. He would later become Penang's commissioner of police and its Resident Councillor. On 6 December 1838, he was appointed to officiate as resident councillor at Malacca during the absence on leave of Mr. Garling. W. T. Lewis retired as Resident Councillor of Penang in September 1860. He had transferred to the Straits Settlements in 1825 and had served the Government of the Straits Settlements for about 54 years. He was Siamese Consul at Penang during Ord's Governorship. In 1856 he was Resident Councillor and Acting Governor of Penang.
- 1860–1867: Major General Henry Stuart Man was Resident Councillor of Penang (1860–1867). Major General Henry Man was born in 1815 and became known in 1834 as an ensign in the 49th Madras Native Infantry. He was the captain in 1848, serving in the second Anglo-Burmese was 1852–1853 later becoming executive engineer and superintendent of convicts at Mulmein, Burma. In 1858, he was the officer-in-charge of the detachment that secured the British landing at Port Blair and formally annexed the islands to the British Crown. In 1860, Lieutenant-Colonel Man, as then was he, was appointed Resident Councillor of Penang and served in that capacity until 1867. In 1868, Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Man returned to Port Blair as its fifth Superintendent while at the same time taking over the responsibility for the newly annexed Nicobar islands. The following year, his son, E.H. Man, joined him at Port Blair and the old Man relinquished his official position and was promoted to colonel. He was promoted to Major-General in 1881. He died at Surbiton, England, on 10 April 1898 was buried at Thames Ditton, Surrey.
Colonial Office, United Kingdom
On 1 April 1867 the Straits Settlements were transferred from the control of the Indian Government to that of the Secretary of State for the Colonies in London (Colonial Office).
- 1867–1871: Major General Archibald Edward Harbord Anson, Lieutenant-Governor of Penang under Governor-general Sir Harry St. George Ord at Singapore.
- 1871–1872: Arthur Nonus Birch, Actg. Lieutenant-Governor of Penang, Malaysia (1871–1872)
- 1872–1873: Sir George William Robert Campbell, KCMG, Acting Lieutenant-Governor Of Penang from (1872–1873)
- 1873–1875: Major General Archibald Edward Harbord Anson, Lieutenant-Governor of Penang under Governor-general Sir Andrew Clarke at Singapore.
- 1875–1877: Major General Archibald Edward Harbord Anson, Lieutenant-Governor of Penang under Governor-general Sir William Jervois at Singapore.
- 1877-1877: Major General Archibald Edward Harbord Anson was Acting Governor of the Crown Colony of the Straits Settlements at Penang from 3 April 1877 to August 1877.
- 1877–1879: Major General Archibald Edward Harbord Anson, Lieutenant-Governor of Penang under Sir William Cleaver Francis Robinson at Singapore.
- 1879–1880: Major General Archibald Edward Harbord Anson was Acting Governor of the Crown Colony of the Straits Settlements at Penang from 10 February 1879 to 16 May 1880.
- 1879–1880: Charles John Irving, Actg. Lieutenant-Governor of Penang (1879–1880)& Resident Councillor of Penang (1885–1887). He was Auditor General to the government of Penang under Anson. He was born in 1831 at Isabelle place in Camberwell, London. He been took up some appointments at Mauritius.
- 1880–1881: Major General Archibald Edward Harbord Anson, Lieutenant-Governor of Penang under Sir Frederick Weld at Singapore. Born 16 April 1826. His military experience began in 1844. He served in England, Ireland and Scotland from 1847–1855, Mauritius, 1857–1862 and Madagascar 1862–1865. He then returned to England and was appointed last Lieutenant Governor of Penang from 1867 to 1882, after serving in the army in India. In his memoirs "About Others and Myself." he describes the feeling of depression upon his appointment as Penang's Resident Councillor. He retired in 1881. It was during his appointment that the Penang Riots occurred. The riots ended when he negotiated a peace agreement between the contending parties; Red Flag and Tua Pek Kong members against the White Flag and the Ghee Hin. He was an Acting Governor of Straits Settlements from (4 March 1871 – 22 March 1872; 3–4 November 1873; 3 April 1877 – 29 October 1877; 10 February 1879 – 6 May 1880). Anson died in 1925.
- 1881–1884: Major John Frederick Adolphus McNair, Actg. Lieutenant-Governor of Penang (1881–1884)& Resident Councillor of Penang (1884)only. He was born at Bath in 1828. Entered Madras Royal Artillery in 1845. In 1857, A.D.C. to Governor Blundell in Singapore. From 1865–1867 he was in England as deputy governor in charge of public works at Woking Prison. He retired in 1884. He died in 1910.
- 1884-1884: Captain David Thompson Hatchell, Acting Lieutenant-Governor of Penang. He was born 1840. He became Commissioner of the court request in Ayer Itam, Penang in 1876.
Resident Councillors, Penang
- 1884–1885: Major Samuel Dunlop, Actg. Resident Councillor of Penang (1884–1885). D.G.M of Freemasons' Hall in 1885,Singapore.
- 1887–1897: Allan Maclean Skinner, Resident Councillor of Penang (1887–1897). Inspector General of Schools, Hospitals and Prisons under Anson. 1881 – Colonial treasurer and Auditor-General, Skinner was the first Resident Councillor who took residence at the official residence called Residency (now Seri Mutiara) in 1890. He was the President of George Town Municipal Council.
- 1887–1889: Sir William Edward Maxwell, Actg. Resident Councillor of Penang from(1887–1889). Actg. He was Lieutenant-Governor of Malacca in 1870.
- 1891–1895: Henry Trotter, Actg. Resident Councillor of Penang (24 October 1891 – 31 October 1892; 16 September 1894 – 7 December 1895). Born 1837 in Cape Colony, South Africa. Became a private secretary to the Governor of Dominica in 1852.In 1859,he received a clerkship in the office of Commander-in-chief (Duke of Cambridge) at the House Guards. Appointed as Deputy Comptroller of the Convict Establishment in Bermuda. Transferred to Ceylon as Inspector of Post Offices and later became Postmaster General. In 1871, appointed as Postmaster General of Straits Settlements. He became Auditor-General Of Straits Settlements in 1882.
- 1894–1895: Francis James Anderson, Actg. Resident Councillor of Penang
- 1897–1903: Charles Walter Sneyd-Kynnersley, Resident Councillor of Penang 5 May – 23 December 1897 / 8 April 1900 – 24 February 1901 – 1903). Acting Resident Councillor of Penang from (25 April 1889 – 9 March 1890; 4 February – 23 March 1897). Acting Resident Councillor of Malacca from (7 December 1893 – 1 January 1895; 31 December 1898 – 10 March 1899).Resident Councillor of Malacca from (1 January – 16 April 1895; 6 February 1896 – 4 February 1897). He was born on 25 September 1849. His first appointment was as a Cadet in April 1872 by the Secretary of State and was sent to the Colony the very next month. In October 1873, he passed Final Examination in Malay and was attached to the Lieutenant-Governor's Office, Penang, as Secretary Assistant. In 1875, he worked as the Assistant Magistrate and Commissioner Court of Request in Province Wellesley. He also served as the Secretary for Committee of Management of Penang Free School. He served as Third Magistrate in Singapore in 1880 and as Second Magistrate, the following year, before returning to Penang in the same year as First Magistrate. From 1890 to 1896, he held various posts including First Magistrate, Singapore. He married to Ada Maud Nash. He died in 1940.
- 1905–1906: James Kortright Birch, Actg. Resident Councillor of Penang from (3 March 1897 – Aug. 1898; April 1901 – November 1902 – ?; 1903–1905) & Resident Councillor of Penang from (1905–1906). He was born on 12 August 1850. In 1872, he was appointed by the Secretary of State and was sent to the Colony to be attached to the Colonial Secretary's office. He passed Final Examination in Malay in 1873. In 1874, he was the Acting Deputy Collector of Land Revenue, Penang and the Magistrate and Coroner for the Settlement. In 1875, he was the Collector of Land Revenue, Penang. After home leave in 1876–77, he appointment as Acting Magistrate took him to work in Malacca and Singapore until 1882 when he returned to Penang to work as Acting Superintendent of Education in Province Wellesley. In 1888, he was appointed as Senior District Officer, Province Wellesley before becoming First Magistrate of Penang in 1890.
- 1907–1908: Robert Norman Bland, Resident Councillor of Penang from 17 February 1907 – 14 March 1908 and 7 May 1908 – 1910). Acting Resident Councillor in Malacca (22 April – 10 September 1900 and 26 November 1901 – 13 June 1903 and 15 October 1903 – 1 January 1905). Resident Councillor of Malacca (1 January 1905 – 13 March 1906). Acting Resident Councillor of Penang (22 November 1906 – 17 February 1907). Born on 10 October 1859. Arrived in the Colony February 1883 and was attached to the Colonial Secretary's Office as Cadet learning Chinese. In April of the same year, he was posted to Land Office, Malacca as a Cadet learning Malay and passed Final Examination in Malay in 1884. After a home leave in 1886, he was appointed Assistant to Resident Councillor, Penang before becoming District Officer of Balik Pulau in 1887 and District Officer, Nibong Tebal in the following year. He was Acting First Magistrate Penang before taking his second home in 1889. His next appointment after his home leave took him away from Penang to serve as Collector of Land Revenue, Singapore in 1890. Appointed Acting Officer in Charge, Negeri Sembilan from 1893–95. He was transferred to Singapore in 1896 to resume his duties as Collector of Land Revenue before returning to Penang in 1897 to work as Inspector of Prison, Straits Settlement as well as Senior District Officer, Province Wellesley. He became Acting Resident Councillor of Malacca (22 April – 10 September 1900). He became Resident Councillor of Malacca from (26 November 1901)
- 1910–1911: James Oliver Anthonisz, Actg. Resident Councillor of Penang (29 April 1910 – 18 January 1911).
- 1911–1912: William Evans, Resident Councillor of Penang from (21 January 1911 – 11 May 1912 and 29 January 1913 – 13 February 1914). Acting Resident Councillor in Malacca from (15 March 1906 – 17 February 1907). Resident Councillor of Malacca (17 February – 4 September 1907; 25 February – 14 March 1908; 8–29 May 1908; 3 July 1908 – 15 February 1909; 29 May 1909 – 8 February 1910). Acting Resident Councillor of Penang (14 March – 8 May 1908). William Evans was born on 5 September 1860. He first came to the Colony in 1882 and was attached to the Chinese Protectorate Service, Singapore. In 1884, he was sent to Amoy to study Chinese (Hok-kien) and passed its Final Examination in 1885. He also passed Final Examination in Malay in 1888. From 1887 onwards, he continued to serve in Penang and Singapore as the Protector of Chinese in the Straits Settlement until 1902 while holding other post such as Municipal Commissioner for Singapore in 1896.
- 1914–1917: Alfred Thomas Bryant, Resident Councillor of Penang (1914–1917). Born on 4 October 1860. First came to Colony in 1883 and was attached to the Colonial Secretary's Office for two years. After passing his Final Examination in Malay in 1885, he was appointed Acting Third Magistrate, Penang in 1886 and as Acting Collector of Land Revenue, Penang a few months later. In 1890, he was promoted to District Officer of Dindings. After his home leave, he passed Final Examination in Tamil in 1892 and was transferred to Malacca as Acting Collector of Land Revenue and Officer in Charge of Treasury. In 1895, he was in Penang again as Acting First Magistrate, a position he held until he became First Magistrate in 1898, while becoming the Inspector of Schools, Straits Settlements since 1897.
- 1917–1919: Walter Cecil Michell, Resident Councillor of Penang from (7 October 1917 – 1919). Acting Resident Councillor of Penang from (18 May 1912 – 29 January 1913) and Acting Resident of Malacca from (11 June 1914 – 24 December 1915). Born in Kensington, London on 9 August 1864. First came to the Colony in 1887 and was attached to the Colonial Secretary's Office until 1888 when he was posted to Sungai Ujong, Negeri Sembilan as Acting Collector of Land Revenue. He passed his Malay Examination in 1889. From 1889 until 1890, he was in Ulu Pahang as Acting Superintendent before arriving in Penang in April 1890 to serve as Acting District Officer, Balik Pulau, but soon to be promoted as District Officer of the district in 1891. In 1895, after home leave, he was transferred to Dindings as Acting District Officer but soon afterwards as its District Officer while holding other duties as Deputy Registrar, Supreme Court, Penang. He was in Singapore from 1897–98 as Acting Second Assistant Colonial Secretary and as Acting Collector of Land revenue. He also passed Final Examination in Siamese in 1898, the year he was Acting Senior District Officer, Province Wellesley. In 1990, he was appointed Second Magistrate, Singapore and Official Assignee in 1901 before becoming Acting Commissioner, Court of Request Singapore in 1902. W.C. Michell loved polo, riding, shooting and member of various clubs in Penang.
- 1919–1922: Gilbert Amos Hall, Resident Councillor of Penang from 20 October 1919 – 27 February 1920 and 31 January 1921 – 1922). Acting Resident Councillor of Penang from (24 July – 20 October 1919). Born on 21 July 1867. He went to work for the Straits Settlements Civil Service, Singapore in 1888. In 1891, he passed Final Examination in Malay and was promoted to the Acting Third Magistrate, Penang the same year. In 1894, he was appointed as Acting District Officer, Dindings. A few months later, he passed Final Examination in Hok-kien and was appointed Superintendent of Education, Penang. He worked as Acting District Officer, Alor Gajah, Malacca, after returning from home leave in June 1895 until November 1896. In 1897, he was back in Penang to serve as Acting Second Magistrate and later as Sheriff and Deputy Registrar of the Supreme Court, Singapore, while continued to act as Second Magistrate, Penang. In 1898, he served two positions as Second Assistant Colonial Secretary and Collector of Land Revenue, Penang. He was transferred to Malacca at the end of 1900 after his home leave as Acting Collector of Land Revenue and Officer in Charge of Treasury. In 1902, he worked as Collector of Land Revenue, Malacca. He was the British Adviser of Kedah (1916–1919). He still lived in Singapore in 1937.
- 1920: Harold William Firmstone, Acting Resident Councillor of Malacca, Malaysia (4 September 1907 – 6 September 1907; 14 March 1908 – 8 May 1908; 29 May 1908 – 3 July 1908). Acting Resident Councillor of Penang from 28 February 1920.
- 1922–1925: Arthur Blennerhassett Voules, Resident Councillor of Penang 9 December 1922 – 1925). Acting Resident Councillor of Penang 17 November 1922 – 9 December 1922. Born London 15 September 1870. Joined Perak government Service in 1892. Acting Federal Inspector of Schools at Kuala Lumpur in 1900. Captain of the Royal Selangor Golf Club in 1905. Solicitor-General, Straits Settlements in 1913. Acting Attorney General of Straits Settlements in 1919. Acting Judicial Commissioner of Federated Malay States in 1919. Acting Legal Adviser of Federated Malay States and legal advisor (Officer, Class 1A), both in 1920. President of Selangor Golf Club in 1920. He retired in 1925. He died in 1954. Compiled a book called The Laws of the Federated Malay States, 1877–1920.
- 1924: Stewart Codrington, Acting Resident Councillor of Penang 11 May – 8 October 1924. Codrington Avenue is named after him.
- 1925–1926: William Peel, Resident Councillor of Penang from 9 July 1925 – 9 May 1926. Born in Hexham, Northumberland on 27 February 1875. Joined the Colonial Service in 1897 as Cadet. Promoted to Acting District Officer of Nibong Tebal in 1898 and Bukit Mertajam in 1899 and Province Wellesley until 1901. Acting Second Colonial Secretary, Singapore in 1902. Returned to Penang in 1905 to serve as Acting Second Magistrate and Coroner. After serving as Acting Auditor in 1908 in Penang, he continued his service at various capacities in the Federated Malay States such as Acting Secretary to the Resident of Selangor in 1909 and Acting District Officer Lower Perak in 1910 before returning to Penang as President of the Municipal Commissioners Penang in 1911. Acting Resident Councillor of Penang from (26 February – 5 October 1917). Later he became president of the municipal commissioners of Singapore in 1918. In 1919 he was appointed as joint passage controller of labour for the Federated Malay States and Straits Settlements in 1920; and chairman of European Unemployment Committee in 1921. In 1922 he became British Adviser for Government of Kedah. He became Acting Resident Councillor of Penang from (10 May – 9 July 1925). In 1927,he acted as officer administering the government and High Commissioner for the Malay States, having been promoted to be Chief Secretary to Government in 1926.He was appointed Governor of Hong Kong in 1930. He retired in 1935. Peel Avenue is named after him.
- 1926–1928: Ralph Scott, Resident Councillor of Penang (9 June 1926 – 1928). Born 26 February 1874. First appointed as Cadet by the Secretary of State in 1895. In 1896, attached to the Colonial Secretary's Office. From 1897 until 1912, served various appointments in the Straits Settlements: Land Office in Malacca, Acting Deputy Registrar at Penang Supreme Court and Acting Collector of Land Revenue, Singapore. In 1912, promoted to Acting District Judge, Singapore and as Acting District Judge and First Magistrate of Penang in 1915. Acting Resident of Malacca (14 February 1909 – 25 July 1910) / Actg. Resident of Malacca from (15 March 1920 – 6 January 1921) /Actg. Resident Councillor of Penang from (10 September – 17 November 1922) /Actg. Resident Councillor of Penang from (May 1926) /Resident Councillor of Malacca from (14 April 1925 – May 1926). Scott Road was named after him.
- 1928–1930: Captain Meadows Frost, Resident Councillor of Penang (8 July 1928 – 1930). Resident Councillor of Malacca (9 June 1926 – 25 March 1927). Acting Resident Councillor of Penang (8 April 1928 – 8 July 1928). Born on 18 April 1875. First joined the Colonial Service in 1898 as a cadet and promoted to Assistant District Officer of Kuala Pilah, Negeri Sembilan in 1901 and Acting District Officer of Kuala Lipis, Pahang in 1902. Moved to Pekan, Pahang in 1904 also to serve as Assistant District Officer. In 1905, promoted to District Treasurer of Seremban, Negeri Sembilan. His next appointment took him to the Northern part of the Malay Peninsula where he was to act as British Consul to the Siamese Southern States in 1905 and as Acting British Adviser to His Royal Highness Raja of Perlis from 1909–1911. Acting British Adviser of Kedah in 1911. Acting Superintendent, Convict Establishment.
- 1930–1931: Edward Wilmot Francis Gilman, Resident Councillor of Penang (17 April 1930 – 15 August 1931). Acting Resident Councillor of Penang (17 January – 17 April 1930). Born 1876. Appointed as a Cadet in the Straits Settlements in 1899. Acting Fourth Magistrate of Singapore in 1901. In 1902, passed examination in Tamil and was transferred to Penang as Acting Assistant of Indian Immigration. In 1910, served as Acting District Officer of Kuala Lipis, Pahang for a year before reassigned as Deputy Superintendent of Immigrants Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States in 1911. Secretary Indian immigration Committee in 1912 and Deputy Controller of Labour in same year. Federal Examiner in Tamil in 1913 and served as Immigration Officer in Madras for the Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States. In 1915, he was the Officiating Deputy Controller of Labour, Penang, and Assistant Censor in 1916. Retired on 15 August 1931.
- 1931–1933: Percy Tothill Allen was Resident Councillor of Penang from 16 August 1931 – 1933. Acting Resident Councillor of Penang from (2 May 1931 – 16 August 1931). Born 14 October 1878. Appointed as a Cadet by the Secretary of State in 1902 and was later promoted to acting Second Assistant in the Chinese Protectorate at Penang in 1905. Served as District Officer of Matang, Perak in 1906. Acting District Officer of Christmas Island, Australia in 1907 then District Officer till 1909. In 1909, returned to Penang to hold the Acting Assistant Protector of Chinese and Superintendent of Prisons. Served a few months as Acting Second Assistant for District Officer in Tapah, Perak in 1909 before being appointed Secretary to the Resident of Negeri Sembilan in the same year. Acting Magistrate of Seremban, Negeri Sembilan until 1912. Returned to Penang to hold post of Acting Assistant, Protector of Chinese in 1913 and in Singapore in 1917.
- 1933–1941: Arthur Mitchell Goodman was Resident Councillor of Penang (1933–1941). Born 15 December 1886. Joined the Malayan Civil Service in 1909 as a Cadet. Acting Assistant Protector of Chinese, Perak in 1912. Assistant Controller of Labour, Perak in 1915. Acting Magistrate in Ipoh in 1916. Acting Assistant Protector of Chinese, Penang in 1917. Acting Secretary for Chinese Affairs of the Federated Malay States 1921. Secretary Chinese Affairs SS 1927. Member Penang Harbour Board. Member Executive and Legislative Councils SS. Acting Resident Councillor of Penang (21 April 1933 – 14 October 1933). Resident Councillor of Penang (14 October 1933 – 24 November 1934). On leave from (24 November 1934 – 29 August 1935). Resumed duty from (29 August 1935 – 8 December 1937). Resumed duty on 6 July 1938.
- 1934: James Startin Wills Arthur was Acting Resident Councillor for Penang in 1934. Born in Powick, Worcester 9 March 1881. District Officer of Christmas Island, Australia (1911–1912), Assistant Adviser Kedah 1916–1921, Deputy President Municipal Commissioners Penang 1923, District Judge Malacca 1924, MCS Assistant Treasurer in Penang. Director-General of Posts and Telegraphs, Malaya 1934. Acting Resident Councillor for Malacca (20 February 1934) and Penang (24 November 1934). Retired 29 August 1935.
- 1937–1938: George Alexander de Chazal de Moubray, Actg. Resident Councillor of Penang, from 8 December 1937 to 6 July 1938. Born 1888. Director of Land Office of Terengganu (1926–1929). DO Kinta and Member of Perak State Council 1934. Acting British Adviser, Kelantan 1938. British Adviser of Terengganu (1940–1941). Police Magistrate, Straits Settlements. He was taken as prisoner of war in Changi, Singapore during Japanese Occupation. Changi and Sime Rd internee.
- 1940–1941: Leslie Forbes (born 1889) was Acting Resident Councillor of Penang from 1940–1941. He was an internee at Changi and Sime Rd. He was a member of the British Military Administration till 1973.
Japanese Governors of Penang
- 1942–1943: Lt-Gen. Shotaro Katayama Governor of Penang from(1942–1943)
- 1943–1944: Maj-Gen. Masakich i Itami Governor of Penang from(1943–1944)
- 1944: Lt-Gen. Shinohara Seiichiro Governor of Penang from(1944–1944)
- 1944: S.Ikagawa Deputy Governor of Penang from (1944) only.
- 1944–1945: Lt-Gen. Shinohara Seiichiro was Governor of Penang from 1944 to 1945
British Military Administration
Military Governors of the Settlement of Penang
- 1945–1945: Peter Dicken Cracroft (1907–2003) assumed command as Military Governor of Penang on 24 September 1945 under Lord Louis Mountbatten of the British High Command at Singapore (12 September 1945. He retired 1958 and died in 2003.
- 1945–1946: Thomas John Norman Hilken (1901–1969)
Malayan Union and Federation of Malaya
Resident Commissioners of the Settlement of Penang
- 1946–1948: Sydney Noel King (6 June 1897) was Resident Commissioner of Penang from 1946 to 1948. He was born on 6 June 1897. He was a Cadet in the Straits Settlements in March 1920. He was attached to Land Office, Penang in May 1920. He served as Acting District officer in Bukit Mertajam in 1923. In March 1932 he worked as Acting First Magistrate, Johor Bahru, before being appointed Deputy Public Prosecutor, Johor, in the same year. He was District Officer of Christmas Island, Australia from 1925 to 1926. He was appointed Acting Under Secretary of the Straits Settlements in April 1936 and as Acting Legal Adviser of Kedah in June 1937. He was an internee at Changi and Sime Rd. He was a member of the British Military Administration till 1973.
- 1948–1951: Arthur Vincent Aston (born in Chester 1896) was a Resident Commissioner of Penang from 1948 to 1951. He was an internee at Changi and Sime Rd.
- 1948: George Evan Cameron Wisdom was Acting Resident Commissioner of Penang in 1948. He was Resident Commissioner of Malacca from 1951 to 1954.
- 1951–1957: Robert Porter Bingham was Resident Commissioner of Penang from 1951 to 1957. He was an Acting Resident Commissioner of Penang in 1950.
- 1952: Norman Ward was Acting Resident Commissioner of Penang in 1952.
- 1954: John Sjovald Hoseason Cunyngham-Brown (born 1905) was Acting Resident Commissioner of Penang from 25 June – 17 July 1954. He retired in 1957 and died, in Georgetown, Penang, in 1989.
- 1954–1955: David Gray (born 1906), Acting Resident Commissioner of Penang, from 30 December 1954 to 3 August 1955. He had been Assistant Protector of Chinese, Singapore Police Magistrate, Chinese Secretariat in 1934. He was an internee at Changi and Sime Rd internee. Upon returning to Malaya in 1947, he was assigned to the Dept of Labour, Federation of Malaya. He was appointed to Secretary of Chinese Affairs, Federation of Malaya in 1951. In 1952 he was appointed Acting Chief Secretary of the Federation of Malaya. He was Acting Resident Commissioner, Penang, from 1954 to 1955. He then moved on to become Acting Chief Secretary for the Federation of Malaya and Officer Administering the Government of the Federation of Malaya from 1955 to 1956.
Independent Federation of Malaya and Malaysia
Governors and Yang di-Pertua Negeri of the State of Penang
- 1957–1967: Raja Tun Sir Uda Al-Haj Bin Raja Muhammad becomes first Governor of Penang in the independent Federation of Malaya, later Malaysia (31 August 1957 – 30 August 1967). 1910 Joined the Government Service. 1914 Was recruited by the Malay Administrative Service (M.A.S.). 1924 Promoted to Class V, Malayan Civil Service (M.C.S.). 1939 Appointed as Secretary to British Resident, Selangor. 1947 Awarded C.B.E. February 1948 Promoted to Class 1A. 1 February 1948 Appointed State Secretary, Selangor on inauguration of Federation of Malaya Agreement. 1 July 1949 Became the Menteri Besar (Chief Minister) of Selangor. 1951 Awarded C.M.G. 1953 Awarded theHonorary Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (K.B.E.). July 1953 Appointed High Commissioner for Malaya in United Kingdom. November 1954 Reappointed as Menteri Besar, Selangor. 24 August 1955 Appointed Speaker of Federal Council.
- 1967–1969: Tun Syed Sheh bin Syed Abdullah Shahabudin, Governor of Penang from 1967 to 1969.
- 1969–1975: Tun Syed Sheh Al-Haj bin Syed Hassan Barakbah, Governor of Penang from February 1969 – February 1975.
- 1975–1981: Tun Dato' Seri Haji Sardon bin Haji Jubir, Governor (from 1976, Yang di-Pertua Negeri) of Penang from 5 February 1975.
- 1981–1989: Tun Datuk Dr. Haji Awang bin Hassan, Yang di-Pertua Negeri of Penang from 1 May 1981.
- 1989-: Tun Datuk (Dr.) Haji Hamdan bin Sheikh Tahir, Yang di-Pertua Negeri of Penang from 1 May 1989.
- 2001–present: Tun Dato' Seri Utama Dr. Haji Abdul Rahman Abbas, Yang di-Pertua Negeri of Penang from 1 May 2001.
- "History of Penang". Visit Penang. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
- "Appointment Of Persons To Important Posts". Yang di-Pertuan Agong. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
- "Role". Penang State Government. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
- Memoir of Captain Francis light by Allan Maclean Skinner. 1895. Print. Page 17.
- Auber 1826, p. 743.
- Governor Fullerton moved the seat of the Straits Government from Penang to Singapore (12 November 1829), after which time Ibbetson assumed the role of governor of Penang, as the sole survivor of the officials appointed to the new Penang Presidency in 1805. The departure of the last Governor is also recorded in the Gazette. The issue of 29 August 1829 carries the following notification: "The Honorable the Governor, being about to proceed to Singapore and Malacca, NOTICE is hereby given that this station will cease to be the seat of Government from the date of his departure, and the charge of the settlement will devolve upon the Honorable Robert Ibbetson, Resident Councillor; to whom all local references will be made." -- New Ways of Knowing: The Prince of Wales Island Gazette—Penang’s First Newspaper by Geoff Wade, University of Hong Kong; Email email@example.com, Presented at The Penang Story – International Conference 2002 18–21 April 2002, The City Bayview Hotel, Penang, Malaysia organised by The Penang Heritage Trust & STAR Publications
- 1831: Ibbetson signed the British Treaty with Rumbowe, 30 November 1831 as the Resident of Singapore, Prince of Wales' Island, Malacca and its dependencies. (See Newbold, 1839)
- 1832: Robert Ibbetson, Governor of Penang, Malacca and Singapore.
- Boundary Treaty with Johore, 15 June 1833.
- Political and Statistical account of the British Settlements in the Straits of Malacca by Thomas John Newbold, published 1839.
- The Bengal directory and annual register Published by Samuel Smith & Co., 1838
- The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India, China, and Australia Published by Parbury, Allen, and Co., 1838; Item notes: n.s. 25 (January–April 1838); p. 264
- The Western Malay States, 1850–1873: the effects of commercial development on Malay politics By Kay Kim Khoo Published by Oxford University Press, 1972; p. 90, 91, 113
- Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society By Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland Malayan Branch Published by The Branch, 1923; Item notes: v.56–58 1983–1985; p. 119
- The Complete Journal of Townsend Harris: First American Consul and Minister to Japan By Townsend Harris, Japan Society (New York, N.Y.), Mario Emilio Cosenza Published by Published for Japan Society, New York, by Doubleday, Doran & Company, Inc., 1930; p. 48, 75
- The British in West Sumatra (1685-1825).: A Selection of Documents, Mainly from the East India Company Records Preserved in the India Office Library, Commonwealth Relations Office, London By John Sturgus Bastin, John Bastin, India Office Library, East India Company Compiled by John Sturgus Bastin Published by University of Malaya Press, 1965; p. 178
- JMBRAS XXXIII L. A. Mills
- ANSON, ARCHIBALD EDWARD HARBORD About Others and Myself, London, John Murray. 1920
- Evans, William (b 1860) Resident Councillor, Penang
- India Office Records, 1600-1948, British Library, Asia, Pacific and Africa Collections
- Auber, Peter (1826), An analysis of the constitution of the East-India company, and of the laws passed by Parliament for the government of their affairs, at home and abroad: To which is prefixed, a brief history of the company, and of the rise and progress of the British power in India, Kingsbury, Parburg, and Allen, J. M. Richardson, and Harding and co., p. 743